730902 - Lecture BG 02.32 - London
(Redirected from Lecture on BG 2.32 -- London, September 2, 1973)
Pradyumna: Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. (leads chanting of verse etc.) (Prabhupāda and devotees repeat)
- yadṛcchayā copapannaṁ
- svarga-dvāram apāvṛtam
- sukhinaḥ kṣatriyāḥ pārtha
- labhante yuddham īdṛśam
- (BG 2.32)
"O Pārtha, happy are the kṣatriyas to whom such fighting opportunities come unsought, opening for them the doors of the heavenly planets."
Prabhupāda: So, it is the duty of the kṣatriya to see that everyone is executing his proper professional or occupational duty. We have discussed this point yesterday, sva-dharmam api cāvekṣya (BG 2.31). Sva-dharma. This is very important. At the present moment there is no sva-dharma. Therefore according to Vedic injunctions, dharmeṇa hīna paśubhiḥ samānāḥ (Hitopadeśa 25): one who is not executing his own religious principle, he is no better than the animals.
So who will see that everyone engaged in discharging his occupational duty? Sva-dharmam means occupational duty. It is the duty of the king, government. In the beginning it is the duty of the father, of the teacher, to train children to the principles of sva-dharma. A brāhmaṇa, it is the duty of the brāhmaṇa to see that his son is being properly trained up as a brāhmaṇa: satyaṁ śamo damas titikṣā ārjavaṁ brahma-karma svabhāva-jam (BG 18.42). Everything is there. The brāhmaṇas should be taught how to become truthful, first of all. A brāhmaṇa will never speak lie, at any cost. It is stated that even if his enemy inquires something confidential from him, he'll say: "Yes, this is my position." This is truthfulness. He'll not even, I mean to say, guile against his enemy. He should be truthful. Even kṣatriyas, they are also truthful men. Truthfulness is so valuable. That makes one powerful brāhmaṇa. Satyam.
There is an instance how a brāhmaṇa is recognized: Satyakam Jabala Upaniṣad. This Satyakam went to Gautama Muni: "Sir, please make me your disciple." So according to Vedic principle, without becoming a brāhmaṇa he cannot be accepted as disciple. Without becoming brāhmaṇa. In our Society also, we do not accept a disciple unless he's brahminically qualified: no meat-eating, no illicit sex, no gambling, no intoxication. These are brahminical. Unless one is free from the sinful activities, how he can become a brāhmaṇa? Brāhmaṇa means śuci. And the others, they are called kṛpaṇa, or muci. Śuci means always cleansed. Internally . . .
Bāhyābhyantara-śuciḥ: inside and outside. Outside by taking bath, washing with soda, soap, or if soda, soap is not available, with earth or oil. That is external cleanliness. Similarly, internal cleanliness, one must rise early in the morning, evacuate, then after taking bath must chant Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, see the maṅgala-ārātrika. In this way one has to purify himself internally and externally. God consciousness is not so cheap thing. Yeṣāṁ tv anta-gataṁ pāpaṁ janānāṁ puṇya-karmaṇām (BG 7.28). One who is completely free from all contamination of material modes, anta-gataṁ pāpam, sinful activities, they can, te dvandva-moha-nirmuktā bhajante mām, they can stick to the principle of devotional service. Otherwise, if he's not free from the contamination of sinful life, he may show, make a show of devotion, but that is not actual devotion. Bhaktyābhāsa. That is called bhaktyābhāsa.
So these things should be observed, brāhmaṇa. So brāhmaṇa's duty is to present himself an ideal human being, satyaṁ śamo dama titikṣā. Titikṣā means toleration. "Oh, it is very cold. No, I cannot take bath." No. You must tolerate. You must tolerate. Titikṣā. Ārjavam, simplicity; jñānam, full knowledge; vijñānam, practical application. Jñānaṁ vijñānam āstikyam. Āstikyam means completely convinced of God and his relationship with God. That is called āstikyam. Or full faith in the statement of the Vedas. Whatever Veda says, that's right. Yes. No argument. That is called āstikyam. No argument.
