Go to Vaniquotes | Go to Vanipedia | Go to Vanimedia

Vanisource - the complete essence of Vedic knowledge

CC Adi 4

Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta - Ādi-līlā, Chapter 4: The Confidential Reasons for the Appearance of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu

Ādi 4 Summary

Ādi 4.1: By the mercy of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, even a foolish child can fully describe the real nature of Lord Kṛṣṇa, the enjoyer of the pastimes of Vraja, according to the vision of the revealed scriptures.

Ādi 4.2: All glory to Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu! All glory to Lord Nityānanda! All glory to Śrī Advaita Acārya! And all glory to all the devotees of Lord Caitanya!

Ādi 4.3: I have described the meaning of the fourth verse. Now, O devotees, kindly hear the explanation of the fifth verse.

Ādi 4.4: Just to explain the original verse, I shall first suggest its meaning.

Ādi 4.5: I have given the essential meaning of the fourth verse: this incarnation [Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu] descends to propagate the chanting of the holy name and spread love of God.

Ādi 4.6: Although this is true, this is but the external reason for the Lord's incarnation. Please hear one other reason — the confidential reason — for the Lord's appearance.

Ādi 4.7: The scriptures proclaim that Lord Kṛṣṇa previously descended to take away the burden of the earth.

Ādi 4.8: To take away this burden, however, is not the work of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The maintainer, Lord Viṣṇu, is the one who protects the universe.

Ādi 4.9: But the time to lift the burden of the world mixed with the time for Lord Kṛṣṇa's incarnation.

Ādi 4.10: When the complete Supreme Personality of Godhead descends, all other incarnations of the Lord meet together within Him.

Ādi 4.11-12: Lord Nārāyaṇa, the four primary expansions [Vāsudeva, Sańkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha], Matsya and the other līlā incarnations, the yuga-avatāras, the manv-antara incarnations and as many other incarnations as there are — all descend in the body of Lord Kṛṣṇa. In this way the complete Supreme Godhead, Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself, appears.

Ādi 4.13: At that time, therefore, Lord Viṣṇu is present in the body of Lord Kṛṣṇa, and Lord Kṛṣṇa kills the demons through Him.

Ādi 4.14: Thus the killing of the demons is but secondary work. I shall now speak of the main reason for the Lord's incarnation.

Ādi 4.15-16: The Lord's desire to appear was born from two reasons: the Lord wanted to taste the sweet essence of the mellows of love of God, and He wanted to propagate devotional service in the world on the platform of spontaneous attraction. Thus He is known as supremely jubilant and as the most merciful of all.

Ādi 4.17: [Lord Kṛṣṇa thought:] "All the universe is filled with the conception of My majesty, but love weakened by that sense of majesty does not satisfy Me.

Ādi 4.18: "If one regards Me as the Supreme Lord and himself as a subordinate, I do not become subservient to his love, nor can it control Me.

Ādi 4.19: "In whatever transcendental mellow My devotee worships Me, I reciprocate with him. That is My natural behavior.

Ādi 4.20: "'In whatever way My devotees surrender unto Me, I reward them accordingly. Everyone follows My path in all respects, O son of Pṛthā.'

Ādi 4.21-22: "If one cherishes pure loving devotion to Me, thinking of Me as his son, his friend or his beloved, regarding himself as great and considering Me his equal or inferior, I become subordinate to him.

Ādi 4.23: "'Devotional service rendered to Me by the living beings revives their eternal life. O My dear damsels of Vraja, your affection for Me is your good fortune, for it is the only means by which you have obtained My favor.'

Ādi 4.24: "Mother sometimes binds Me as her son. She nourishes and protects Me, thinking Me utterly helpless.

Ādi 4.25: "My friends climb on My shoulders in pure friendship, saying, 'What kind of big man are You? You and I are equal.'

Ādi 4.26: "If My beloved consort reproaches Me in a sulky mood, that steals My mind from the reverent hymns of the Vedas.

Ādi 4.27-28: "Taking these pure devotees with Me, I shall descend and sport in various wonderful ways, unknown even in Vaikuṇṭha. I shall broadcast such pastimes by which even I am amazed.

Ādi 4.29: "The influence of yogamāyā will inspire the gopīs with the sentiment that I am their paramour.

Ādi 4.30: "Neither the gopīs nor I shall notice this, for our minds will always be entranced by one another's beauty and qualities.

Ādi 4.31: "Pure attachment will unite us even at the expense of moral and religious duties [dharma]. Destiny will sometimes bring us together and sometimes separate us.

Ādi 4.32: "I shall taste the essence of all these rasas, and in this way I shall favor all the devotees.

Ādi 4.33: "Then, by hearing about the pure love of the residents of Vraja, devotees will worship Me on the path of spontaneous love, abandoning all rituals of religiosity and fruitive activity."

Ādi 4.34: "Kṛṣṇa manifests His eternal humanlike form and performs His pastimes to show mercy to the devotees. Having heard such pastimes, one should engage in service to Him."

Ādi 4.35: Here the use of the verb "bhavet," which is in the imperative mood, tells us that this certainly must be done. Noncompliance would be abandonment of duty.

Ādi 4.36-37: Just as these desires are the fundamental reason for Kṛṣṇa's appearance whereas destroying the demons is only an incidental necessity, so for Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, promulgating the dharma of the age is incidental.

