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740927 - Lecture SB 01.02.19 - Calcutta

His Divine Grace
A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada

740927SB-CALCUTTA - September 27, 1974 - 39:06 Minutes

Nitāi: Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. (Prabhupāda and devotees repeat) (leads chanting of verse, etc.)

tadā rajas-tamo-bhāvāḥ
kāma-lobhādayaś ca ye
ceta etair anāviddhaṁ
sthitaṁ sattve prasīdati
(SB 1.2.19)

(Prabhupāda interrupts to correct pronunciation of anāviddhaṁ)


"At the time loving devotional service is established in the heart, the modes of passion (rajas) and ignorance (tamas) and lust and desire (kāma) disappear from the heart. Then the devotee is established in goodness, and he becomes happy."


tadā rajas-tamo-bhāvāḥ
kāma-lobhādayaś ca ye
ceta etair anāviddhaṁ
sthitaṁ sattve prasīdati
(SB 1.2.19)

So the principle is that we have to place our mind, or consciousness, in the sattva-guṇa. That is the first business. Because the material world means sattva-guṇa, rajo-guṇa and tamo-guṇa. Sattva-guṇa is the qualification of pure brāhmaṇa. Śamo damas titikṣā ārjavaṁ jñānaṁ vijñānam āstikyaṁ brahma-karma svabhāva-jam (BG 18.42). Sattva-guṇa. These are the symptom of sattva-guṇa. Without coming to the platform of sattva-guṇa, or brahminical qualification, one cannot make any advance in spiritual life. Therefore in our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement we first of all bring anyone to the platform of brāhmaṇa. Therefore at the time of second initiation we offer the sacred thread, to recognize him that, "He is now brāhmaṇa."

Without becoming a brāhmaṇa, nobody can become a Vaiṣṇava. Or, when one is Vaiṣṇava, it is to be understood that he is also brāhmaṇa. The common word . . . in India it is said, brāhmaṇa-vaiṣṇava. Brāhmaṇa should become Vaiṣṇava. Or one who is Vaiṣṇava is already a brāhmaṇa. Brahma jānātīti brāhmaṇaḥ. So a Vaiṣṇava not only knows brāhmaṇa, er, Brahman, but he knows Paramātmā and he knows Bhagavān. So brahma jānātīti brāhmaṇa. Simply by knowing Brahman, one can become a brāhmaṇa. But a Vaiṣṇava, not only he knows what is Brahman, but he knows further—what is Paramātmā and what is Bhagavān. Brahmeti paramātmeti bhagavān iti śabdyate (SB 1.2.11). The Absolute Truth is present in three features: Brahman, Paramātmā and Bhagavān. So Brahman realization is the first. Ahaṁ brahmāsmi. That is the self-realization, "I am not this body." Ahaṁ brahmāsmi. That is called brahma-bhūta stage. Brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā (BG 18.54). Here is also the . . . that is the statement in the Bhagavad-gītā.

Here is, also it is stated that sthitaṁ sattve prasīdati. Everyone is hankering after how to be peaceful in mind. Everyone. Everyone says, "Swāmījī, kindly say how I can get peace of mind." The peace of mind, how it can be attained is stated here: sthitaṁ sattve prasīdati. If you fix up in sattva-guṇa, not in the rajo-guṇa, tamo-guṇa . . . tamo-guṇa is the life of the karmīs, tamo-guṇa and rajo-guṇa. Or rajo-guṇa is actually karmīs, and sattva-guṇa is the life of jñānīs. And after coming to the sattva-guṇa, being peaceful in mind, that is called . . . (baby cries) (pause) . . . brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā (BG 18.54). You have to come to the platform of sattva-guṇa. Then you'll be prasannātmā.

