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721230 - Lecture BG 13.03 - Bombay

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His Divine Grace
A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada

721230BG-BOMBAY - December 30, 1972 - 39:45 Minutes


. . . sarva-kṣetreṣu bhārata
kṣetra-kṣetrajñayor jñānaṁ
yat taj jñānaṁ mataṁ mama
(BG 13.3)

Kṣetra-kṣetrajñayor jñānam. This body and the kṣetra-jña, the owner and the occupier of the body. This subject matter we were discussing last night. It is very easy. I was explaining. Just like this apartment, we are occupying; therefore we are occupier, but we are not the owner. The owner is different person.

Similarly this body, there are two souls: the Supersoul and the individual soul. Jīvātmā, Paramātmā. Brahman, Parambrahman. Jīvātmā is Brahman constitutionally, because mamaivāṁśo jīva-bhūtaḥ (BG 15.7). The living entities, they are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa, God. Therefore qualitatively, what is Kṛṣṇa, the jīva, living entity's also the same thing. There is no difference in quality.

But quantity there is difference. Paramātmā or Bhagavān, brahmeti paramātmeti bhagavān iti śabdyate (SB 1.2.11), all these three features of the Absolute Truth—Brahman, Paramātmā and Bhagavān—the ultimate cause is Bhagavān. As it is confirmed by Kṛṣṇa: brahmaṇaḥ ahaṁ pratiṣṭhā (BG 14.27). The Brahman effulgence, that is standing on Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is the source of Brahman effulgence.

Just like the sun globe is the source of sunshine. Sunshine is very big, all-pervading, and sun appears to be located in some place. But which is important: the sunshine is important or the sun globe is important? Because the sunshine is emanating from the sun it has no independent existence. As soon as the sun disappears, there is no sunshine. So wherever there is sun, there is sunshine. Therefore sunshine is dependent on the sun.

And within the sun, there are cities, palaces, inhabitants. Just like within this planet there are cities, there are roads, there are so many varieties of living condition. Similarly, in every planet there is varieties of living condition. Koṭiṣu aśeṣa-vasudhādi-vibhūti-bhinnam. From Vedic literature we understand, yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi (Bs. 5.40). Yasya prabhā: Govinda's prabhā, Kṛṣṇa's prabhā, illumination. Prabhā means illumination. Just like this bulb and the illumination. The illumination is broadcast all over the room. The bulb is located in a place.

Similarly, Govinda is located in His planet, which is known as Goloka Vṛndāvana. And from there, His bodily rays are being distributed. Sarvaṁ khalv idaṁ brahma (Chāndogya Upaniṣad 3.14.1). That is Brahman, impersonal Brahman. This impersonal Brahman is the bodily effulgence, rays of Kṛṣṇa.

yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi-
koṭiṣv aśeṣa-vasudhādi-vibhūti-bhinnam
tad brahma niṣkalam anantam aśeṣa-bhūtaṁ
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi
(Bs. 5.40)

We do not know actually what is Kṛṣṇa's potency. Paraṁ bhāvam ajānantaḥ. Avajānanti māṁ mūḍhā mānuṣīṁ tanum āśritam, paraṁ bhāvam ajānantaḥ (BG 9.11). People, mūḍhas, without knowing Kṛṣṇa's potencies, how He is working, how His potencies are working . . . parasya brahmaṇaḥ śaktis akhilaṁ jagat. Sarvedam akhilaṁ jagat. In the Viṣṇu Purāṇa it is said: parasya brahmaṇaḥ śaktiḥ.

jyotsnā vistāriṇī yathā
parasya brahmaṇaḥ śaktis
tathedam akhilaṁ jagat
(CC Madhya 20.110)

Eka-stani-sthitasyāgneḥ. Agni, fire . . . just like sometimes we see fire on the beach, but illuminates. Similarly God, Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is situated in His planet, Goloka Vṛndāvana. Goloka eva nivasaty akhilātma-bhūtaḥ (Bs. 5.37). Although He is situated in one place, He can be present everywhere. That is God. We are sitting in this room. We are not sitting in other room. But Kṛṣṇa, He can sit in His Goloka Vṛndāvana, He can dance with the gopīs, but He is everywhere—with His full potencies. That is the difference.

