740408 - Lecture BG 04.19 - Bombay
(Redirected from Lecture on BG 4.19 -- Bombay, April 8, 1974)
Pradyumna: (leads chanting of verse) (Prabhupāda and devotees repeat)
Prabhupāda: (aside simultaneously) You also. You were asking.
- yasya sarve samārambhāḥ
- tam āhuḥ paṇḍitaṁ budhāḥ
- (BG 4.19)
Prabhupāda: tam āhuḥ paṇḍitaṁ budhāḥ.
Translation: "One is understood to be in full knowledge whose every act is devoid of desire for sense gratification. He is said by sages to be a worker whose fruitive action is burned up by the fire of perfect knowledge."
- yasya sarve samārambhāḥ
- tam āhuḥ paṇḍitaṁ budhāḥ
- (BG 4.19)
Paṇḍita, paṇḍita means one who knows. Generally, in India the learned brahmins are called "Panditjī." Brāhmaṇa's honorable, I mean to say, title is "Panditjī." And vaiśya's honorable title: "Sethjī." Panditjī, Sethjī. Even the śūdras, they are given some honor, "Choudhuri." This is Indian system. Everyone is given some honor. Especially in upper India, the brahmins, even at the present moment, they are addressed as Panditjī. And the kṣatriyas, they are addressed as "Thakur Saheb". And vaiśyas, they are addressed as Sethjī, and the śūdras, they're addressed as Choudhurijī. They're also given some honor. This was the system of Indian life. Hindus, Muhammadans, they used to live very peacefully. It is not a fact that Muhammadans were always aggressive. Otherwise, how they could rule over India for eight hundred years? The Britishers could not rule even two hundred years. But they ruled over India eight hundred years. Only due to Aurangzeb's policy, the Mogul empire dismantled.
Anyway, so, yasya sarve samārambhāḥ. Samārambhāḥ means all attempts. Yasya sarve samārambhāḥ kāma-saṅkalpa-varjitāḥ. We want to do something to enjoy the fruit. We do some business with a desire, "The profit I shall enjoy." We live in family life. The desire is that . . . everyone is trying to satisfy his senses, especially in this age. Dāmpatye ratir eva hi. In the śāstra it is said, dāmpatye, means husband and wife relationship, will exist in this age of Kali only on the point of sex life. If there is disturbance in sex life, there is divorce. So kāma is there. In every samārambhāḥ, in every attempt, the lust, lusty desire, is there. In agreement, businessmen doing some business, the agreement, everyone is thinking, each party is thinking, "How much favorable it has become in my side." That is . . . I want to cheat you. You want to cheat me. I am dictating, "This agreement should be like this." That means most favorable for my sense gratification. And you are dictating, "It should be like this."
We are talking also on that spirit, "My sense gratification." Kṛṣṇa says something. That is not wanted. My so-called teacher or ācārya . . . "There are different ācāryas." No. There cannot be different ācāryas. Ācārya is one. As Kṛṣṇa said in this chapter:
- evaṁ paramparā-prāptam
- imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ
- sa kāleneha . . .
- yogo naṣṭaḥ parantapa
- (BG 4.2)
Ācārya means one who is speaking exactly the same instruction as Kṛṣṇa has given. That is ācārya. Not ācārya . . . everyone becomes ācārya, "In my opinion it is like . . ." Who are you? If you have got any opinion, then you write your own book. Why do you touch Bhagavad-gītā? Because Bhagavad-gītā is very well known book all over the world, these rascals take advantage of Bhagavad-gītā and interpret it in their own way. That is not ācārya. Ācārya means, as Kṛṣṇa says that, "Millions of years ago I spoke this Bhagavad-gītā . . ." Imaṁ vivasvate yogaṁ proktavān aham avyayam, vivasvān (BG 4.1). "I spoke to the sun-god millions and millions of years ago." Vivasvān manave prāha manur ikṣvākave 'bravīt. Manu . . . If you simply calculate the age of Manu, it becomes millions and trillions of years. So before that. Because Vivasvān spoke to Manu. So Manu's age we cannot calculate. Before that.