Prasanna means happy mode of life. Brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā. What is the happy mode of life? Na śocati na kāṅkṣati. He does not lament. He does not hanker. Here in the material world we are hankering. We want this dhanaṁ dehi rūpaṁ dehi yaśo dehi rūpavatī bhāryāṁ dehi. Dehi dehi. That is hankering. This is not the stage of brahma-bhūta. Brahma-bhūta stage means na śocati na kāṅkṣati. He does not hanker, neither he laments. Then samaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu mad-bhaktiṁ labhate parām (BG 18.54). Then bhakti begins, when actually you are in peace of mind. In disturbed mind you cannot execute devotional service. Therefore in the beginning, if somebody all of a sudden becomes a Vaiṣṇava and in a solitary place, "I am chanting," that is cheating. How you can be . . .? How you can chant? You cannot, because your mind is not fixed up. Your mind is not . . . na śocati na kāṅkṣati. Unless you are purified, your mind is always disturbed. That is the material condition. The mind must be disturbed.

Sadā samudvigna-dhiyām. Prahlāda Mahārāja says. That is the material symptom. What is the material symptom? Always full of anxiety. Sadā samudvigna-dhiyām. Why? Asad-grahāt. Because he has accepted the temporary position, asat. Asat means "Which will not exist." Here everything will not exist. This body, it will not exist. But I have taken this body as everything. "I am Indian," "I am American," "I am the father of this family," "I am the manager of the so big business," and so on, so on, so on, so on. Asad-grahāt. But everything concentrated on this body. So you must be an . . . full of anxiety. Asad-grahāt. You accepted this body as fact. But it is not fact. Similarly, the whole world. Asad-grahāt samudvigna-dhiyām.

This was a question several times. This is very nice question. So Hiraṇyakaśipu asked his son, Prahlāda Mahārāja, "My dear boy, what you have learned the best thing? You are student." He said, tat sādhu manye asura-varya. He addressed his father, he addressed him as asura-varya, "the best of the asuras." He did not address him as "father," but he said: "My dear the best of the asuras . . ."

tat manye sādhu asura-varya dehināṁ
sadā samudvigna-dhiyām asad-grahāt
hitvātma-pātaṁ gṛham andha-kūpaṁ
vanaṁ gato yad dharim āśrayeta
(SB 7.5.5)

That is the best thing. One is rotting in this family life, which is just like a blind well, andha-kūpa, ātma-pātam. Just like a man falls in the blind well, he has no other alternative than to die, crying, crying. That's all. So he advises, hitvā, "Just give it up." Hitvātma-pātam andha-kūpam, gṛham andha-kūpam. Then where shall I go? Vanaṁ gato. Vanaṁ gato. Vanaṁ gato, "Go to Vṛndāvana, or in the forest." Then how shall I live? No, harim āśrayeta: "Just take shelter of Kṛṣṇa, Hari. He'll give you protection." This is the instruction of Prahlāda Mahārāja.

So here Bhāgavatam says tadā. Tadā means "At that time." At that time. When? It is, in the previous verse it has been explained that:

naṣṭa-prāyeṣv abhadreṣu
nityaṁ bhāgavata-sevayā
bhagavaty uttama-śloke
bhaktir bhavati naiṣṭhikī
(SB 1.2.18)

At that time, when you are fixed up in devotional service. At that time, tadā. Not otherwise. If you have no connection with devotional service, if you are attached to karma, jñāna, yoga, you cannot be fixed up. Therefore Caitanya-caritāmṛta says, bhukti-mukti-siddhi-kāmī sakali aśānta (CC Madhya 19.149). Here we require . . . tadā, sthitaṁ sattve prasīdati. Prasīdati means peace of mind, fully satisfied. But bhukti-mukti-siddhi-kāmī. As Caitanya Mahāprabhu . . . they cannot have peace of mind. It is not possible. Bhukti means karmīs. They're trying to enjoy this material—more money, more woman, more eating—more, more and more. That is called bhukti. They are not satisfied by enjoying on this planet. They perform various kinds of yajñas so that they may be promoted to the higher planetary systems, Svargaloka, or Janaloka, Maharloka, like that. But Kṛṣṇa says, ābrahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ. "You rascal, you are trying to be promoted to the higher planetary system for more and more material enjoyment . . ." Certainly there is thousands and thousand times more material comforts in the heavenly planets, in the Candraloka. In the Candraloka . . . they are trying to go into Candraloka, but according to śāstra, if one goes to Candraloka, he gets ten thousands of years his duration of life, and enjoy.