Ādi 4.38: When the Lord desired to appear for another reason, the time for promulgating the religion of the age also arose.

Ādi 4.39: Thus with two intentions the Lord appeared with His devotees and tasted the nectar of prema with the congregational chanting of the holy name.

Ādi 4.40: Thus He spread kīrtana even among the untouchables. He wove a wreath of the holy name and prema, with which He garlanded the entire material world.

Ādi 4.41: In this way, assuming the sentiment of a devotee, He preached devotional service while practicing it Himself.

Ādi 4.42: Four kinds of devotees are the receptacles of the four kinds of mellows in love of God, namely servitude, friendship, parental affection and conjugal love.

Ādi 4.43: Each kind of devotee feels that his sentiment is the most excellent, and thus in that mood he tastes great happiness with Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Ādi 4.44: But if we compare the sentiments in an impartial mood, we find that the conjugal sentiment is superior to all others in sweetness.

Ādi 4.45: "Increasing love is experienced in various tastes, one above another. But that love which has the highest taste in the gradual succession of desire manifests itself in the form of conjugal love."

Ādi 4.46: Therefore I call it madhura-rasa. It has two further divisions, namely wedded and unwedded love.

Ādi 4.47: There is a great increase of mellow in the unwedded conjugal mood. Such love is found nowhere but in Vraja.

Ādi 4.48: This mood is unbounded in the damsels of Vraja, but among them it finds its perfection in Śrī Rādhā.

Ādi 4.49: Her pure, mature love surpasses that of all others. Her love is the cause of Lord Kṛṣṇa's tasting the sweetness of the conjugal relationship.

Ādi 4.50: Therefore Lord Gaurāńga, who is Śrī Hari Himself, accepted the sentiments of Rādhā and thus fulfilled His own desires.

Ādi 4.51: "Lord Caitanya is the shelter of the demigods, the goal of the Upaniṣads, the be-all and end-all of the great sages, the beautiful shelter of His devotees, and the essence of the love of the lotus-eyed gopīs. Will He again be the object of my vision?"

Ādi 4.52: "Lord Kṛṣṇa desired to taste the limitless nectarean mellows of the love of one of His multitude of loving damsels [Śrī Rādhā], and so He has assumed the form of Lord Caitanya. He has tasted that love while hiding His own dark complexion with Her effulgent yellow color. May that Lord Caitanya confer upon us His grace."

Ādi 4.53: To accept ecstatic love is the main reason He appeared and reestablished the religious system for this age. I shall now explain that reason. Everyone please listen.

Ādi 4.54: Having first given hints about the verse describing the principal reason why the Lord appeared, now I shall manifest its full meaning.

Ādi 4.55: "The loving affairs of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are transcendental manifestations of the Lord's internal pleasure-giving potency. Although Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are one in Their identity, They separated Themselves eternally. Now these two transcendental identities have again united, in the form of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya. I bow down to Him, who has manifested Himself with the sentiment and complexion of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī although He is Kṛṣṇa Himself."

Ādi 4.56: Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are one and the same, but They have assumed two bodies. Thus They enjoy each other, tasting the mellows of love.

Ādi 4.57: Now, to enjoy rasa, They have appeared in one body as Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Ādi 4.58: Therefore I shall first delineate the position of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. From that description the glory of Lord Caitanya will be known.

Ādi 4.59: Śrīmatī Rādhikā is the transformation of Kṛṣṇa's love. She is His internal energy called hlādinī.

Ādi 4.60: That hlādinī energy gives Kṛṣṇa pleasure and nourishes His devotees.

Ādi 4.61: Lord Kṛṣṇa's body is eternal [sat], full of knowledge [cit] and full of bliss [ānanda]. His one spiritual energy manifests three forms.

Ādi 4.62: Hlādinī is His aspect of bliss; sandhinī, of eternal existence; and samvit, of cognizance, which is also accepted as knowledge.

Ādi 4.63: "O Lord, You are the support of everything. The three attributes hlādinī, sandhinī and samvit exist in You as one spiritual energy. But the material modes, which cause happiness, misery and mixtures of the two, do not exist in You, for You have no material qualities."

Ādi 4.64: The essential portion of the sandhinī potency is śuddha-sattva. Lord Kṛṣṇa's existence rests upon it.

Ādi 4.65: Kṛṣṇa's mother, father, abode, house, bedding, seats and so on are all transformations of śuddha-sattva.

Ādi 4.66: "The condition of pure goodness [śuddha-sattva], in which the Supreme Personality of Godhead is revealed without any covering, is called vasudeva. In that pure state the Supreme Godhead, who is beyond the material senses and who is known as Vāsudeva, is perceived by my mind."

Ādi 4.67: The essence of the samvit potency is knowledge that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is Lord Kṛṣṇa. All other kinds of knowledge, such as the knowledge of Brahman, are its components.

Ādi 4.68: The essence of the hlādinī potency is love of God, the essence of love of God is emotion [bhāva], and the ultimate development of emotion is mahābhāva.

Ādi 4.69: Śrī Rādhā Ṭhākurāṇī is the embodiment of mahābhāva. She is the repository of all good qualities and the crest jewel among all the lovely consorts of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Ādi 4.70: "Of these two gopīs [Rādhārāṇī and Candrāvalī], Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is superior in all respects. She is the embodiment of mahābhāva, and She surpasses all in good qualities."