So this is the paramparā system. Kṛṣṇa said to the sun-god, Vivasvān. Vivasvān exactly transferred the message to Manu. Manu transferred the message to Mahārāja Ikṣvāku. Mahārāja Ikṣvāku is the first king of the sun dynasty, sūrya-vaṁśa, kṣatriya, the forefather of the dynasty where Rāmacandra, Lord Rāmacandra, appeared. So the . . . that is ācārya. So we have to accept. At the present moment the ācārya, Kṛṣṇa, is instructing Arjuna. So Arjuna is ācārya. One who is speaking exactly like Arjuna, he's ācārya. Not that one is speaking nonsense according to his own opinion. What is he? What is his value? We are all defective. We cannot give our opinion. That is the disagreement with our preaching and others'. We are preaching that nobody can give opinion on the Bhagavad-gītā if he does not come in the disciplic succession as it is spoken by Kṛṣṇa. Evaṁ paramparā-prāptam (BG 4.2). Otherwise it is naṣṭaḥ. Sa kāleneha yogo naṣṭaḥ parantapa. It is lost.
So kāma, this kāma, lusty. "I am very learned scholar. I can give my opinion on the Bhagavad-gītā. I can translate it in a different way. I can screw out some meaning by jugglery of words, grammatical jugglery." Du-kṛn-karaṇe. Śaṅkarācārya has therefore decried, nahi nahi rakṣati du-kṛn-karaṇe. By the Sanskrit grammatical pratyaya, du-pratyaya, kṛn-pratyaya, and you change the meaning . . . that will not save you.
- bhaja govindaṁ bhaja govindaṁ
- bhaja govindaṁ mūḍha-mate
- prāpte sannihite kāle
- nahi nahi rakṣati du-kṛn-karaṇe
"This grammatical jugglery will not save you. Just bhaja govindam." Govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi. That is wanted.
So kāma-rāga-vivarjitāḥ. Yasya sarve samārambhāḥ. You can act. We must always remember, this acting has begun . . . cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ (BG 4.13). First of all, the acting should begin according to guṇa and karma. Not that everything will be done by everyone. No. Suppose if I want to do some engineering work. That is not possible for me. I must take help of an engineer. But if one wants to understand something about Bhagavad-gītā, about the spiritual movement, he may consult me. Therefore, the society must be divided into four divisions. Cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ (BG 4.13). There must be a class of men very intelligent, brahminical class. They should also work just like brāhmaṇa. The kṣatriya, they should work just like kṣatriya, because there will be some violence, kṣat. So one who defends or protects from injury, that person also should be there in the society, kṣatriya. So on this basis the society must be divided. But at the present moment, because everything is lost, now simply śūdras are there, therefore the common medicine is prescribed:
- harer nāma harer nāma
- harer nāmaiva kevalam
- kalau nāsty eva nāsty eva
- nāsty eva gatir anyathā
- (CC Adi 17.21)
Because the idea is how to become kāma-rāga-vivarjitāḥ. Kāma-rāga-vivarjitāḥ . . . kāma-saṅkalpa-vivarjitāḥ. That is real knowledge. Everyone is lusty. He wants to satisfy his senses. So ātma-prabhavam īśvaram. The example I have repeatedly given you, that the senses should be engaged for the satisfaction of the Supreme. That is kāma-rāga-vivarjitāḥ, or kāma-saṅkalpa-vivarjitāḥ. The senses should not be used for the satisfaction of senses. The senses should be used for the satisfaction of Kṛṣṇa. That is kāma-saṅkalpa-varjitāḥ (BG 4.19).
Yasya sarve samārambhāḥ. A man is engaged in devotional service. Might be he's going to the municipal office, he's going to the income tax office. Because when we have to remain within this material world, we have to abide by the laws of the state. We want to construct the temple. We must have to take sanction from the municipality, or higher authorities. Or, if we want cement, we have to go to the authority. There are so many. But it must be kāma-saṅkalpa-varjitāḥ. Therefore it looks like one that, "This Mr. Such-and-such devotee is going to the municipal officer, and other person is going also the municipal office for getting sanction of a skyscraper building." Although they are apparently one, but no, this man who has gone for Kṛṣṇa's sake, he's kāma-saṅkalpa-varjitāḥ. He has not gone to the municipal office for sanction of the temple for his personal benefit. That is wanted.