So similarly, kṣatriya. Kṣatriya's duty is, it is, kṣātraṁ dvijatāṁ ca parasparārtham. The brāhmaṇas will examine whether the kṣatriyas are doing their duty nicely. Just like Paraśurāma, when he saw that all the kṣatriyas have become rascals, he wanted to kill them all. You know that. Twenty-one times he killed. Some of the kṣatriyas, they fled from India and they came to this side, in European countries. Therefore origin of the European, they are kṣatriyas. Turkey, Greece, and other countries also, kṣatriya. So it is the duty of the brāhmaṇa to see that kṣatriyas are doing nicely their duty. So similarly, kṣatriyas duty is also to see whether brāhmaṇas are doing their duty.
So kṣatriyas were not needed to see the brāhmaṇas . . . they were so advanced brāhmaṇas that they were beyond examination of the kṣatriyas. But another duty of the kṣatriya is that people are being educated spiritually. That is kṣatriya's duty. Or the king of a kingdom is looking over the citizens, that they are properly being trained up. This is . . . if one king is not properly . . . just like in some states at the present moment. What is called? Secular. Secular means they have meant like that, that "You do all nonsense; we don't care. You pay me tax, that's all, income tax. And you go to hell. It doesn't matter." This is not secular state. Secular state means the state must be very vigilant whether everyone is doing his duty, everyone is employed in his duty; and if everyone is not employed, it is the duty of the government to see. He must be employed. A brāhmaṇa is employed, a kṣatriya is employed, a vaiśya is employed. Otherwise, if they are unemployed, idle brain; then idle brain will be devil's workshop.
That is happening, because everyone is not employed. They have discovered machine, and the machine is working hundred men's work. So actually, a hundred men are unemployed. So the machine has not improved the situation. It has improved the pocket of the capitalist, but it has not improved the condition of the mass of people. No. They are unemployed. Therefore, in the Western countries, because the machine and industry, therefore, now they are producing from the university hippies, unemployed. Thousands and thousands of young boys and girls. Girls are not meant for working outside. Girls are meant for working inside. So the whole thing has topsy-turvied. Why? Because there is no good king. This is the cause.
So the whole Battlefield of Kurukṣetra was arranged by Kṛṣṇa so that these irresponsible rogues, dressed as king, should be all killed. That was the plan of Kṛṣṇa. Just like Duryodhana. Duryodhana, in the dress of a king, he was a rogue. He cheated the Pāṇḍavas by gambling. "You bet your wife. You bet your kingdom." In this way, they were devotees, simple—cheated them. So Kṛṣṇa wanted to see that these cheaters and rogues must be killed. That was His plan. Therefore He said, yadṛcchayā copapannaṁ svarga-dvāram apāvṛtam: "Arjuna, you are hesitating to fight, but it is a great opportunity for you. Because as a kṣatriya, if you kill these cheaters and rogues, that will be a great achievement for you. And even though you cannot kill them, if you die yourself, then the heavenly door is open for you." Because a kṣatriya who dies in the battlefield for the right cause, he goes to the heaven. If he conquers over the enemy, he enjoys the kingdom. And if he dies . . . but the cause must be right. Svarga-dvāram.
- yadṛcchayā copapannaṁ
- svarga-dvāram apāvṛtam
- sukhinaḥ kṣatriyāḥ pārtha
- labhante yuddham īdṛśam
- (BG 2.32)
Yuddham means a political fight.
Nowadays, just like in our India, Pakistan and Hindustan, they are always planning fighting. That is political. That is political. When the Pakistani's government cannot manage . . . nobody is managing nicely, neither Pakistan nor Hindustan, but they divert their attention the religious slogan—"Hindus are our enemies" or "the Pakistan is our enemies." The so-called national slogan. Here also, everywhere. Yasyātma-buddhiḥ kuṇape tri-dhātuke (SB 10.84.13). Here in Europe also the two wars was arranged by the German people; they were envious of the English people. So these wars are not right wars, righteous wars. No. They are play of the diplomats, politicians. They engage. When they cannot manage things very nicely, they engage people into war. That's all. Divert the attention. But war is not meant for that. War is meant for that when people are not properly being trained up by the king of the state, the other king can attack him.
