730808 - Lecture BG 02.08 - London
(Redirected from Lecture on BG 2.8 -- London, August 8, 1973)
Pradyumna: . . . bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. (leads chanting of verse) (Prabhupāda and devotees repeat)
- na hi prapaśyāmi mamāpanudyād
- yac chokam ucchoṣaṇam indriyāṇām
- avāpya bhūmāv asapatnam ṛddhaṁ
- rājyaṁ surāṇām api cādhipatyam
- (BG 2.8)
na—do not; hi—certainly; prapaśyāmi—I see; mama—my; apanudyāt—they can drive away; yat—that; śokam—lamentation; ucchoṣaṇam—drying up; indriyāṇām—of the senses; avāpya—achieving; bhūmau—on the earth; asapatnam—without rival; ṛddham—prosperous; rājyam—kingdom; surāṇām—of the demigods; api—even; ca—also; ādhipatyam—supremacy.
Translation: "I can find no means to drive away this grief which is drying up my senses. I will not be able to destroy it if even if I win an unrivalled kingdom on the earth with sovereignty like the demigods in heaven."
Prabhupāda: Na hi prapaśyāmi mamāpanudyād. This is the position of material existence. We are sometimes in difficulty. Not sometimes; always we are in difficulty, but we call it sometimes, because to get over the difficulty, we make some attempt, and that attempt-making is taken as happiness. Actually there is no happiness. But sometimes, with the hope that "By this attempt, I shall become happy in future . . ." As the so-called scientists are dreaming, "In future, we shall become without death." So many, they are dreaming. But those who are sane person, they say: "Trust no future, however pleasant."
So that is the actual position. Na hi prapaśyāmi mamāpanudyād. Therefore he has approached Kṛṣṇa, śiṣyas te 'ham (BG 2.7): "I . . . now I become Your śiṣya." "Why you have come to Me?" "Because I know nobody else can save me from this dangerous position." This is real sense. Yac chokam ucchoṣaṇam indriyāṇām (BG 2.8). Ucchoṣaṇam. When we are put into great difficulties, it dries up the existence of the senses. No sense enjoyment also can make us happy. Ucchoṣaṇam indriyānām. Here happiness means sense gratification.
Here . . . actually this is not happiness. Real happiness is described in the Bhagavad-gītā: atīndriyam, sukham atyantīkaṁ yat tat atīndriyam (BG 6.21). Real happiness, atyantikam, supreme happiness, is not enjoyed by the senses. Atīndriya: surpassing, transcendental to the senses. That is real happiness. But we have taken happiness as sense enjoyment. So by sense enjoyment, nobody can become happy, because we are in the material existence, and our senses are false senses. Real senses—spiritual senses.
So we have to awaken our spiritual consciousness. Then by spiritual senses we can enjoy. Sukham atyantikaṁ yat atīndriya (BG 6.21). Surpassing these senses. Surpassing these senses means . . . these senses are . . . means covering. Just like I am this body. Actually I'm not this body, I am spirit soul. But this is the covering of my real body, spiritual body. Similarly, spiritual body has spiritual senses. Not that nirākāra. Why nirākāra? It is a commonsense affair. Just like if you have got a hand, a . . . or two, one or two hands, you have got two hands; therefore when the hand is covered by some cloth, the cloth also gets a hand.
Because I have got hand, therefore my dress has got a hand. Because I have got my legs, therefore my covering, dress, has got legs, pant. It is a commonsense affair. Wherefrom this body came? This body's described vāsāṁsi, garments. So garment means it is cut according to the body. That is garment. Not that my body is made according to the garment. It is a commonsense affair. So when I have got hands of my shirt, this is my subtle body or gross body; therefore originally, spiritually, I have got my hands and legs. Otherwise, how it comes? How do you develop?