So we can do anything—of course, according to the plan, cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭam (BG 4.13). We do. We act as a brahmin, we act as a kṣatriya, we act as a śūdra. It doesn't matter. But it must be kāma-rāga-vivarjitāḥ, kāma-saṅkalpa-vivarjitāḥ, not for personal interest. So without personal interest, who can act? Nobody will act. Now this Communist country . . . the Communist country, because they have killed personal interest, it is actually not developing. Not developing. I have seen it, personally. Because, as it is said in English proverb, "Proprietorship turns sand into gold." If I . . . one has got the sense that "I am the proprietor of this business," so he works very hard, and he turns sand into gold. There are many examples. A poor man starts . . . but because by his endeavor . . . now here, in this country also, nowadays this endeavor is being decreased because the . . . they're afraid of the income tax. They're thinking, "We shall earn so much with hard labor, and the government, from the income tax department, they will take ninety-eight percent. So why shall I work?" So this is economic impetus.
There is one Mr. Marshall, economist. Marshall's economics we read in our economic class. He said that, "Family affection is the impetus for economic development." He said that. That is fact. Therefore, according to Vedic system, a boy is married with a girl, and the husband and wife, as soon as . . . this is psychological. As soon as they become husband and wife . . . because the boy is searching after woman, and the girl is also searching after man. So they must be given. This is psychology. There is no question of so-called love. The, the former system of marriage, the father and mother selects one boy and one girl, and by force they are married. But the economic position becomes very nice. Family affection. That is also stated in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Puṁsaḥ striyā mithunī-bhāvam etaṁ tayor mitho hṛdaya-granthim āhuḥ (SB 5.5.8). These are very psychological. A married man becomes responsible, because there is affection, family affection. And one who is not married, he's irresponsible, because there is no family affection. That is the basic defect of the present society. There is no family affection. They are all irresponsible.
So this psychology's there, lusty desire. That is the basic principle of material life. So when one becomes free from this lusty desire, kāma-saṅkalpa-varjitāḥ, that is spiritual life. That is spiritual life. Very simple thing. The material life means the basic principle is lusty desire. Everyone is working so hard because the basic principle is lusty desire, "I shall enjoy like this. My wife shall enjoy. My children shall enjoy. My grandchildren shall enjoy. My countrymen will enjoy. My society will enjoy." This is the basic principle of whole modern civilization—expanding the selfish interest. Selfish interest means my sense gratification. And expand more, "My family's sense gratification." Expand it more, "My society's, my nation's . . ." This way. But this is material life. When one becomes this kāma-saṅkalpa-vivarjitāḥ, that is spiritual life. That is spiritual life. Therefore it is described here: yasya sarve samārambhāḥ. The samā . . . any attempt.
Now, this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, there is attempt. We are also after land. We are also after building. We are also after money. We are also after business organization, either a Sky . . . what is that? Our? Spiritual Sky. Or this book department, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. Apparently, it is business. We also want money. We also land. We want also building. We want also men. Then where is the difference between the ordinary person and Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement? This is the difference, kāma-saṅkalpa-varjitāḥ. Everyone has sacrificed his life for Kṛṣṇa. Personal? There is no personal interest. These boys, these girls are working day and night, hard, in my direction, but I don't pay them. Neither they expect any payment. Otherwise this movement would not have proceeded so quickly. There is no question of payment. Kāma-saṅkalpa-varjitāḥ. Everyone is engaged for satisfaction of Kṛṣṇa.