That Kṛṣṇa explained to Arjuna that, "I first of all explained this Bhagavad-gītā to the sun god." Arjuna, to clear the matter, inquired from Him: aparaṁ bhavato janma paraṁ janma vivasvataḥ. So Arjuna knew that Kṛṣṇa can remember forty millions of years ago He spoke to the sun god, but to clear the misconception of others who will later on read Bhagavad-gītā, he inquired the question that "My dear Kṛṣṇa, we are born very recently. How is that You say that You explained this Bhagavad-gītā forty millions of years ago?" In that answer, Kṛṣṇa said that, "Yes, you were also present at that time, when I explained." Because Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, they're constant companions, friends. Pārṣada, eternal associate.

When Kṛṣṇa comes, He comes with His associates. Just like if you invite king, that does not mean the king alone. The king comes along with secretaries, commander, ministers, soldiers, so many things. Similarly, whenever Kṛṣṇa comes . . . yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānir bhavati bhārata, tadātmānaṁ sṛjāmy aham (BG 4.7). At that time, Kṛṣṇa, all His associates also come. So Kṛṣṇa said that, "The difference is that you have forgotten." That is the difference between Kṛṣṇa, God, and ordinary living entity. Kṛṣṇa says, vedāhaṁ samatītāni (BG 7.26). He knows past, present, future.

In the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Vedānta-sūtra, it is said, janmādy asya yataḥ anvayād itarataś ca artheṣu abhijñaḥ (SB 1.1.1). He knows everything, nook and corner, whatever is going on in the nook and corner of His creation. You cannot hide anything from Kṛṣṇa. Sarvasya cāhaṁ hṛdi sanniviṣṭaḥ: "I am situated in everyone's heart." Mattaḥ smṛtir jñānam apohanaṁ ca (BG 15.15).

I may forget, but because Kṛṣṇa knows that I wanted to enjoy something in this material world, He gives me the chance: "Now I give you the opportunity. Enjoy. You wanted a body like this? All right, You take this body. You wanted a body like demigod in the heavenly planet like Indra or Brahmā? All right. Take this body. And if you want . . . you wanted a body like hog, to eat stool, all right, take this body." Ye yathā māṁ prapadyante (BG 4.11). Whatever you want, Kṛṣṇa is witness. Īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe 'rjuna tiṣṭhati (BG 18.61). So He is noting down your desires, and He's giving you opportunity.

Just like if somebody is kind upon me . . . just like our Karttika is very kind. He has given me this room. If I say: "Karttika, this room does not suit me. Give me that room," "Yes, you come in. Yes, you come in." This is a question of love and affection. So Kṛṣṇa is so affectionate to the living entity, whatever he wants, He's giving him: "Come on. Take it."

Therefore we find so many varieties of body. Why so many varieties of body? Because the living entity wants a particular type of apartment. "If this type of apartment would have been given to me I would have been very much happy." "All right. You take this." So . . . but the owner of the apartment is Kṛṣṇa.

Therefore here it is said, kṣetra-jñaṁ cāpi māṁ viddhi sarva-kṣetreṣu bhārata (BG 13.3). So the living entity's the occupier of this body, and the owner is Kṛṣṇa. Therefore Kṛṣṇa's another name is Hṛṣīkeśa. Hṛṣīkeśa. This body means the senses. We are enjoying with this body means we are enjoying the sense gratification. My eyes, to see something very beautiful, so God has given us these eyes, "See nicely, to your heart's content." I want to touch something soft. Kṛṣṇa has given us, "All right, you take opportunity." Eko bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān.

This is the Vedic injunction. That one Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, He is giving us satisfaction, whatever we want to enjoy. He's given us full facility within this material world. But because we do not know what is actual enjoyment, therefore the so-called enjoyment is turning to be distressed condition.

Just like a child, if he's given full freedom, "All right, my dear child, whatever you like to do," so he cannot stay in one kind of engagement—sometimes this, sometimes that, sometimes this, sometimes that. He's not happy. But if he follows the instruction of the parent, "My dear child, you do like this, you eat like . . ." then he's happy. If he takes the freedom in his own hand, it is not possible to become happy. Similarly, Kṛṣṇa has given us a certain type of body. I am the occupier of this body, and I am enjoying. But because my calculation is mistaken . . .

kṛṣṇa bhuliya jīva bhoga vañcha kare
pāśate māyā tāre jāpaṭiyā dhare

As soon as we forget Kṛṣṇa, as soon as we forget that this body is given by Kṛṣṇa, this body should be utilized for the satisfaction of Kṛṣṇa . . . that is real sense. That is real knowledge. If I am given this apartment by somebody to live, I cannot dissatisfy him. Then I'll be asked, "Please vacate." That will be a distressed condition for me.