So originally we are all person, no imperson. Kṛṣṇa also says . . . He'll say that, "These soldiers, these kings, you and Me, My dear Arjuna, it is not that we did not exist in the past. Neither it is that in future we shall cease to exist." So this particular instruction of Kṛṣṇa that, "I, you and all these kings and soldiers who have assembled here, they existed. As we are existing now, individual person, similarly, they existed, individual person. And in future also we shall exist as individual person." So where is the question of imperson? These nonsense impersonalist, voidist. Therefore, the principle is, to understand things in reality, one has to approach Kṛṣṇa as Arjuna has approached, śiṣyas te 'ham (BG 2.7): "Now I am Your disciple. You just teach me." Śādhi māṁ prapannam: "I am surrendering. I am not trying to talk with You on equal level."
To accept guru means whatever guru says, you have to accept. Otherwise, don't make guru. Don't make a fashion. You must be ready. That is called prapannam. Tad viddhi praṇipātena (BG 4.34). You can understand simply by surrendering, not to test guru, "I shall test him how . . . how much he knows." Then what is the use of making guru? No. Therefore Arjuna says that "Besides You, there is nobody else who can actually satisfy me in this perplexed condition." Yac chokam ucchoṣaṇam indriyāṇām (BG 2.8). "My senses are being dried up." Because the superficial senses . . . that are not actually senses.
Real sense is within. Hṛṣīkeṇa hṛṣīkeśa-sevanam (CC Madhya 19.170). We have to serve Kṛṣṇa, Hṛṣīkeśa. Kṛṣṇa is real, and we have to come to that position of reality. Then we can serve Kṛṣṇa, Hṛṣīkeṇa—tat paratvena nirmalam—when our senses are purified. Indriyāṇi parāṇy āhur indriyebhyaḥ paraṁ manaḥ, manasas tu paro buddhir (BG 3.42). These are different stages. This bodily concept of life means senses. But when you transcend these senses, you come to the mental platform. When you transcend the mental platform, you come to the intellectual platform. When you come to the intellectual platform, when you transcend, then you come to the spiritual platform. That is spiritual form.
There are different grades and steps. In the gross bodily platform we demand pratyakṣa-jñānam. Pratyakṣa means direct perception. There are different stages of knowledge: pratyakṣa, aparakṣya . . . pratyakṣa, parokṣa, aparokṣa, adhokṣaja, aprakṛta. These are different stages of knowledge. So knowledge acquired in the bodily platform, direct perception, is not real knowledge.
Therefore we can challenge these scientists, so-called scientists. Their basic principle of knowledge is on the bodily concept of life, pratyakṣa, experimental knowledge. Experimental knowledge means this gross sense perception. That is experimental. Pratyakṣa. Everyone says: "We do not see God." God is not such a subject matter that you can see with this pratyakṣa, direct perception. God's another name is Anubhāva. Anubhāva. Just like in this room we do not see the sun directly, but we know that there is sun. It is daytime. How do you know it? You do not see. But there are other processes by which you can experience. That is called aparokṣa. Pratyakṣa, parokṣa, aparokṣa.
In this way, Kṛṣṇa consciousness means adhokṣaja and aprakṛta: beyond the senses. Therefore, in the Bhagavad-gītā it is said adhokṣaja: where direct perception cannot reach. So where direct perception cannot reach, then how you can perceive anubhāva? That is śrota-panthā. That is śruti. You have to take knowledge from the Vedas. And the Vedic knowledge is explained by guru. Therefore one has to take shelter of Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme guru or His representative. Then all these troubles, means ignorance, can be dissipated. Yac chokam ucchoṣaṇam indriyāṇām (BG 2.8).
So now Kṛṣṇa may say: "There are . . . that's all right. You are, for temporarily, you go on fighting. And when you will get the kingdom, you'll be happy. There is no need of making Me guru. Neither it is . . ." Just like ordinary men, they think so that, "We are earning so much money. What is the use of making a guru? I can understand everything in my own way." And another rascal is, "Yes, yata mata tata patha. Whatever their opinion, that's all right. You can make your own opinion." That is going on. You can make your own opinion to understand God. So all foolish rascals, they're making their own opinion. No. That is not possible.
Therefore Kṛṣṇa . . . Arjuna says, avāpya bhūmāu asaptnam ṛddham (BG 2.8). This is very significant word, sapatni. Sapatni means rival wife, co-wife. If a man has got two, three wives . . . why two, three? Our Lord had 16,100. So this is God. So sapatnya, but there is no competition. You'll find in the statements of all the queens in Kṛṣṇa Book, when they were talking with Kuntī, er, Draupadī, every wife was giving description that how much she was anxious to become maidservant of Kṛṣṇa. Nobody is rival. In the material world, if a man has got more than one wife, there is rivalry. Rivalry.