So certainly there are many times more comfortable life, standard of life, very, very high, in the heavenly, other planetary systems. But Kṛṣṇa says that in any one of the planet you can go, but the material disease will not be relieved, the material disease, janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi (BG 13.9). We cannot understand. This is our real disease, repetition of birth, janma, and repetition of death. Janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi. And repetition of becoming old, and vyādhi, repetition of being affected by various types of disease. So therefore intelligent man should see that, "Even if I go to the Brahmaloka . . ." When Brahmā was asked by Hiraṇyakaśipu, "Give me immortality, sir," he said: "I am myself not immortal. How can I give you immortality?" So ābrahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ punar āvartino 'rjuna (BG 8.16). Kṛṣṇa advised Arjuna, "My dear Arjuna, if you go to the Brahmaloka, many millions of years' duration of life, still, you have to die."

So that is the standard of highest perfection. If you do not die, if you do not take birth . . . if you know what are the miserable condition of birth, to remain within the womb of the mother . . . not only to remain. Nowadays, modern advanced civilization, they are being killed by the mother. Not only abortion, but they are being killed. Now the Western world is very familiar with these things. So just imagine: First of all, you have to remain within the mother's womb, head down, packed-up condition. You cannot move, ten months. And that is also not secure. Even within the . . . now this is the . . . within the mother's womb you are not secure. At any moment the doctor may advise that, "Kill the child." So these are the miserable condition of birth, but we do not remember them. We have to know it from the śāstra. So similarly, at the time of death, coma and . . . nowadays it is a very common disease. For seven days or fifteen days he's unconscious, crying.

So this is the miserable condition of death, this is the miserable condition of birth, and between birth and death there are so many miserable conditions: this old age, this disease, so many calamities, catastrophes. So still, we do not want to make a solution of this problem. And the solution is very simple. In the Bhagavad-gītā it is said, janma karma me divyaṁ yo jānāti tattvataḥ (BG 4.9). If you simply know Kṛṣṇa, what is Kṛṣṇa, why does He come, why He works like ordinary man—janma karma me divyaṁ yo jānāti tattvataḥ—in truth, in actual fact . . . not that, "Oh, Kṛṣṇa was born in Mathurā, and then He was taken to Vṛndāvana." This is also knowing. But still, you know what is Kṛṣṇa.

manuṣyāṇāṁ sahasreṣu
kaścid yatati siddhaye
yatatām api siddhānāṁ
kaścin vetti māṁ tattvataḥ
(BG 7.3)

It is very difficult to understand Kṛṣṇa tattvataḥ, not superficially, but in fact. So Kṛṣṇa says, janma karma me divyaṁ yo jānāti tattvataḥ. So one who understands Kṛṣṇa in truth, he becomes free. Tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti mām eti kaunteya (BG 4.9). These things are there. So why don't you be serious to study Kṛṣṇa, to understand Kṛṣṇa?

But to understand Kṛṣṇa, it will require Kṛṣṇa's mercy. Without Kṛṣṇa's mercies . . . so how you get Kṛṣṇa's mercies?

teṣāṁ satata-yuktānāṁ
bhajatāṁ prīti-pūrvakam
buddhi-yogaṁ dadāmi
yena mām upayānti te
(BG 10.10)

One can understand Kṛṣṇa by being constantly engaged in His service. Teṣāṁ satata-yuktānām. Not that weekly once go to the church. No. Twenty-four hours, satata-yuktānām, engaged in Kṛṣṇa's service. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. We are teaching people how to become twenty-four hours engaged in Kṛṣṇa's service. This is our business. We don't allow karma, jñāna, yoga. No. Simply. And that is kṛṣṇa-bhakti. Jñāna-karmādy-anāvṛtam (CC Madhya 19.167). There is no question of jñāna and karma. That is not pure bhakti. Pure bhakti means anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyaṁ jñāna-karmādy-anāvṛtam, ānukūlyena kṛṣṇānuśīlanam (Brs. 1.1.11), simply to serve Kṛṣṇa favorably, as Kṛṣṇa becomes pleased. This is bhakti. This is pure devotion.

