721211 - Lecture BG 02.02-6 - Ahmedabad
(Redirected from Lecture on BG 2.2-6 -- Ahmedabad, December 11, 1972)
- kutas tvā kaśmalam idaṁ
- viṣame samupasthitam
- anārya-juṣṭam asvargyam
- akīrti-karam arjuna
- (BG 2.2)
Anārya-juṣṭam, "Not at all befitting a man who knows the progressive values of life." Āryan. Āryan means who are progressive. So this dejection of Arjuna in the battlefield is described as befitting a non-Āryan.
Āryan, according to Āryan civilization as described in the Bhagavad-gītā, there are four divisions inaugurated by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As we have already explained, dharmaṁ tu sākṣād bhagavat-praṇītam (SB 6.3.19). Any systematic religious process is to be understood: "It is given by God." Man cannot make any religious system.
So this Āryan system, progressive system, is cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ (BG 4.13). Kṛṣṇa says: "It is introduced by Me for very good management of the social order"—brāhmin, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra. So Arjuna belonged to the kṣatriya family. Therefore his hesitation to fight in the battlefield is not befitting the Āryan. For the royal order to become nonviolent, this is not good. The kṣatriyas, when they are fighting in the battlefield, the killing is not a sin for them.
Similarly, a brāhmin, when he's offering sacrifice, sometimes animals are sacrificed; so that does not mean that he is committing sin. This animal sacrifice was made not for eating the animals. It was for testing the Vedic mantra. Whether the brāhmins who were engaged in offering sacrifice, whether they were chanting the Vedic mantra in right way, that was tested by offering one animal and again giving the animal a new youth life.
That was animal sacrifice. Sometimes horses, sometimes cows were offered. But in this age, Kali-yuga, they are forbidden because there is no such yājñika-brāhmin. All kinds of sacrifices are forbidden in this age.
- aśvamedhaṁ gavālambhaṁ
- sannyāsaṁ pala-paitṛkam
- devareṇa sutotpattiṁ
- kalau pañca vivarjayet
- (CC Adi 17.164)
Aśvamedha sacrifice, gomedha sacrifice, sannyāsa, and to get child by devara, husband's younger brother, these things are forbidden in this age.
So it was the duty of the kṣatriya to fight. Therefore Kṛṣṇa is condemning his behavior that, "This is not befitting a kṣatriya. By this action, you will be defamed." Akīrti-karam arjuna (BG 2.2). "You are such a nice fighter, soldier, and if you cease to fight, then the other party will defame you in so many ways. What you are thinking of? Especially you are My friend. I am standing here. Despite My becoming your chariot driver, if you decline to fight, certainly it will be a great havoc. Don't do this."
Therefore He says, anārya-juṣṭam asvargyam. Asvargyam means "You cannot be promoted to the heavenly planet." It is said that a kṣatriya who dies in the fight is immediately promoted to the heavenly planet. But because he is dying for the good cause, therefore he is promoted. Asvargyam akīrti-karam. "It is defamation on your part." So:
- klaibyaṁ mā sma gamaḥ pārtha
- naitat tvayy upapadyate
- kṣudraṁ hṛdaya-daurbalyaṁ
- tyaktvottiṣṭha parantapa
- (BG 2.3)
Parantapa means one who can give trouble to the enemies. It is the duty of the kṣatriya. Enemies, aggressor, they should be killed. There is no ātatāyī. Ātatāyī means one who is aggressor. One who kidnaps one's wife, one who take away by force one's wealth, one who sets fire in one's house, these are called aggressor. So aggressor should be killed. Aggressor should be given trouble.
So Kṛṣṇa does not teach unnecessarily nonviolence. If kṣatriya becomes nonviolent, then the whole state will be in chaos. They must learn how to kill any criminal. He should be immediately killed. Just like Mahārāja Parīkṣit, Arjuna's grandson, when he was touring in his empire . . .
The whole world was at that time Indian empire. Not Indian exactly. Bhārata-varṣa. Now we have imitated some name, Bhārata, the "Indian," "Hindustan." But formerly the whole planet was known as Bhārata-varṣa. So when he saw that one black man was trying to kill one cow, immediately he took his sword: "Immediately I shall kill you. Who are you, killing cows in my kingdom?" This is kṣatriya's business.
So . . . but there is no kṣatriya now, because so many cows are being killed. Who is . . . nobody is protesting. It is the duty of the kṣatriya to protect every living entity born in the land, in his kingdom. It is not that, as it is going on now, that only the human beings should be protected and not the animals. No animal could be killed except in sacrifice, as prescribed.