So why people are suffering? The people are suffering because he have been . . . one has been given all the facilities as he desires, but because that is his own program, it is not satisfied. If he accepts Kṛṣṇa's program, then he'll be satisfied. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. We are asking people to follow Kṛṣṇa's program. Don't plan your own rascal program. You'll never be happy. But we are busy for rascal program. We do not know what is happening as a resultant action.

That means, yajñārthāt karmaṇaḥ anyatra karma-bandhanaḥ (BG 3.9). If you work simply for satisfaction of Kṛṣṇa, that is called yajña. Kṛṣṇa's another name is Yajña. Or Viṣṇu, Yajñeśvara. So yajñārthe karma, that's nice. You are free from any interaction or resultant action of your karma. You are not responsible.

It is very, very easy to understand. Just like in a office, if you work for the satisfaction of the proprietor, then you have no responsibility, either loss or gain, you are free. But if you create your own plan and work for . . . under your own responsibility, then you'll suffer or enjoy.

Actually there is no enjoyment. It is simply suffering. So that is going on. Yajñārthāt karmaṇaḥ anyatra karma-bandhanaḥ. We are becoming bound up. We have got this body according to the karma of my past life, and again I am creating another series of karma. I'll have to accept another body and finish that karma. Again I'm creating another karma. This is going on.

nūnaṁ pramattaḥ kurute vikarma
yad indriya-prītaya āpṛṇoti
na sādhu manye yata ātmano 'yam
asann api kleśada āsa dehaḥ
(SB 5.5.4)

This is the instruction given by Ṛṣabhadeva to His sons. Nūnaṁ pramattaḥ. All these living entities, they have become mad. Mad. We can see very easily, whole world, wherever we . . . big, big cities. They are working just like madmen. So many cars, so many flyways, so many under-subways, and always busy. But kurute vikarma: they are not working very nicely. Vikarma.

Karma, vikarma, akarma. These things are to be understood. Karma does not mean that anything you like, it becomes karma. Just like monkey. Monkey, whatever he does, it is simply mischievous. Therefore sometimes we accuse, "You are an ass. You are monkey." There is activity, but there is no meaning. There is no meaning. Jumping. Monkey, wherever he'll sit, katak-katak-katak. So this kind of activities are not karma. Foolishly, rascaldomly. That is not karma.

Karma means prescribed duties. Prescribed duties. Janma-karma. Guṇa-karma. Cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ (BG 4.13). Guṇa-karma. Cātur-varṇyam. According to Vedic civilization, there are four divisions of karma. Because there are three qualities of the material nature: sattva-guṇa, rajo-guṇa, tamo-guṇa. So when we come to certain type of activities or accept certain type of body, Kṛṣṇa is giving us opportunity. I wanted certain type of body; Kṛṣṇa is giving. Kṛṣṇa is giving through the agency of material nature. Kāraṇaṁ guṇa-saṅgo 'sya sad-asad-janma-yoniṣu (BG 13.22).

Why the living entities having different types of body? Sat asat. Some types of body are nice. Suppose you become demigod, Indra, Candra. That's very nice. But if you become dog or worm in the stool, that is not very nice. But we have to. Why? Kāraṇam . . . the reason is, guṇa-saṅgaḥ asya. As we associate with the guṇas . . . there are three guṇas, qualities of the material nature: sattva-guṇa, rajo-guṇa, tamo-guṇa.

So if we associate with sattva-guṇa, ūrdhvaṁ gacchanti sattva-sthā (BG 14.18), then those who are associating with sattva-guṇa . . . this is very easy to understand. If you become a nice, educated person, good character, you'll be always welcome anywhere, good position. And if you are a thief, rascal, without any education, then your position will be different. So kāraṇaṁ guṇa-saṅgaḥ asya. So if we associate with goodness of the material nature, then we are promoted to the higher planetary system where we get better comforts of life, long duration of life, so many facilities.

Similarly ūrdhvaṁ gacchanti sattva-sthā madhye tiṣṭhanti rājasāḥ (BG 14.18). Those who are associating with the qualities of passion, they remain within this middle planetary system, bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ. And then . . . jaghanya-guṇa-vṛtti-sthā adho gacchanti tāmasāḥ. And if we associate with tāmasika qualities, then we degraded to lower species of life, lower planetary system, dark planetary system. There are many planets, they are dark. As we have got a part of this planet also, six months dark, six months light . . . there are so many different varieties of planets. This is the . . . we are wandering from different planetary systems . . . different . . . this way. Kāraṇaṁ guṇa-saṅgaḥ asya.