Ādi 4.71: Her mind, senses and body are steeped in love for Kṛṣṇa. She is Kṛṣṇa's own energy, and She helps Him in His pastimes.

Ādi 4.72: "I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who resides in His own realm, Goloka, with Rādhā, who resembles His own spiritual figure and who embodies the ecstatic potency [hlādinī]. Their companions are Her confidantes, who embody extensions of Her bodily form and who are imbued and permeated with ever-blissful spiritual rasa."

Ādi 4.73: Now please listen to how Lord Kṛṣṇa's consorts help Him taste rasa and how they help in His pastimes.

Ādi 4.74-75: The beloved consorts of Lord Kṛṣṇa are of three kinds: the goddesses of fortune, the queens, and the milkmaids of Vraja, who are the foremost of all. These consorts all proceed from Rādhikā.

Ādi 4.76: Just as the fountainhead, Lord Kṛṣṇa, is the cause of all incarnations, so Śrī Rādhā is the cause of all these consorts.

Ādi 4.77: The goddesses of fortune are partial manifestations of Śrīmatī Rādhikā, and the queens are reflections of Her image.

Ādi 4.78: The goddesses of fortune are Her plenary portions, and they display the forms of vaibhava-vilāsa. The queens are of the nature of Her vaibhava-prakāśa.

Ādi 4.79: The Vraja-devīs have diverse bodily features. They are Her expansions and are the instruments for expanding rasa.

Ādi 4.80: Without many consorts, there is not such exultation in rasa. Therefore there are many manifestations of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī to assist in the Lord's pastimes.

Ādi 4.81: Among them are various groups of consorts in Vraja who have varieties of sentiments and mellows. They help Lord Kṛṣṇa taste all the sweetness of the rāsa dance and other pastimes.

Ādi 4.82: Rādhā is the one who gives pleasure to Govinda, and She is also the enchantress of Govinda. She is the be-all and end-all of Govinda, and the crest jewel of all His consorts.

Ādi 4.83: "The transcendental goddess Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the direct counterpart of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. She is the central figure for all the goddesses of fortune. She possesses all the attractiveness to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord."

Ādi 4.84: "Devī" means "resplendent and most beautiful." Or else it means "the lovely abode of the worship and love sports of Lord Kṛṣṇa."

Ādi 4.85: "Kṛṣṇa-mayī" means "one whose within and without are Lord Kṛṣṇa." She sees Lord Kṛṣṇa wherever She casts Her glance.

Ādi 4.86: Or "kṛṣṇa-mayī" means that She is identical with Lord Kṛṣṇa, for She embodies the mellows of love. The energy of Lord Kṛṣṇa is identical with Him.

Ādi 4.87: Her worship [ārādhana] consists of fulfilling the desires of Lord Kṛṣṇa. Therefore the Purāṇas call Her Rādhikā.

Ādi 4.88: "Truly the Personality of Godhead has been worshiped by Her. Therefore Lord Govinda, being pleased, has brought Her to a lonely spot, leaving us all behind."

Ādi 4.89: Therefore Rādhā is parama-devatā, the supreme goddess, and She is worshipable for everyone. She is the protectress of all, and She is the mother of the entire universe.

Ādi 4.90: I have already explained the meaning of "sarva-lakṣmī." Rādhā is the original source of all the goddesses of fortune.

Ādi 4.91: Or "sarva-lakṣmī" indicates that She fully represents the six opulences of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore She is the supreme energy of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Ādi 4.92: The word "sarva-kānti" indicates that all beauty and luster rest in Her body. All the lakṣmīs derive their beauty from Her.

Ādi 4.93: "Kānti" may also mean "all the desires of Lord Kṛṣṇa." All the desires of Lord Kṛṣṇa rest in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

Ādi 4.94: Śrīmatī Rādhikā fulfills all the desires of Lord Kṛṣṇa. This is the meaning of "sarva-kānti."

Ādi 4.95: Lord Kṛṣṇa enchants the world, but Śrī Rādhā enchants even Him. Therefore She is the supreme goddess of all.

Ādi 4.96: Śrī Rādhā is the full power, and Lord Kṛṣṇa is the possessor of full power. The two are not different, as evidenced by the revealed scriptures.

Ādi 4.97: They are indeed the same, just as musk and its scent are inseparable, or as fire and its heat are nondifferent.

Ādi 4.98: Thus Rādhā and Lord Kṛṣṇa are one, yet They have taken two forms to enjoy the mellows of pastimes.

Ādi 4.99-100: To promulgate prema-bhakti [devotional service in love of Godhead], Kṛṣṇa appeared as Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya with the mood and complexion of Śrī Rādhā. Thus I have explained the meaning of the fifth verse.

Ādi 4.101: To explain the sixth verse, I shall first give a hint of its meaning.

Ādi 4.102: The Lord came to propagate sańkīrtana. That is an external purpose, as I have already indicated.

Ādi 4.103: There is a principal cause for Lord Kṛṣṇa's appearance. It grows from His own engagements as the foremost enjoyer of loving exchanges.

Ādi 4.104: That most confidential cause is threefold. Svarūpa Dāmodara has revealed it.

Ādi 4.105: Svarūpa Gosāñi is the most intimate associate of the Lord. He therefore knows all these topics well.