So this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, therefore, teaching pure devotional service to Kṛṣṇa, that will solve all problems. So how one can come to that stage? That is being explained in this portion of the Bhāgavatam, that śṛṇvatāṁ sva-kathāḥ kṛṣṇaḥ puṇya-śravaṇa-kīrtanaḥ (SB 1.2.17). Just hear. You haven't got to do anything more. Just hear about Kṛṣṇa. Śṛṇvatāṁ sva-kathāḥ . . . then everything will be cleared, gradually. This is our purpose. This center is giving chance that you come here and hear about . . . we, we don't make any flattery to satisfy the whims of the audience. We speak from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, we speak from Bhagavad-gītā, and present them as it is, without any adulteration. This is our position. If you like, then you make progress. If you don't like, that is your option. But we cannot make any compromise. We must present the śāstra as it is.

And where is the difficulty? Everything is explained here. Nityaṁ bhāgavata-sevayā (SB 1.2.18). You have to attend Bhāgavatam class and serve the bhāgavata person nityam, daily. If you cannot, that is a different thing. But this is the process. Nityaṁ bhāgavata-sevayā. Naṣṭa-prāyeṣu abhadreṣu. This conclusion comes when one is partially advanced, naṣṭa-prāyeṣu. Not fully. Then it will come. He'll be ready to serve Bhāgavatam—bhāgavata, the person bhāgavata and the book Bhāgavata. Nityaṁ bhāgavata-sevayā, bhagavaty uttama-śloke bhaktir bhavati naiṣṭhikī. Niṣṭhā, I have explained already yesterday. Tadā, at that time, when you are fixed up, "Now I shall devote my life in Kṛṣṇa consciousness," when you come to this conclusion . . . nityam. That will come. Nityaṁ bhāgavata-sevayā, bhaktir bhavati naiṣṭhikī (SB 1.2.18). Not deviation. But . . . not this worship, that worship, this worship, this worship. No. Kāmais tais tair hṛta-jñānā yajante anya-devatāḥ (BG 7.20). Those who are worshiping other demigods, that is recommended for the less intelligent class men. Tad bhavaty alpa-medhasām. These things are recommended for the persons who are less intelligent, whose brain is packed up with cow dung, not intelligent persons. Intelligent persons—sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66). That is intelligence.

So when one comes to this conclusion, bhaktir bhavati naiṣṭhikī . . . bhakti where? Not that bhakti to this god, that god. No. Bhagavati: unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Bhaktir bhavati naiṣṭhikī. Naiṣṭhikī, without any disturbance. Tadā, at that time. Tadā . . . what is the result? Rajas-tamo-bhāvāḥ. There are three bhāvas: rajo-guṇa-bhāva, tamo-guṇa-bhāva and sattva-guṇa-bhāva. So as soon as you come to the platform of devotional service, the two inferior qualities, namely rajo-guṇa and tamo-guṇa, they become finished. Simply sattva-guṇa remains. Because there are three guṇas. If two guṇas are finished, no more useful, then the other one is there. Tadā rajas-tamo-bhāvāḥ (SB 1.2.19). What are the symptoms of rajas-tamo-bhāvāḥ? Now, kāma and lobha. Those who are infected with this rajas-tamo-bhāvāḥ, they are very lusty, greedy, lobhī. They are not satisfied. The modern civilization is based on rajas-tamo-bhāvāḥ. Nobody is satisfied. Everyone is greedy. And lusty. Kāma-lobhādayaś ca ye. Kāma. So long you are lusty, so long you are greedy, there is no question of devotional service. There is no question of advancement to spiritual life. So therefore you have (to) come to the platform of sattva-guṇa, where simply knowledge. There is no other thing, ignorance or greediness, only knowledge.