This example is given in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam that just like we have got our senses, similarly, if somebody has got different wife, so one wife is snatching him that, "You come to my room," another wife is snatching, "You come to my room." So he's perplexed. Similarly, we have got these wives, the senses. The eyes are dragging, "Please come to the cinema." The tongue is dragging, "Please come to the restaurant." The hand is driving somewhere else. The leg is driving somewhere. So our position is like that: the same man, who has got different wives and dragging him different rooms. This is our position.
So why this position? Because these wives are rivals. Here: asapatnyam. If there are many kings to claim one property, there is difficulty. And Arjuna says, avāpya bhūmāv asaptnyam ṛddham (BG 2.8). "Getting riches for which there is no other claimant. I am the only proprietor. Even if I get such riches," rājyam, "such kingdom," surāṇām api cādhipatyam, "Not only kingdom of this world, but also kingdom of higher planetary system . . ." These men are trying to go to the moon planet, but there is . . . that is also another kingdom. Another kingdom.
So that kingdom belongs to the higher living entities, those who are known as demigods. They are very powerful. Just like Indra. Indra is very powerful controller of the rains. He has got the thunderbolt. But people do not believe this, but we believe. What is described in the Vedic literatures . . . not believe. You have to believe. This is fact. Wherefrom this thunderbolt is coming? Who is arranging for the rain? There must be some director. As in government offices or state, there are so many departmental management, similarly, in God's government there must be so many directors, so many officers. They are called demigods. Devarṣi-bhūtāpta-nṛṇāṁ pitṟṇām (SB 11.5.41).
Devatāḥ, the demigods, they are also supplying us by the order of Kṛṣṇa. Just like Indra. Indra is supplying us. Therefore Indra yajña, there is sacrifice for satisfying the different demigods. Kṛṣṇa stopped this Indra yajña, you know, Govardhana. When Nanda Mahārāja was arranging for Indra yajña, Kṛṣṇa said: "My dear father, there is no need of Indra yajña." That means anyone who is Kṛṣṇa conscious, for him, there is no need of any yajña. Especially in this age, Kali-yuga, it is very difficult to perform different types of yajña. That was possible in the Treta-yuga. Kṛte yad dhyāyato viṣṇuṁ tretāyāṁ yajato makhaiḥ (SB 12.3.52). Makhaiḥ means yajña, performing yajña. Yajñārthe karmaṇo 'nyatra loko 'yaṁ karma-bandhanaḥ (BG 3.9).
So these formulas, these direction, nobody is following. It is not possible in this age. Therefore the śāstra injunction is, yajñaiḥ saṅkīrtanair prāyair yajanti hi sumedhasaḥ. Those who have got good brain substance, so instead of bothering with so many things, one performs saṅkīrtana-yajña. These are the statements in the śāstra.
- kṛṣṇa-varṇaṁ tviṣākṛṣṇaṁ
- yajñaiḥ saṅkīrtanaiḥ prāyair
- yajanti hi sumedhasaḥ
- (SB 11.5.32)
So here, in this room especially, kṛṣṇa-varṇaṁ tviṣākṛṣṇam, here is Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He is Kṛṣṇa Himself, but His complexion is akṛṣṇa, "not blackish." Kṛṣṇa-varṇaṁ tviṣa . . . tviṣa means by complexion. Akṛṣṇa. Yellowish. Saṅgopaṅgāstra-pārṣadam: and He's accompanied by His associates, Nityānanda Prabhu, Advaita Prabhu, śrīvāsādi gaura-bhakta-vṛnda. This is the worshipable Deity in this age. Kṛṣṇa-varṇaṁ tviṣākṛṣṇa.