Ādi 4.106: The heart of Lord Caitanya is the image of Śrī Rādhikā's emotions. Thus feelings of pleasure and pain arise constantly therein.

Ādi 4.107: In the final portion of His pastimes, Lord Caitanya was obsessed with the madness of separation from Lord Kṛṣṇa. He acted in erroneous ways and talked deliriously.

Ādi 4.108: Just as Rādhikā went mad at the sight of Uddhava, so Lord Caitanya was obsessed day and night with the madness of separation.

Ādi 4.109: At night He talked incoherently in grief with His arms around Svarūpa Dāmodara's neck. He spoke out His heart in ecstatic inspiration.

Ādi 4.110: Whenever a particular sentiment arose in His heart, Svarūpa Dāmodara satisfied Him by singing songs or reciting verses of the same nature.

Ādi 4.111: To analyze these pastimes is not necessary now. Later I shall describe them in detail.

Ādi 4.112: Formerly in Vraja Lord Kṛṣṇa displayed three ages, namely childhood, boyhood and adolescence. His adolescence is especially significant.

Ādi 4.113: Parental affection made His childhood fruitful. His boyhood was successful with His friends.

Ādi 4.114: In youth He tasted the essence of rasa, fulfilling His desires in pastimes like the rāsa dance with Śrīmatī Rādhikā and the other gopīs.

Ādi 4.115: In His youth Lord Kṛṣṇa made all three of His ages, and the entire universe, successful by His pastimes of amorous love like the rāsa dance.

Ādi 4.116: "Lord Madhusūdana enjoyed His youth with pastimes on autumn nights in the midst of the jewellike milkmaids. Thus He dispelled all the misfortunes of the world."

Ādi 4.117: "Lord Kṛṣṇa made Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī close Her eyes in shame before Her friends by His words relating Their amorous activities on the previous night. Then He showed the highest limit of cleverness in drawing pictures of dolphins in various playful sports on Her breasts. In this way Lord Hari made His youth successful by performing pastimes in the bushes with Śrī Rādhā and Her friends."

Ādi 4.118: "O Paurṇamāsī, if Lord Hari had not descended in Mathurā with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, this entire creation — and especially Cupid, the demigod of love — would have been useless."

Ādi 4.119-120: Even though Lord Kṛṣṇa, the abode of all mellows, had previously in this way chewed the essence of the mellows of love, still He was unable to fulfill three desires, although He made efforts to taste them.

Ādi 4.121: I shall explain His first desire. Kṛṣṇa says, "I am the primary cause of all rasas.

Ādi 4.122: "I am the full spiritual truth and am made of full joy, but the love of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī drives Me mad.

Ādi 4.123: "I do not know the strength of Rādhā's love, with which She always overwhelms Me.

Ādi 4.124: "The love of Rādhikā is My teacher, and I am Her dancing pupil. Her prema makes Me dance various novel dances."

Ādi 4.125: "O my beloved friend Vṛndā, where are you coming from?""I am coming from the feet of Śrī Hari.""Where is He?""In the forest on the bank of Rādhā-kuṇḍa.""What is He doing there?""He is learning dancing.""Who is His master?""Your image, Rādhā, revealing itself in every tree and creeper in every direction, is roaming like a skillful dancer, making Him dance behind."

Ādi 4.126: "Whatever pleasure I get from tasting My love for Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, She tastes ten million times more than Me by Her love.

Ādi 4.127: "Just as I am the abode of all mutually contradictory characteristics, so Rādhā's love is always full of similar contradictions.

Ādi 4.128: "Rādhā's love is all-pervading, leaving no room for expansion. But still it is expanding constantly.

Ādi 4.129: "There is certainly nothing greater than Her love. But Her love is devoid of pride. That is the sign of its greatness.

Ādi 4.130: "Nothing is purer than Her love. But its behavior is always perverse and crooked."

Ādi 4.131: "All glories to Rādhā's love for Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of the demon Mura! Although it is all-pervading, it tends to increase at every moment. Although it is important, it is devoid of pride. And although it is pure, it is always beset with duplicity."

Ādi 4.132: "Śrī Rādhikā is the highest abode of that love, and I am its only object.

Ādi 4.133: "I taste the bliss to which the object of love is entitled. But the pleasure of Rādhā, the abode of that love, is ten million times greater.

Ādi 4.134: "My mind races to taste the pleasure experienced by the abode, but I cannot taste it, even by My best efforts. How may I taste it?

Ādi 4.135: "If sometime I can be the abode of that love, only then may I taste its joy."

Ādi 4.136: Thinking in this way, Lord Kṛṣṇa was curious to taste that love. His eager desire for that love increasingly blazed in His heart.

Ādi 4.137: That is one desire. Now please hear of another. Seeing His own beauty, Lord Kṛṣṇa began to consider.

Ādi 4.138: "My sweetness is wonderful, infinite and full. No one in the three worlds can find its limit.

Ādi 4.139: "Only Rādhikā, by the strength of Her love, tastes all the nectar of My sweetness.

Ādi 4.140: "Although Rādhā's love is pure like a mirror, its purity increases at every moment.

Ādi 4.141: "My sweetness also has no room for expansion, yet it shines before that mirror in newer and newer beauty.

Ādi 4.142: "There is constant competition between My sweetness and the mirror of Rādhā's love. They both go on increasing, but neither knows defeat.