So that is explained here: yasya sarve . . . factually, we are using everything. We have got everything. We have got cars. We have got microphone. We have got typewriter. We have got Dictaphone. What we have not? Just like ordinary men, we have got everything. We have got office. We have got lawyer. We have got engineer. What is not? Everything is there. But the point is kāma-saṅkalpa-varjitāḥ. There is no lusty desire that "I shall become happy, my wife shall become happy," or "My children shall become happy, my nation shall become happy, my community shall become happy." Extend. This extension has no meaning. This is all kāma-saṅkalpa-sahitāḥ. Suppose a person is working very hard for his nation and trying to drive away others, non-national. But that is not kāma-saṅkalpa-varjitāḥ. That is kāma-saṅkalpa-sahitāḥ. So therefore that is material. Superficially, it may be very philanthropic, sacrificing. Now, suppose one man is stealing for his personal benefit, and the same stealing, if he steals for his family, is he not a thief? Either he steals for his family or for himself, stealing is stealing. But nowadays it is going on that if you steal for greater selfish interest, it is not stealing. No. That greater, the greatest selfish interest is Kṛṣṇa. Na te viduḥ svārtha-gatiṁ hi viṣṇum (SB 7.5.31). So you make it greater. That's all right. But where is the point where the greatness will be limited or there will end? That is Kṛṣṇa.
- bahūnāṁ janmanām ante
- jñānavān māṁ prapadyate
- vāsudevaḥ sarvam iti
- sa mahātmā su-durlabhaḥ
- (BG 7.19)
So if we come to that point, to understand that we are self-interested, personally or extended personally—family-wise, community-wise, society-wise, nation-wise—they are still polluted with the material desires. But when the same extension comes to the Supreme, Kṛṣṇa, that is kāma-saṅkalpa-varjitāḥ. Otherwise it is kāma-saṅkalpa-sahitāḥ, with kāma-saṅkalpa.
Therefore bhakti means anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyam (Brs. 1.1.11). Rūpa Gosvāmī says, anyābhilāṣa-śūnyam. Because these are all anya abhilāṣa. Except to serve Kṛṣṇa, any desire is desire. That is material desire. And sometimes they want to negate this desire—desireless. One of my students just spoken that . . . somebody said that, "To become desireless is the highest perfection." So he replied that, "Desireless, that is also desire." You are thinking that, "I shall become desireless." So this is also a desire. So how you become desireless? Very nice argument he gave. Our Caitya-guru gave it. I was very much pleased. It is not possible to become desireless. This is foolishness, to give up desire. You cannot give up desire. That is not . . . if you give up desire, then you are a dead man. A stone has no desire. Do you like to become a stonelike? No. Desire cannot be less. That is not possible. Anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyam (CC Madhya 19.167). Abhilāṣitā-śūnyam, anya. Anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyam: "Except Kṛṣṇa, any other desires should be given up." That is anyābhilāṣa. Abhilāṣitā-śūnyam, the ācārya, Rūpa Gosvāmī, does not say. That is not possible. I must have desires, because I am living entity. I am not a stone. I am not a wood. So this is a false philosophy, to become desireless. That is not possible.
To become desireless—other desires. Other means except Kṛṣṇa. Anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyaṁ jñāna-karmādy-anāvṛtam (CC Madhya 19.167). Uncovered, coverless, without any covering of jñāna and karma. Jñāna and karma. Because here it is said, jñānāgni-dagdha-karmāṇi. One is engaged in the material activities when he's not enlightened by knowledge. Therefore they are called mūḍhas. The karmīs who are working for sense gratification day and night, they have been called as mūḍhas. Mūḍhas means asses. The ass works very hard, the washerman's cloth loaded on the back of the ass to the greatest extent so that he cannot move. But what does he get in exchange? A morsel of grass, that's all. He knows it, that in exchange of . . . "None of the cloth belongs to me still, I am carrying so much burden, and in exchange I'll get a few pieces of grass," which is available anywhere. But he's thinking that, "This washerman will supply me grass." This is ass, ass mentality. Therefore they are called mūḍha, all the karmīs.