So ideal state means the king must be very responsible. There are many instances. Just like Yudhiṣṭhira Mahārāja, he was a pious king. In Bengali there is a proverb, rājar doṣe rājya naṣṭo . . . ginnir . . . doṣe gṛhastha bhraṣṭa. If the king is not pious, then the whole kingdom is spoiled. Similarly, if the housewife is not good, the whole family is spoiled. Everyone has got this experience. So the king must be very honest, pious, religious. Therefore they are called rājarṣi. Although they are king, but they are just like saintly person. Just like Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira. They were saintly, rājarṣi. Imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ (BG 4.2).
Sometimes we are accused that we go to preach amongst the richer section. The richer section . . . of course, there is no king, but actually this Bhagavad-gītā was meant for the richer section who used to control—the kings. Because if the king is educated nicely in spiritual affair, if he knows what is the purpose of kingdom, what is the purpose of ruling, then all the citizens automatically become religious, purposeful. And if the king is a rascal, the leader is a rascal, naturally all others will follow, and they will become rascals. Therefore in the Bhagavad-gītā, in the Fourth Chapter, you'll find that Kṛṣṇa was teaching, first off, imaṁ vivasvate yogṁ proktavān aham avyayam (BG 4.1). He taught this philosophy to the sun-god. There are two kṣatriya families—sūrya-vaṁśa and candra-vaṁśa. One family's coming from the sun-god, another family's coming from the moon god. So Kṛṣṇa said, because sun was the principal man in the kṣatriya family of sūrya-vaṁśa, so he was taught first.
- imaṁ vivasvate yogaṁ
- proktavān aham avyayam
- vivasvān manave prāha
- manur ikṣvākave 'bravīt
- (BG 4.1)
So Mahārāja Ikṣvāku, the first king of the dynasty in which Lord Rāmacandra took birth, very pious family. So Ikṣvāku Mahārāja. The worship of Lord Rāmacandra began from Mahārāja Ikṣvāku. Mahārāja Ikṣvāku used to worship the Deity of Rāmacandra, Rāma-Sītā. Therefore in their family Lord Rāmacandra appeared. That Deity is still existing in some part of South India. The Deity was being worshiped in the family since Mahārāja Ikṣvāku, and during when Lord Rāmacandra was personally present, this Deity was kept in His bedroom. So one brāhmaṇa, he used to come and see Lord Rāmacandra. Then he would take his . . . break his fasting, breakfast. That was his principle, regulative principle.
So Lord Rāmacandra was absent for a week or so from the kingdom, and the brāhmaṇa did not take even a little water, because he could not see Lord Rāmacandra. Such a devotee. So Lakṣmaṇa informed King Rāmacandra that, "Here is a devotee, brāhmaṇa. You were absent from the kingdom for one week, so he did not take even a drop of water." So Lord Rāmacandra was very much pleased. Then He ordered Lakṣmaṇa that, "You give him that Deity which was being worshiped in our family, now it is stopped." So He delivered that Deity Rāmacandra to the brāhmaṇa that, "When Lord Rāmacandra is absent from the kingdom, you can worship." This is authority.
If you cannot see Kṛṣṇa physically . . . although Kṛṣṇa is present everywhere, but we have no eyes to see Him. Therefore this Deity worship. Deity is not hedonism or idol worship. No. Deity is as good as the original Supreme Personality of Godhead. He's absolute. His form and He is not different. Abhinnatvān nāma-nāminoḥ (CC Madhya 17.133). Abhinna, identical. We are chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa, not that like gramophone. No. We are associating with Kṛṣṇa. Abhinnatvān nāma-nāminoḥ. By chanting Kṛṣṇa's name, Kṛṣṇa is present on your tongue. Unless we realize in that way, then it is the period of nāma-aparādha or nāmābhāsa. Nāmā . . . not nāmābhāsa—nāma-aparādha. This is nāma-aparādha, to consider that the name is different from the person. As we have got experience in the material world that the name is different from the substance. If you want to drink water, simply if you chant "water, water, water," your thirst will not be satisfied. But in spiritual world, the absolute world, the name and the person is the same. Otherwise, why we stress so much on chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa name? Not we; it is in the śāstra.