Ādi 4.143: "My sweetness is always newer and newer. Devotees taste it according to their own respective love.

Ādi 4.144: "If I see My sweetness in a mirror, I am tempted to taste it, but nevertheless I cannot.

Ādi 4.145: "If I deliberate on a way to taste it, I find that I hanker for the position of Rādhikā."

Ādi 4.146: "Who manifests an abundance of sweetness greater than Mine, which has never been experienced before and which causes wonder to all? Alas, I Myself, My mind bewildered upon seeing this beauty, impetuously desire to enjoy it like Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī."

Ādi 4.147: The beauty of Kṛṣṇa has one natural strength: it thrills the hearts of all men and women, beginning with Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself.

Ādi 4.148: All minds are attracted by hearing His sweet voice and flute, or by seeing His beauty. Even Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself makes efforts to taste that sweetness.

Ādi 4.149: The thirst of one who always drinks the nectar of that sweetness is never satisfied. Rather, that thirst increases constantly.

Ādi 4.150: Such a person, being unsatisfied, begins to blaspheme Lord Brahmā, saying that he does not know the art of creating well and is simply inexperienced.

Ādi 4.151: He has not given millions of eyes to see the beauty of Kṛṣṇa. He has given only two eyes, and even those eyes blink. How then shall I see the lovely face of Kṛṣṇa?

Ādi 4.152: [The gopīs said:] "O Kṛṣṇa, when You go to the forest during the day and we do not see Your sweet face, which is surrounded by beautiful curling hair, half a second becomes as long as an entire age for us. And we consider the creator, who has put eyelids on the eyes we use for seeing You, to be simply a fool."

Ādi 4.153: "The gopīs saw their beloved Kṛṣṇa at Kurukṣetra after a long separation. They secured and embraced Him in their hearts through their eyes, and they attained a joy so intense that not even perfect yogīs can attain it. The gopīs cursed the creator for creating eyelids that interfered with their vision."

Ādi 4.154: There is no consummation for the eyes other than the sight of Kṛṣṇa. Whoever sees Him is most fortunate indeed.

Ādi 4.155: [The gopīs said:] "O friends, those eyes that see the beautiful faces of the sons of Mahārāja Nanda are certainly fortunate. As these two sons enter the forest, surrounded by Their friends, driving the cows before Them, They hold Their flutes to Their mouths and glance lovingly upon the residents of Vṛndāvana. For those who have eyes, we think there is no greater object of vision."

Ādi 4.156: [The women of Mathurā said:] "What austerities must the gopīs have performed? With their eyes they always drink the nectar of the form of Lord Kṛṣṇa, which is the essence of loveliness and is not to be equaled or surpassed. That loveliness is the only abode of beauty, fame and opulence. It is self-perfect, ever fresh and extremely rare."

Ādi 4.157: The sweetness of Lord Kṛṣṇa is unprecedented, and its strength is also unprecedented. Simply by one's hearing of such beauty, the mind becomes unsteady.

Ādi 4.158: Lord Kṛṣṇa's own beauty attracts Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself. But because He cannot fully enjoy it, His mind remains full of sorrow.

Ādi 4.159: This is a description of His second desire. Now please listen as I describe the third.

Ādi 4.160: This conclusion of rasa is extremely deep. Only Svarūpa Dāmodara knows much about it.

Ādi 4.161: Anyone else who claims to know it must have heard it from him, for he was the most intimate companion of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Ādi 4.162: The love of the gopīs is called rūḍha-bhāva. It is pure and spotless. It is not at any time lust.

Ādi 4.163: "The pure love of the gopīs has become celebrated by the name 'lust.' The dear devotees of the Lord, headed by Śrī Uddhava, desire to taste that love."

Ādi 4.164: Lust and love have different characteristics, just as iron and gold have different natures.

Ādi 4.165: The desire to gratify one's own senses is kāma [lust], but the desire to please the senses of Lord Kṛṣṇa is prema [love].

Ādi 4.166: The object of lust is only the enjoyment of one's own senses. But love caters to the enjoyment of Lord Kṛṣṇa, and thus it is very powerful.

Ādi 4.167-169: Social customs, scriptural injunctions, bodily demands, fruitive action, shyness, patience, bodily pleasures, self-gratification and the path of varṇāśrama-dharma, which is difficult to give up — the gopīs have forsaken all these, along with their families, and suffered their relatives' punishment and scolding, all for the sake of serving Lord Kṛṣṇa. They render loving service to Him for the sake of His enjoyment.

Ādi 4.170: That is called firm attachment to Lord Kṛṣṇa. It is spotlessly pure, like a clean cloth that has no stain.

Ādi 4.171: Therefore lust and love are quite different. Lust is like dense darkness, but love is like the bright sun.

Ādi 4.172: Thus there is not the slightest taint of lust in the gopīs' love. Their relationship with Kṛṣṇa is only for the sake of His enjoyment.

Ādi 4.173: "O dearly beloved! Your lotus feet are so soft that we place them gently on our breasts, fearing that Your feet will be hurt. Our life rests only in You. Our minds, therefore, are filled with anxiety that Your tender feet might be wounded by pebbles as You roam about on the forest path."