And the society, the human society, not the animal society. Kṛṣṇa says: cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma (BG 4.13). Guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ. So according to guṇa, if we are associated with sattva-guṇa, then that class is called brāhmin. If one is associating with rajo-guṇa, that class is called kṣatriya. If one is associating with mixed guṇa, especially rajo-guṇa and tamo-guṇa, that class is called vaiśya, and if one is associating with tamo-guṇa, that class is called śūdra. Cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ.

So in this way, there are varieties of life. But that opportunity is given by Kṛṣṇa. Because He's witness. He is anumantā, upadraṣṭā. He's seeing everything. He is within our heart: īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe arjuna tiṣṭhati (BG 18.61). So in this way we are changing different varieties of life—sometimes human being, sometimes animal, sometimes demigod, sometimes something else; sometimes rich man, sometimes poor man, sometimes brāhmin, sometimes śūdra. In this way, we are wandering in different species of life and different position, in different planets. There are millions and trillions of planets, and there are 8,400,000 species of life. In this way, we are wandering. This is our position.

So this is not very good business. Bhūtvā bhūtvā pralīyate (BG 8.19). We accept . . . just like we have got this now human form of body, Mr. Such-and-such, very good position, very good business, very good . . . but at any moment, I'll be kicked out. At any moment. That is no guarantee. And again I'll have to accept, according to my karma, another body where I may not get this position. I may be . . . I may not be even human being. Because, according to my mentality, I'll get the body. Yaṁ yaṁ vāpi smaran loke tyajaty ante kalevaram (BG 8.6). Our next birth will be settled according to the mental condition at the time of death.

So that mental condition one has to practice. What kind of practice? That is also, how the practice should be done, that is also indicated in the Bhagavad-gītā: yānti deva-vratā devān pitṟn yānti pitṛ-vratāḥ (BG 9.25). They are trying to go to the moon planet, but you cannot go in that way. That is not possible. You cannot go by force in any planet.

You have to prepare yourself. Just in this planet also, if you want to go to some other country, in America, you have to prepare yourself for passport, visa, and what . . . so many papers, P-form, and bank balance, this, that, so many things. You cannot by force that, "I have come to America . . ." The immigration department will immediately check: "Where is your passport? Where is your visa? Where is your bona fide?"

Similarly, if such rules and regulation are here, even in this planet, how you dare to go into the moon planet or other planet by force? This is all childish. Now they have stopped. The American government has stopped financing this foolish excursion, going to the moon planet. They have stopped. They have now come to sense that simply these so-called scientists, they're experi . . . experimenting on public money and wasting.

Long, long ago, when I wrote my book Easy Journey to Other Planet, I described: "This moon planet excursion, simply childish and foolishness." And about two, three years ago, in San Francisco the press reporters asked my opinion about the moon, moon planet. So I told them: "It is simply waste of time and money." Now, now it is happening. Long, long ago, I said this.

This is not possible. Although there are innumerable planets, but even if you go to the moon planet, your problem is not solved. What is the benefit? If you . . . suppose if you go to moon planet. How your problem is solved? The real problem is that I am forced to accept different types of body. Janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi (BG 13.9). And as soon as I accept body, I have to be under the tribulation of material nature.

That was advised by Ṛṣabhadeva: nūnaṁ pramattaḥ kurute vikarm. All these foolish rascals, being mad, they're acting against the laws of nature. Vikarma. Vikarma means against the laws of nature. That is vikarma. Karma means prescribed duties, and akarma means doing something which will have no effect.

Three things are there: karma, vikarma, akarma. Karma means prescribed duties. If you want . . . just like you want to do business, you must do according to the rules and regulation, license of the government. Then you make profit, be happy. That's another thing. But if you act vikarma, against the rules and regulation of the state, you commit theft or this or that, then you'll suffer. Vikarma.

And akarma means you act in such a way that you become liberated. Akarma. You are not bound up. That akarma is yajña, yajñārthāt karmaṇaḥ anyatra karma-bandhanaḥ (BG 3.9). If you act for Viṣṇu or Kṛṣṇa, then you are not, I mean to say, liable of the responsibilities of karma. Because you are doing everything for Kṛṣṇa. Just like Arjuna did. Arjuna was thinking that "If I kill my grandfather, the other side, then I shall be merged into the sinful activities. He's my superior. He's my guru. And he's my . . ." In this way, he was thinking. Actually it was so. So he was declining to fight. Because that was karma. But when he decided to fight on the order of Kṛṣṇa, that is not karma. That if there is any sin, that is . . . it may be transferred to Kṛṣṇa.