In Bombay there are so many karmīs working very, very hard. If you want to see him, "No, sir. No, I have no time." What you are doing? "Working." What are you eating? "Four cāpāṭis. That's all." Why four cāpāṭis you are working so hard? "No, for my next generation," or "For my son, for my grandson, for my this, for my that, and . . ." This is called mūḍha. Therefore it is said, jñānāgni-dagdha-karmāṇam. When one understands by knowledge that, "I am uselessly working this. I am uselessly working. What is the benefit of this work?" But he has no knowledge. He does not know that everything what he is building in this life, after death, everything will be taken away. Mṛtyuḥ sarva-haraś cāham (BG 10.34). Kṛṣṇa will take away. All your skyscraper building, bank balance, nice family, car and everything—all lost. With the loss of your body, everything is lost. Then you take another body. Then what is the guarantee that you will come into this family again and enjoy your car and building and society and friendship? Where is the guarantee? There is no guarantee. When you accept another body . . . Kṛṣṇa says, tathā dehāntara-prāptiḥ (BG 2.13). You have to change this body, but you do not know. There is no guarantee that you will come into the same nation, same family, same society, how may you desire. Just like one big poet in Bengal, he sung, ei deśete janma āmāra, ei deśete mari. Ei deśete janma. You have taken this birth in this country. That's all right. And you'll die. But where is the guarantee that after death you'll again come in this country? That is not guaranteed. Dehāntara-prāptiḥ. He . . . but this is jñāna.
So unless one is situated on the platform of knowledge, jñānāgni-dagdha-karmāṇam . . . therefore present policy is that, "Engage them in work only, and never mind. There is no need of spiritual education. There is no need of jñāna. You throw them out, then. Now work just like ass. That's all." This is the modern policy of the whole world: engage them. In England and other countries, they want to see that everyone is engaged in working. Then their factories and other things will go on. And if one is engaged in philosophy, jñāna, then the work will stop.
So they do not like this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement anywhere. We are not liked. They are under the impression that we'll make the people escaping. But that is not the fact. We are actually distributing knowledge. Jñānāgni-dagdha-karmāṇam. When one becomes actually on the platform of knowledge, then he does not work like an ass. But people want that people should work like ass. That is the difficulty. That is . . . there is a clash between our movement and others. They want to make all people to work hard like an ass, and we say that they . . . There is a difference of philosophy. Nāyaṁ deho deha-bhājāṁ nṛloke kaṣṭān kāmān arhate viḍ-bhujāṁ ye (SB 5.5.1). We are preaching the . . . nāyaṁ deha nṛloke, in the human society, this is not meant for working so hard, like an ass, like an hog, simply for sense gratification. This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness philosophy. Nāyaṁ deho deha-bhājāṁ nṛloke.
Deha-bhājām. Deha-bhājām means one who has got this material body. So there are 8,400,000's of forms, material body. It is not spoken for them, but nṛloke, one who has got this body, material body, as human being, for him it is not good to work so hard like hogs and pigs and asses simply for sense gratification, kaṣṭān kāmān. Why one should? You should be peaceful. You should be sober. You should think what is the value of life. And you be satisfied with nature's gift. Nature will give you so many things. Kṛṣṇa has given you food grains, fruits, milk. You don't require to eat meat and open slaughterhouses. Be satisfied with, as Kṛṣṇa is satisfied: patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ yo me bhaktyā prayacchati (BG 9.26). Kṛṣṇa does not say, ḍima mācha māṁsa. No. Kṛṣṇa says, patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ. And one who is Kṛṣṇa conscious, he should simply take what is taken by Kṛṣṇa. That is the meaning of distribution of prasādam. Why? Kṛṣṇa has given you everything—so many varieties of fruits, so many varieties of grains, and sufficient milk. You can make milk products, so many. This is Vedic civilization, that be satisfied.
And you can produce food anywhere. Anywhere, any part. You haven't got to go from hundred miles away from Bombay city by the electric train hanging, full, for earning your livelihood. This is not civilization, making all people like asses. Kaṣṭān kāmān arhate viḍ-bhujāṁ ye. This is the philosophy of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Nāyaṁ deho deha-bhājāṁ nṛloke kaṣṭān kāmān arhate . . . (SB 5.5.1). Why you should? Kāma. We require to fulfill our . . . some desires. That desire means we have to eat something, we have to sleep somewhere, we must have a little sense gratification also, and we must defend. That is allowed. That is allowed. But why kaṣṭān kāmān? Why you should work so hard to satisfy your senses like the dogs, hogs and other animals?