Ādi 4.174: The gopīs do not care for their own pleasures or pains. All their physical and mental activities are directed toward offering enjoyment to Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Ādi 4.175: They renounced everything for Kṛṣṇa. They have pure attachment to giving Kṛṣṇa pleasure.

Ādi 4.176: "O My beloved gopīs, you have renounced social customs, scriptural injunctions and your relatives for My sake. I disappeared behind you only to increase your concentration upon Me. Since I disappeared for your benefit, you should not be displeased with Me."

Ādi 4.177: Lord Kṛṣṇa has a promise from before to reciprocate with His devotees according to the way they worship Him.

Ādi 4.178: "In whatever way My devotees surrender unto Me, I reward them accordingly. Everyone follows My path in all respects, O son of Pṛthā."

Ādi 4.179: That promise has been broken by the worship of the gopīs, as Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself admits.

Ādi 4.180: "O gopīs, I am not able to repay My debt for your spotless service, even within a lifetime of Brahmā. Your connection with Me is beyond reproach. You have worshiped Me, cutting off all domestic ties, which are difficult to break. Therefore please let your own glorious deeds be your compensation."

Ādi 4.181: Now, whatever affection we see the gopīs show for their own bodies, know it for certain to be only for the sake of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Ādi 4.182: [The gopīs think:] "I have offered this body to Lord Kṛṣṇa. He is its owner, and it brings Him enjoyment.

Ādi 4.183: "Kṛṣṇa finds joy in seeing and touching this body." It is for this reason that they cleanse and decorate their bodies.

Ādi 4.184: "O Arjuna, there are no greater receptacles of deep love for Me than the gopīs, who cleanse and decorate their bodies because they consider them Mine."

Ādi 4.185: There is another wonderful feature of the emotion of the gopīs. Its power is beyond the comprehension of the intelligence.

Ādi 4.186: When the gopīs see Lord Kṛṣṇa, they derive unbounded bliss, although they have no desire for such pleasure.

Ādi 4.187: The gopīs taste a pleasure ten million times greater than the pleasure Lord Kṛṣṇa derives from seeing them.

Ādi 4.188: The gopīs have no inclination for their own enjoyment, and yet their joy increases. That is indeed a contradiction.

Ādi 4.189: For this contradiction I see only one solution: the joy of the gopīs lies in the joy of their beloved Kṛṣṇa.

Ādi 4.190: When Lord Kṛṣṇa sees the gopīs, His joy increases, and His unparalleled sweetness increases also.

Ādi 4.191: [The gopīs think:] "Kṛṣṇa has obtained so much pleasure by seeing me." That thought increases the fullness and beauty of their faces and bodies.

Ādi 4.192: The beauty of Lord Kṛṣṇa increases at the sight of the beauty of the gopīs. And the more the gopīs see Lord Kṛṣṇa's beauty, the more their beauty increases.

Ādi 4.193: In this way a competition takes place between them in which no one acknowledges defeat.

Ādi 4.194: Kṛṣṇa, however, derives pleasure from the beauty and good qualities of the gopīs. And when the gopīs see His pleasure, the joy of the gopīs increases.

Ādi 4.195: Therefore we find that the joy of the gopīs nourishes the joy of Lord Kṛṣṇa. For that reason the fault of lust is not present in their love.

Ādi 4.196: "I worship Lord Keśava. Coming back from the forest of Vraja, He is worshiped by the gopīs, who mount the roofs of their palaces and meet Him on the path with a hundred manners of dancing glances and gentle smiles. The corners of His eyes wander, like large black bees, around the gopīs' breasts."

Ādi 4.197: There is another natural symptom of the gopīs' love that shows it to be without a trace of lust.

Ādi 4.198: The love of the gopīs nourishes the sweetness of Lord Kṛṣṇa. That sweetness in turn increases their love, for they are greatly satisfied.

Ādi 4.199: The happiness of the abode of love is in the happiness of the object of that love. This is not a relationship of desire for personal gratification.

Ādi 4.200-201: Whenever there is unselfish love, that is its style. The reservoir of love derives pleasure when the lovable object is pleased. When the pleasure of love interferes with the service of Lord Kṛṣṇa, the devotee becomes angry toward such ecstasy.

Ādi 4.202: "Śrī Dāruka did not relish his ecstatic feelings of love, for they caused his limbs to become stunned and thus obstructed his service of fanning Lord Kṛṣṇa."

Ādi 4.203: "The lotus-eyed Rādhārāṇī powerfully condemned the ecstatic love that caused a flow of tears that hindered Her sight of Govinda."

Ādi 4.204: Furthermore, pure devotees never forsake the loving service of Lord Kṛṣṇa to aspire for their own personal pleasure through the five kinds of liberation.

Ādi 4.205: "Just as the celestial waters of the Ganges flow unobstructed into the ocean, so when My devotees simply hear of Me, their minds come to Me, who reside in the hearts of all.

Ādi 4.206: "These are the characteristics of transcendental loving service to Puruṣottama, the Supreme Personality of Godhead: it is causeless, and it cannot be obstructed in any way.

Ādi 4.207: "My devotees do not accept sālokya, sārṣṭi, sārūpya, sāmīpya or oneness with Me — even if I offer these liberations — in preference to serving Me."

Ādi 4.208: "My devotees, having fulfilled their desires by serving Me, do not accept the four kinds of salvation that are easily earned by such service. Why then should they accept any pleasures that are lost in the course of time?"