So at that time, it is said, ceta etair anāviddham. Because everything is within the heart. We become greedy, we become lusty on account of distortion of the heart disease, kāma. Tadā hṛdi lobha-kāma apahinoti. That is a heart disease. This kāma and lobha is a heart disease. Actually, you don't require this, but it is a kind of disease. "More and more and more and more and more." Never satisfied. So we have to cure this disease. And this process, simple process, Caitanya Mahāprabhu has given: ceto-darpaṇa-mārjanam (CC Antya 20.12). To cure the heart disease of lusty desires and greediness is chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra. Paraṁ vijayate śrī-kṛṣṇa-saṅkīrtanam. These are the śāstric injunction, and spoken by personalities like Lord Caitanya and other ācāryas.

So we have to follow. Mahājano yena gataḥ sa panthāḥ (CC Madhya 17.186). Don't follow rascals and fools. Then it will be useless waste of time. Follow the great ācāryas. Ācāryavān puruṣo veda. One who is ācāryavān, who has accepted ācārya, he knows. Others, all are fools, rascals. Ācāryavān. Ācāryopāsanam. In the Bhagavad-gītā it is said, amānitvam adambhitvam ahiṁsā kṣāntir ārjavam, ācāryopāsanam (BG 13.8). You have to first of all worship the ācārya. Tad-vijñānārthaṁ sa gurum evābhigacchet (MU 1.2.12). Guru and ācārya, the same thing. So these are the process. Mahājano yena gataḥ. You cannot manufacture your ways of thinking. What you are? You are most insignificant living entity. And without following the ācāryas, without following the mahājanas, without following the śāstra, how you can teach?

But people are doing that. Without being followed by the ācārya, without being followed by the śāstras, they become guru, they become svāmī, they become yogī. It is useless. You cannot get . . . here are the process. Process is given: tadā rajas-tamo-bhāvāḥ kāma . . . (SB 1.2.19). Tadā means when you are fixed up in devotional service, then you can get out of these infection. These are infection. In . . . it is so dangerous infection. Infection, anyone can understand nowadays, scientific days. If you infect some disease, you have to suffer. You cannot escape. You infect today somehow or other—not today, not tomorrow, but some day it will come out. It is called kūṭastha, phalonmukha, prārabdha, pāpa-bīja. Pāpa-bīja remains as seed, kūṭastha. Then it is fructifying, phalonmukha. Then you suffer, prārabdha. This is called prārabdha-karma, infection.

You are under the complete subjugation of nature. Prakṛteḥ kriyamāṇāni guṇaiḥ karmāṇi sarvaśaḥ (BG 3.27). These guṇaiḥ. The prakṛti is forcing you to work because you have infected a kind of guṇa. Kāraṇaṁ guṇa-saṅgo 'sya sad-asad-yoni-janmasu (BG 13.22). Kāraṇam. Why one man is born, one living entity is born as a very rich man and one is born as a dog? Sad-asad-yoni. Yoni means mother, and bīja means father. Yathā yoni yathā bījaḥ. So the every living entity is born bīja and yoni, father and mother. So why there are varieties? Nature is working. Why not one, one kind of living entity? No. Sad-asad-janma-yoniṣu. There are 8,400,000's of species. One has to take. Tathā dehāntara-prāptiḥ (BG 2.13). You have to change. But why one is in the lower grade birth, why in the higher grade? Now, kāraṇaṁ guṇa-saṅgo 'sya. These guṇa. These guṇa, sattva-guṇa, rajo-guṇa.