That is the Kṛṣṇa philosophy. Be satisfied, plain living and high thinking. That is required. If you miss this opportunity of human life and spoil it like dogs and hogs, then you lose the opportunity. This is the . . . bahūnāṁ sambhavānte. Prahlāda Mahārāja says, kaumāra ācaret prājño dharmān bhāgavatān . . . durlabhaṁ mānuṣaṁ janma (SB 7.6.1). A child should be taught Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Kaumāra ācaret prājño dharmān bhāgavatān . . . dharmān . . . generally . . . (break) . . . kāma. Kāma means personal sense satisfaction, kāma. That may be extended, society-wise or family-wise or nation-wise, but that is kāma-saṅkalpa. But it should be extended to the topmost point, Kṛṣṇa. Aham ādir hi devānām (BG 10.2). Mattaḥ sarvaṁ pravartate. Then it will be kāma-saṅkalpa-varjitāḥ. And jñānāgni. Jñānāgni-dagdha-karmāṇaṁ tam āhuḥ paṇḍitaṁ budhāḥ. He is paṇḍita, he is learned. One who is working for Kṛṣṇa, not for sense gratification, he's learned person. Tam āhuḥ paṇḍitaṁ. Budhāḥ. Who will say paṇḍita? So this is paṇḍita. And Cāṇakya Paṇḍita also gave this description:
- mātṛvat para-dāreṣu
- para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat
- ātmavat sarva-bhūteṣu
- yaḥ paśyati sa paṇḍitaḥ
Paṇḍita does not require any so-called education. Real education: paṇḍitāḥ sama-darśinaḥ (BG 5.18). There is another place, here is also this paṇḍita. And Cāṇakya Paṇḍita also says paṇḍita. Who is paṇḍita? According to the material calculation, as Cāṇakya Paṇḍita says that, "That man is paṇḍita." Who? Mātṛvat para-dāreṣu: "One who sees every woman as mother." Para-dāreṣu: "Except his wife." Except his wife. If he sees everyone as mother . . . and, mātṛvat para-dāreṣu para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat: and others' money just like kula, garbage, not to touch. Para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat. Just like there are so many pebbles on the street. Who is going to catch it or collect it? Similarly, others' money should be like that. Mā gṛdhaḥ kasya svid dhanam. Be satisfied what God has given you. This is paṇḍita. Not that making plan, "I am big lawyer, making plan how to grab others' money." That is not paṇḍita. How to entice others' woman—it doesn't matter. Even though relationship is very . . . so no, this is not . . . nobody's paṇḍita, even from material point. Mātṛvat para-dāreṣu para-dravyeṣu loṣ . . . another paṇḍita, paṇḍita:
- brāhmaṇe gavi hastini
- śuni caiva śva-pāke ca
- paṇḍitāḥ sama-darśinaḥ
- (BG 5.18)
That is paṇḍita. And another paṇḍita here: jñānāgni-dagdha-karmāṇaṁ tam āhuḥ paṇḍitaṁ budhāḥ. These are the paṇḍitas. Not B.A.C, D.H.C., and doing all nonsense. That is not paṇḍita.
So this is Vedic civilization. Don't be carried away. Take lesson from Bhagavad-gītā and make your life successful. That is the propaganda of this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. Don't become cats and dogs and advertise yourself as paṇḍita. These are the definition of paṇḍita. Either take you from Cāṇakya Paṇḍita's materialistic point of view, moral lessons, or spiritual lessons from Bhagavad-gītā, the definition of paṇḍita is different from the so-called paṇḍitas, having . . . that is . . . they are called māyayāpahṛta-jñānāḥ. Although they have got degrees of the universities, but actually, knowledge is taken away by māyā.
- na māṁ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ
- prapadyante narādhamāḥ
- āsuraṁ bhāvam . . .
- (BG 7.15)
If one becomes atheist, then his knowledge has no value. Because real knowledge is . . . as Kṛṣṇa says, bahūnāṁ janmanām ante jñānavān māṁ prapadyate (BG 7.19). This is real knowledge.
So somehow or other, try to understand Kṛṣṇa. Then you actually become paṇḍita, learned, and your life is successful.
Thank you very much.
Devotees: Jaya Prabhupāda. (end)