Ādi 4.209: The natural love of the gopīs is devoid of any trace of lust. It is faultless, bright and pure, like molten gold.

Ādi 4.210: The gopīs are the helpers, teachers, friends, wives, dear disciples, confidantes and serving maids of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Ādi 4.211: "O Pārtha, I speak to you the truth. The gopīs are My helpers, teachers, disciples, servants, friends and consorts. I do not know what they are not to Me."

Ādi 4.212: The gopīs know Kṛṣṇa's desires, and they know how to render perfect loving service for His enjoyment. They perform their service expertly for the satisfaction of their beloved.

Ādi 4.213: "O Pārtha, the gopīs know My greatness, My loving service, respect for Me, and My mentality. Others cannot really know these."

Ādi 4.214: Among the gopīs, Śrīmatī Rādhikā is the foremost. She surpasses all in beauty, in good qualities, in good fortune and, above all, in love.

Ādi 4.215: "Just as Rādhā is dear to Lord Kṛsṇa, so Her bathing place [Rādhā-kuṇḍa] is dear to Him. She alone is His most beloved of all the gopīs."

Ādi 4.216: "O Pārtha, in all the three planetary systems, this earth is especially fortunate, for on earth is the town of Vṛndāvana. And there the gopīs are especially glorious because among them is My Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī."

Ādi 4.217: All the other gopīs help increase the joy of Kṛṣṇa's pastimes with Rādhārāṇī. The gopīs act as the instruments of Their mutual enjoyment.

Ādi 4.218: Rādhā is the beloved consort of Kṛṣṇa, and She is the wealth of His life. Without Her, the gopīs cannot give Him pleasure.

Ādi 4.219: "Lord Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of Kaḿsa, left aside the other gopīs during the rāsa dance and took Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī to His heart, for She is the helper of the Lord in realizing the essence of His desires."

Ādi 4.220: Lord Caitanya appeared with the sentiment of Rādhā. He preached the dharma of this age — the chanting of the holy name and pure love of God.

Ādi 4.221: In the mood of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, He also fulfilled His own desires. This is the principal reason for His appearance.

Ādi 4.222: Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya is Kṛṣṇa [Vrajendra-kumāra], the embodiment of rasas. He is amorous love personified.

Ādi 4.223: He made His appearance to taste that conjugal mellow and incidentally to broadcast all the rasas.

Ādi 4.224: "My dear friends, just see how Śrī Kṛṣṇa is enjoying the season of spring! With the gopīs embracing each of His limbs, He is like amorous love personified. With His transcendental pastimes, He enlivens all the gopīs and the entire creation. With His soft bluish-black arms and legs, which resemble blue lotus flowers, He has created a festival for Cupid."

Ādi 4.225: Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya is the abode of rasa. He Himself tasted the sweetness of rasa in endless ways.

Ādi 4.226: Thus He initiated the dharma for the Age of Kali. The devotees of Lord Caitanya know all these truths.

Ādi 4.227-228: Advaita Acārya, Lord Nityānanda, Śrīvāsa Paṇḍita, Gadādhara Paṇḍita, Svarūpa Dāmodara, Murāri Gupta, Haridāsa Ṭhākura and all the other devotees of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya — bowing down with devotion, I hold their lotus feet on my head.

Ādi 4.229: I have given a hint of the sixth verse. Now please hear as I reveal the meaning of that original verse.

Ādi 4.230: "Desiring to understand the glory of Rādhārāṇī's love, the wonderful qualities in Him that She alone relishes through Her love, and the happiness She feels when She realizes the sweetness of His love, the Supreme Lord Hari, richly endowed with Her emotions, appeared from the womb of Śrīmatī Śacī-devī, as the moon appeared from the ocean."

Ādi 4.231: All these conclusions are unfit to disclose in public. But if they are not disclosed, no one will understand them.

Ādi 4.232: Therefore I shall mention them, revealing only their essence, so that loving devotees will understand them but fools will not.

Ādi 4.233: Anyone who has captured Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Lord Nityānanda Prabhu in his heart will become blissful by hearing all these transcendental conclusions.

Ādi 4.234: All these conclusions are like the newly grown twigs of a mango tree; they are always pleasing to the devotees, who in this way resemble cuckoo birds.

Ādi 4.235: The camellike nondevotees cannot enter into these topics. Therefore there is special jubilation in my heart.

Ādi 4.236: For fear of them I do not wish to speak, but if they do not understand, then what can be happier in all the three worlds?

Ādi 4.237: Therefore after offering obeisances to the devotees, for their satisfaction I shall speak without hesitating.

Ādi 4.238: Once Lord Kṛṣṇa considered within His heart, "Everyone says that I am complete bliss, full of all rasas.

Ādi 4.239: "All the world derives pleasure from Me. Is there anyone who can give Me pleasure?

Ādi 4.240: "One who has a hundred times more qualities than Me could give pleasure to My mind.

Ādi 4.241: "One more qualified than Me is impossible to find in the world. But in Rādhā alone I feel the presence of one who can give Me pleasure.

Ādi 4.242-243: "Although My beauty defeats the beauty of ten million Cupids, although it is unequaled and unsurpassed, and although it gives pleasure to the three worlds, seeing Rādhārāṇī gives pleasure to My eyes.