- harer nāma harer nāma harer nāma eva kevalam
- kalau nāsty eva nāsty eva nāsty eva gatir anyathā
- (CC Adi 17.21)
This is śāstric.
But there are many rascals, they give the example that, "Chanting, what is the benefit? I can chant 'soda water, soda water,' like that." But they do not know, rascals, what is the śāstra's injunction. And actually, it is happening. But they are blind. How these European, American boys and girls, simply by chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra they are becoming purified? How? Unless there is spiritual potency in chanting, how they are becoming so purified? Even in . . . so-called Hindus, they are surprised that, "How these Europeans and Americans, they have become so nice devotee?" The chanting of Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra has got the power, has got the potency.
- ceto-darpaṇa-mārjanaṁ bhava-mahā-dāvāgni-nirvāpaṇaṁ
- śreyaḥ-kairava-candrikā-vitaraṇaṁ vidyā-vadhū-jīvanam
- (CC Antya 20.12)
Everything is there, formula. If we follow the regulative principles, the injunction of the ācāryas or the śāstra, then we get success. Otherwise, we may simply labor unnecessarily, wasting time. Yaḥ śāstra-vidhim utsṛjya vartate kāma-kārataḥ (BG 16.23). That is said in the Bhagavad-gītā. One who does not follow the regulative principle mentioned in the śāstras, śāstra-vidhi—vidhi means regulative principle—yaḥ śāstra-vidhim utsṛjya vartate kāma-kārataḥ, and lives whimsically, as he, whatever he likes . . . and that is sanctioned by some rascal svāmī, that, "Oh, yes, you can do whatever you like." Yato mata tato patha. "You can manufacture your way of religious principle." These things are going on. But actually that will not help us. Śāstra-vidhi, śāstra-vidhi, that must be observed. Yaḥ śāstra-vidhim utsṛjya vartate kāma-kārataḥ na sa siddhim avāpnoti. If one violates the regulative principle mentioned in the śāstra, he'll never get success. Na siddhim sa avāpnoti na sukham, neither happiness. Na sukhaṁ na parāṁ gatim: Then what to speak of going back to home, back to . . .? He'll rot in this material world. So śāstra-vidhim is required.
So here is one śāstra-vidhim from Parāśara-smṛti. Parāśara was the father of Vyāsadeva. He has got his regulative principles. They're also realized souls on Vedic principle. They wrote so many books. In this Parāśara-smṛti it is said, kṣatriyo hi prajā rakṣan śastra . . . śastra-pāṇiḥ pradaṇḍayan. Śastra-pāṇi. The śastra-pāṇiḥ means always with sword in the hand for the benefit of the prajas. He should be so strong. "Oh, you are a thief? You have stolen?" Immediately cut his hand, bās. This one example will stop millions of thieves not to commit stealing. Simply by cutting. Even a hundred years ago this system was prevalent in Kashmir. If a thief is arrested and if he's proved that he has stolen, immediately king will cut off his two hands. Bās, finished. No court witness. And it will go for ten years to find out whether he has stolen. This is government.
Therefore the injunction is, kṣatriya hi prajā rakṣan śastra-pāṇiḥ pradaṇḍayan. Always must be with stick. Nirjitya para-sainyādi dharmeṇa pālayet. This is dharma. In the Manu-smṛti it is said that if a man, a murderer, one man has killed another man . . . why man? Even animal, he's a murderer. Now murdering is no offense. They are killing daily so many babies within the womb, murderers. That has become a custom. They're killing hundreds and thousands of animals daily in the slaughterhouse. It has become a custom. So now even human being, murder, he's not condemned to death. Is it not?