So what is the process of worship? Yajñaiḥ saṅkīrtanair prāyair yajanti hi sumedhasaḥ. This saṅkīrtana-yajña as we are performing before Lord Caitanya, Nityānanda and others, this is the perfect performance of yajña in this age. Otherwise, no other . . . therefore it is becoming successful. This is the only prescribed yajña. Other yajñas, Rājasūya yajña, this yajña, that . . . there are so many yajñas. And sometimes India, they perform so-called yajñas. They collect some money, that's all. It cannot be successful, because there is no yajñic brāhmaṇa.
The yajñic brāhmaṇa is not in existence at the present moment. The yajñic brāhmaṇa used to test how correctly they are pronouncing Vedic mantra. The test was that one animal should be put into the fire, and he would again come with fresh, young body. Then it is tested that the yajña is being performed nicely. The brāhmaṇa, the yajñic brāhmaṇa, they are pronouncing the Veda mantra correctly, this is the test. But where is that brāhmaṇa in this age? Therefore no yajña is recommended. Kalau pañca vivarjayet.
- aśvamedham gavālambhaṁ
- sannyāsaṁ pala-paitṛkam
- devareṇa suta-pitṛ
- kalau pañca vivarjayet
- (CC Adi 17.164)
So there is no yajña in this age. There is no yajñic brāhmaṇa. This is the only yajña: chant Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra and dance in ecstasy. This is the only yajña.
So rājyaṁ surāṇām api cādhipatyam (BG 2.8). Formerly there were many demons who conquered over the kingdom of the demigods. Rājyaṁ surāṇām api cādhipatyam. Just like Hiraṇyakaśipu. He spread his authority even over the kingdom of Indra. Indrāri-vyākulaṁ loke mṛdayanti yuge yuge (SB 1.3.28). Indrāri. Indrāri means the enemy of Indra. Indra is the king of the heavenly planet, and enemy means the demons. The demigods and their enemy, demons. Just like we have got many enemies. Because we are chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, there are so many critics and so many enemies also. They do not like. So this is always. Now the number has increased. Formerly, there were some. Now there are many.
So therefore indrāri-vyākulaṁ lokam. When these demons, the population, demonic population increases, then vyākulaṁ lokam: people become perplexed. Indrāri vyākulaṁ lokaṁ mṛdayanti yuge yuge. So when . . . at that time, Kṛṣṇa comes. Ete cāṁśa-kalāḥ puṁsaḥ kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam (SB 1.3.28). There are list of names of the incarnation of Kṛṣṇa and God, or God. But after mentioning all the names, the Bhāgavata indicates that, "All the names listed herewith, they are partial representation of Kṛṣṇa. But the name Kṛṣṇa is there. He's real, original Personality of . . ." Kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam. And He comes . . . indrāri-vyākulaṁ loke. When people are too much embarrassed by the onslaught of the demons, He comes. And He also confirms. This is śāstra. One śāstra says He comes in this condition. And Kṛṣṇa says: "Yes, yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānir bhavati bhārata tadātmānaṁ sṛjāmy aham (BG 4.7): at that time, I come."
So in this Kali-yuga, people are so much disturbed. Therefore, Kṛṣṇa has come in the form of His name, Hare Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa has come not personally, but by His name. But because Kṛṣṇa is absolute, there is no difference between His name and Himself. Abhinnatvān nāma-nāminoḥ. Nāma-cintāmaṇi kṛṣṇa-caitanya-rasa-vigrahaḥ pūrṇaḥ śuddho nitya-muktaḥ (CC Madhya 17.133). Name is full. As Kṛṣṇa is full, complete, similarly Kṛṣṇa's name is also full, complete. Śuddha. It is not material things. Pūrṇaḥ śuddhaḥ nityaḥ, eternal. As Kṛṣṇa is eternal, the name is also eternal. Pūrṇaḥ śuddhaḥ nitya-muktaḥ. There is no material conception in chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. Abhinnatvān nāma-nāminoḥ. Nāma, the holy name and the Lord, they are abhinna, identical.
So we cannot be happy . . . rājyaṁ surāṇām api cādhipatyam (BG 2.8). Even if we get the kingdom of the demigods, asapatya, without any rival, still we cannot be happy so long we have got material conception of life. It is not possible. That is explained in this verse.
(aside) What is the time?
Thank you very much. That's all. (end)