Ādi 4.244: "The vibration of My transcendental flute attracts the three worlds, but My ears are enchanted by the sweet words of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

Ādi 4.245: "Although My body lends fragrance to the entire creation, the scent of Rādhārāṇī's limbs captivates My mind and heart.

Ādi 4.246: "Although the entire creation is full of different tastes because of Me, I am charmed by the nectarean taste of the lips of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

Ādi 4.247: "And although My touch is cooler than ten million moons, I am refreshed by the touch of Śrīmatī Rādhikā.

Ādi 4.248: "Thus although I am the source of happiness for the entire world, the beauty and attributes of Śrī Rādhikā are My life and soul.

Ādi 4.249: "In this way My affectionate feelings for Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī may be understood, but on analysis I find them contradictory.

Ādi 4.250: "My eyes are fully satisfied when I look upon Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, but by looking upon Me, She becomes even more advanced in satisfaction.

Ādi 4.251: "The flutelike murmur of the bamboos rubbing against one another steals Rādhārāṇī's consciousness, for She thinks it to be the sound of My flute. And She embraces a tamāla tree, mistaking it for Me.

Ādi 4.252: "'I have gotten the embrace of Śrī Kṛṣṇa,' She thinks, 'so now My life is fulfilled.' Thus She remains immersed in pleasing Kṛṣṇa, taking the tree in Her arms.

Ādi 4.253: "When a favorable breeze carries to Her the fragrance of My body, She is blinded by love and tries to fly into that breeze.

Ādi 4.254: "When She tastes the betel chewed by Me, She merges in an ocean of joy and forgets everything else.

Ādi 4.255: "Even with hundreds of mouths I could not express the transcendental pleasure She derives from My association.

Ādi 4.256: "Seeing the luster of Her complexion after Our pastimes together, I forget My own identity in happiness.

Ādi 4.257: "The sage Bharata has said that the mellows of lover and beloved are equal. But he does not know the mellows of My Vṛndāvana.

Ādi 4.258: "The happiness I feel when meeting Rādhārāṇī is a hundred times greater than the happiness I get from meeting others.

Ādi 4.259: "'My dear auspicious Rādhārāṇī, Your body is the source of all beauty. Your red lips are softer than the sense of immortal sweetness, Your face bears the aroma of a lotus flower, Your sweet words defeat the vibrations of the cuckoo, and Your limbs are cooler than the pulp of sandalwood. All My transcendental senses are overwhelmed in ecstatic pleasure by tasting You, who are completely decorated by beautiful qualities.'

Ādi 4.260: "'Her eyes are enchanted by the beauty of Lord Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of Kaḿsa. Her body thrills in pleasure at His touch. Her ears are always attracted to His sweet voice, Her nostrils are enchanted by His fragrance, and Her tongue hankers for the nectar of His soft lips. She hangs down her lotuslike face, exercising self-control only by pretense, but She cannot help showing the external signs of Her spontaneous love for Lord Kṛṣṇa.'

Ādi 4.261: "Considering this, I can understand that some unknown mellow in Me controls the entire existence of My captivator, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

Ādi 4.262: "I am always eager to taste the joy that Rādhārāṇī derives from Me.

Ādi 4.263: "In spite of various efforts, I have not been able to taste it. But My desire to relish that pleasure increases as I smell its sweetness.

Ādi 4.264: "Formerly I appeared in the world to taste mellows, and I tasted the mellows of pure love in various ways.

Ādi 4.265: "I taught devotional service that springs from the devotees' spontaneous love by demonstrating it with My pastimes.

Ādi 4.266: "But these three desires of Mine were not satisfied, for one cannot enjoy them in a contrary position.

Ādi 4.267: "Unless I accept the luster of the ecstatic love of Śrī Rādhikā, these three desires cannot be fulfilled.

Ādi 4.268: "Therefore, assuming Rādhārāṇī's sentiments and bodily complexion, I shall descend to fulfill these three desires."

Ādi 4.269: In this way Lord Kṛṣṇa came to a decision. Simultaneously, the time came for the incarnation of the age.

Ādi 4.270: At that time Śrī Advaita was earnestly worshiping Him. Advaita attracted Him with His loud calls.

Ādi 4.271-272: First Lord Kṛṣṇa made His parents and elders appear. Then Kṛṣṇa Himself, with the sentiments and complexion of Rādhikā, appeared in Navadvīpa, like the full moon, from the womb of mother Śacī, which is like an ocean of pure milk.

Ādi 4.273: Meditating on the lotus feet of Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī, I have thus explained the sixth verse.

Ādi 4.274: I can support the explanation of these two verses [verses 5 and 6 of the First Chapter] with a verse by Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī.

Ādi 4.275: "Lord Kṛṣṇa desired to taste the limitless nectarean mellows of the love possessed by one of His multitude of loving damsels [Śrī Rādhā], and so He has assumed the form of Lord Caitanya. He has tasted that love while hiding His own dark complexion with Her effulgent yellow color. May that Lord Caitanya confer upon us His grace."

Ādi 4.276: Thus the auspicious invocation, the essential nature of the truth of Lord Caitanya, and the need for His appearance have been set forth in six verses.

Ādi 4.277: Praying at the lotus feet of Śrī Rūpa and Śrī Raghunātha, always desiring their mercy, I, Kṛṣṇadāsa, narrate Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, following in their footsteps.