Prabhupāda: Yes. This is means everyone is sinful. Everyone is sinful. The government is sinful, the people are sinful. Then how you can become happy? It is a fool's paradise, sinful paradise. How you can be happy? Therefore despite all sorts of education, scientific improvement, brainwash and so many things, people are unhappy. Diseased, unhappy, dissatisfaction, confusion, this is going on. Because everything is not properly done. The government is not strict.
So in the Manu-smṛti . . . as I am quoting from Parāśara-smṛti, there are smṛti-śāstras. The Manu-smṛti, it is said that if a man commits murder, then he should be killed. Otherwise, he'll suffer in the next life. So many sufferings. So the king's order to condemn a murderer to death is a mercy, is a mercy for him, because he's saved from future so many troubles. The king should be so strict. Not that by compassion: "No. He's murderer. That's all right. He has killed one man. Why he should be killed?" No. He must be killed. This is the law. Here it is also found, Parāśara-smṛti, it is said that kṣatriya should be always śastra-pāṇi, and must strictly, as soon as there is any discrepancies, he must take.
Formerly, the judgment was given by the king. Every day, king would sit, just like we are sitting. So if there is . . . formerly, there was no criminal, practically. If there was any criminal, if . . . it was very difficult to find out a criminal. Because these four things were forbidden. What is that? No illicit sex, no intoxication, no gambling, no meat-eating. So if one follows these four principles, naturally he is sinless automatically. And if the whole population is sinless, then where is the possibility of judging or bringing the criminal?
When Kali was awarded four places . . . he was first of all ordered by Parīkṣit Mahārāja. As soon as he saw that this black man is going to kill one cow, "Oh, who are you in my kingdom? You are trying to kill a cow?" He took his sword, "I shall kill you," immediately. So he fell down: "Sir, I am also your subject, and this is my business, killing. So what can I do? I must have some means of livelihood." Just like this butcher; his means of livelihood is to kill animal. So if the animal slaughterhouse is closed, then there will be so much unemployment. The butcher must have chance of killing. So that is not law, "Oh, butcher must have also employment." No. "Therefore slaughterhouse must be maintained." Not that.
So Parīkṣit Mahārāja said that, "You cannot live in my kingdom. I cannot provide you with any employment. You must go out." So at that time, Parīkṣit Mahārāja was the emperor of the whole world, whole planet. So he said: "Sir, where shall I go out? The whole planet is your kingdom. Where shall I go out of your kingdom? Where is that place?" So Parīkṣit Mahārāja considered that. So, "All right, then you can remain in these four places." Striyaḥ sūnā pānaṁ dyūtaṁ yatra pāpaś catur-vidhaḥ (SB 1.17.38): "Where illicit sex life, brothel, prostitute's house, you can remain there." Striyaḥ sūnā, slaughterhouse. "Or unnecessarily where animals are killed, you can remain there." Striyaḥ sūnā pānam. "And intoxication.
Where liquor house, you can remain there. And where there is gambling, you can remain there." So he could not find out a place where to remain. That means in those days these things were so much conspicuous by absence that is was difficult for the Kali to find out a place like that. But with the advancement of Kali, now Kali can find out his place anywhere, at any home, any place. These things are going on. This is the position.
So this system of human civilization as conceived by the Vedic process is completely different from the rascal civilization at the present moment. Therefore, people cannot be happy. It is not possible. If we . . . at the same time, it is impossible to go back to that type of civilization, because people are so polluted. It is not possible. Therefore the only means is, as enunciated by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu from Bṛhad Nāradīya Purāṇa:
- harer nāma harer nāma harer nāmaiva kevalam
- kalau nāsty eva nāsty eva nāsty eva gatir anyathā
- (CC Adi 17.21)
You take this process. Chant Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. At least you will be purified, you'll understand the situation. And if you follow the rules and regulation . . . it is very simple to avoid these four principle of sinful life and chant Hare Kṛṣṇa. Then you are sure, back to home, back to Godhead, and be happy eternally.
Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)