Just like if you kill a . . . some animal with your stick, the stick is not responsible; you are responsible. Similarly, if I become a stick and instrument in the hands of Kṛṣṇa, then I am not responsible for any karma. Otherwise, I am responsible.

Just like a soldier, his business is killing by the order of the state. He's killing so many persons, and he's getting recognition, medal, gold medal. And as soon as he comes home, if he kills one person, he'll be hanged. He can say: "My dear sir, I killed so many persons in the battlefield. I was awarded gold medal. Now I have killed only one person. Why you are hanging me?" Because you have done for your own sense gratification. And so many soldiers, it mean, men, you kill in the battlefield, that was the order of the state.

This is same position. Yajñārthe means to act on the order of the Supreme. That is called yajña. Anything which you act for satisfaction of the Supreme, that is called yajña. Yajñārthe karmaṇo 'nyatra. Just like in the Viṣṇu Purāṇa it is said:

puruṣeṇa paraḥ pumān
viṣṇur ārādhyate pumsam
nānyat tat-toṣa-kāraṇam
(CC Madhya 8.58)

This division of varṇāśramabrāhmin, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra—they're all meant for satisfying the Supreme. Varṇāśrama. Varṇāśramācāravatā. Those who are strictly following the rules and regulations of the varṇa and āśrama, brāhmin, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra, brahmacārī, gṛhastha, vānaprastha, sannyāsa . . . these are varṇa and āśrama.

So this Vedic civilization is meant for, I mean to say, training the whole people in such a way that they'll be engaged in the performance of yajña. That is called yajña, yajñārthe karma. So that either he acts as a śūdra or either he acts as a brāhmin, it doesn't matter. The real aim is to satisfy the Supreme. This is very easy. Now, there are so many grades of officer in a big establishment—either the manager or the orderly or the servant. Because the whole thing is to satisfy the supreme authority of the office, everything is all right.

Similarly, according to the capacity, one is ordinary servant, one is manager, one is clerk, one is this and that. That . . . that's all right. Similarly, according to our particular quality, one may be a brāhmin, one may be a kṣatriya, one may be a śūdra, or vaiśya. It doesn't matter. But the whole society, if they are engaged in satisfying Kṛṣṇa, that is perfection. The Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is not that we are asking everyone to become a sannyāsī like me and give up everything. No. That is not our program. You act as a brāhmin, as a kṣatriya or a vaiśya or a śūdra. It doesn't matter. But you try to satisfy Kṛṣṇa. That is the program.

That is enjoined in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam: ataḥ pumbhiḥ . . . in the Naimiṣāraṇya meeting, great meeting of great saintly persons and brāhmins, and Sūta Gosvāmī was president. He was speaking. And he said, ataḥ pumbhir dvija-śreṣṭhāḥ (SB 1.2.13): "You all people, assembled here, you are the best of the brāhmins." Dvija-śreṣṭhāḥ. "My dear dvija-śreṣṭhāḥ." The ordinary . . . not ordinary men. Ataḥ pumbhir dvija-śreṣṭhā varṇāśrama-vibhāgaśaḥ. He's referring to that, varṇāśrama. You cannot . . . if you want to, if you want to maintain, keep the perfect human civilization, then you must maintain this varṇāśrama. Otherwise, there will be chaos.

You have to adjust. Nobody's lower. Nobody's higher. Just like in my body. My, I have got head. I have got my leg. Leg may be less important than the head, but everything is important in the service of the body, whole body. Simply head, there is no leg: you cannot work. Suppose that you have got good brain, but you have leg . . . there is no leg. Andha-paṅgu-nyāya. Then you have to take help from others. So yajñārthe karma. The brāhmin, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra, brahmacārī, gṛhastha, vānaprastha—everyone should be engaged in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Then the society will be perfect. Otherwise, there will be chaos.

Otherwise there be chaos, and that is the position at the present moment. People are not happy, although there is enough money in Western countries, enough enjoyable things. And we see in other countries like Australia and Africa, there is enough potency of producing food and grains and milk. So this rascal proposition that population has increased, there is scarcity of . . . these are all rascal proposition. God has enough potency to give you ten times food you want. But because we have created chaos in the world, without following the Kṛṣṇa consciousness there is trouble.

So this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is all-round solution, overall solution of all problems. Therefore our request is . . . those who are actually leaders, thoughtful, they should take this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement very seriously, study its philosophy, and try to spread it, as far as possible, according to his own capacity.

Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (break) (end)