So we have to give up the association of rajo-guṇa and tamo-guṇa. Then there is question of progress. Otherwise it is simply bluff. Therefore in our Society we say, "Don't associate . . . don't be infected by this rajo-guṇa, tamo-guṇa." This meat-eating and illicit sex life and drinking and gambling, they are rajo-guṇa, tamo-guṇa. Kāma-lobha. You see? There is a big rest ground, gambling, tamo-guṇa. They are going there. Thousands and thousands of people are going there for gambling. This is tamo-guṇa. Why? Lobha, "I must get more money. I must get more money." Lobha, kāma. Kāma-lobhādayaḥ. So we have to get out of all this entanglement. Then there is spiritual life. Otherwise, don't talk of spiritual life.

So this is fact. Tadā. Tadā means when you are fixed up in devotional service. Tadā, kāma-lobhādayaś ca ye. Tadā rajas-tamo-bhāvāḥ (SB 1.2.19). We have to get rid of this rajo-guṇa and tamo-guṇa. We have to be fixed up in sattva-guṇa, pure life. Then sthitaṁ sattve prasīdati. If you are situated in the sattva-guṇa, then you will be peace of mind. And that is kṛṣṇa-bhakta. That is explained in the Caitanya-caritāmṛta.

bhukti-mukti-siddhi-kāmī—sakali 'aśānta'
kṛṣṇa-bhakta—niṣkāma, ataeva 'śānta'
(CC Madhya 19.149)

Kṛṣṇa-bhakta, he does not desire anything. Kṛṣṇa-bhakta says: "I don't mind I am born lowborn." No, because he'll chant Hare Kṛṣṇa. Lowborn or highborn, he has nothing to do. If one is engaged in devotional service, it doesn't matter whether he's lowborn and highborn. As soon as he takes to devotional service, he becomes above lowborn and highborn. Sa guṇān samatītyaitān brahma-bhūyāya kalpate (BG 14.26). He's in the Brahman platform.

So in this way, as they are stated in the śāstra, if you follow, then it is step by step. First beginning is śṛṇvatāṁ sva-kathāḥ kṛṣṇaḥ (SB 1.2.17). Try to hear Kṛṣṇa's message. That is Bhagavad-gītā as it is. You hear it. You understand it. What is the difficulty? Śṛṇvatāṁ sva-kathāḥ. Don't misinterpret. Hear it as it is. Kṛṣṇa says, man-manā bhava mad-bhakto mad-yājī māṁ namaskuru (BG 18.65). Hear it and execute it. Where is the difficulty? But we shall not agree to; we shall not hear. We shall not act according to the instruction given. And that is our misfortune. Caitanya Mahāprabhu therefore says, etādṛśī tava kṛpā bhagavan mamāpi durdaivam īdṛśam ihājani nānurāgaḥ: "You are so merciful that in this age You have incarnated, You have descended, in Your name." Nāmnām akāri bahudhā nija-sarva-śaktiḥ. And in the name there is all potencies. Parāsya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate (Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad 6.8, CC Madhya 13.65, purport). There are multipotencies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. All the potencies are there in the holy name of the Lord. Nāmnām akāri bahudhā nija-sarva-śaktis tatrārpitā niyamitaḥ smaraṇe na kālaḥ. Deśa-kāla-pātra. There is no distinction. Anywhere, either in England or in Vṛndāvana or in Calcutta, you can chant Hare Kṛṣṇa. Niyamitaḥ smaraṇe. No kālākāla-vicāra that, "This is aśuddha-kāla, this is śuddha-kāla." Anytime. Kīrtanīyaḥ sadā hariḥ (CC Adi 17.31). You have to chant only Hare Kṛṣṇa.

So this opportunity is there. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu says, etādṛśī tava kṛpā, "My Lord, You have . . . you are so kind, You have given us this chance." Durdaivam īdṛśam ihājani nānurāgaḥ (CC Antya 20.16, Śikṣāṣṭaka 2). "But I am so unfortunate, I have no attraction for this chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa." This is our position. So if you are serious about peace of mind, if you are serious about advancing in spiritual culture, spiritual life, then you must follow what is there in the śāstra and spoken by Kṛṣṇa Himself, spoken by Lord Caitanya Himself. Then life is successful.

Thank you very much.

Devotees: Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)