Unnecessarily there was no need of killing animals. That is great sin. Dyūtaṁ pānaṁ striyaḥ sūnā yatrādharmaś catur-vidhaḥ (SB 1.17.38). Striya, illicit connection with woman, is sinful life. Unnecessarily killing animals, that is sinful life. Intoxication, that is sinful life. Gambling, that is also sinful life.
When this Kali was excused, he surrendered himself to Mahārāja Parīkṣit that, "You have asked me to go out of your kingdom, but where is out of your kingdom? The whole world is your kingdom. So kindly give me some place where I can stay."
So Mahārāja Parīkṣit gave him these four places that, "You can stay where illicit sex life is going on." That mean prostitution. "And unnecessary animals are killed, slaughterhouse." Striya-sūnā-pāna-dyūta (SB 1.17.38). "Where intoxicants are indulged in or gambling. In these four places you can stay."
So at that time, Kali could not find out such place throughout the whole world. So he was disturbed. So there was conspiracy to kill Mahārāja Parīkṣit because the Kali could understand that so long Mahārāja Parīkṣit would live, it is impossible to find out a slaughterhouse or a brothel or a drinking house or gambling place. No.
So the kingdom was so nice. We have got description from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Mahārāja Parīkṣit, Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira, many. The monarchy was so nice that because they were trained up, rājarṣi . . . they were not ordinary kings. They were as good as great sages and great saintly person.
Imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ (BG 4.2). Kṛṣṇa said, imaṁ vivasvate yogaṁ proktavān aham avyayam (BG 4.1). Kṛṣṇa said to the sun-god, Vivasvān. So He said: "The sun-god transferred the teaching to his son Manu, and Manu transferred the teaching to Mahārāja Ikṣvāku." Evaṁ paramparā-prāptam (BG 4.2). In this way, the point is that the philosophy of Bhagavad-gītā was especially taught to the royal order because they would know. They should know. Because a king is supposed to be representative of God, nara-deva. King is addressed as nara-deva.
Even in five hundred years ago, when Sanātana Gosvāmī was minister of Nawab Hussain Shah . . . Sanātana Gosvāmī wanted to resign. He wanted to join Caitanya Mahāprabhu's movement. So when the Nawab understood that Sanātana Gosvāmī . . . his name was Dabira Khāsa; he changed his name. So he said: "No, you cannot resign. Then my whole kingdom will be topsy-turvied. I completely depend . . . dependent on you." So Sanātana Gosvāmī said: "My, Your Majesty, I am not . . . no more able to serve you. Kindly excuse me." Then the Nawab said that, "Then I shall punish you. I am Nawab. I am king." So Sanātana Gosvāmī said: "Yes, you can punish me because you are representative of God." He never protested, "Oh, you are Muhammadan, I am this, Hindu or . . ." No. He accepted him that, "You can punish me."
So the idea is that formerly the monarch, the king, was actually representative of God. They used to rule in such a nice way that nobody was unhappy. During Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira's ruling, reign, you will find in the Bhāgavatam that people were so happy that they had no anxiety. Not only they were free from all anxieties, but they had not to bear even scorching heat or shivering cold. No. So they were so happy.
That is the duty of the government. It may be monarchy or democracy; the first duty of the government is to see that all the citizens, they are feeling happy. That is the duty of the government. Not simply collecting taxes and "All the citizens may go to hell. It doesn't matter." This is not good government. Good government is to see there are . . . it may be secular government.
The secular government does not mean that the whole citizens should be religious . . . less religious, godless. Secular government should see that even there are many religious sects, just like Hindus or Muslim and Christians, so secular government does not mean that they should neglect. They should see that the Hindus are strictly following the principles of Hindu religion, the Muhammadans are strictly following the principles of Muhammadan religion or . . . that is government's duty. Nobody should remain unemployed. That is government's duty.
There are so many things. They are all described in connection with Mahārāja Pṛthu, one noble king. So in Bhāgavata you'll find everything. Politics, sociology, religion, culture, philosophy—everything you will find. Vidyā bhāgavata vadniḥ. All kinds of cultural and educational instruction are there in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. So:
- klaibyaṁ mā sma gamaḥ pārtha
- naitat tvayy upapadyate
- kṣudraṁ hṛdaya-daurbalyaṁ
- tyaktvottiṣṭha parantapa
- (BG 2.3)
"Give up this cowardice habit. You get up and prepare for your fight. This is kṣatriya's business. You should not go behind." Arjuna uvāca. "Arjuna replied."
- kathaṁ bhīṣmam ahaṁ saṅkhye
- droṇaṁ ca madhusūdana
- iṣubhiḥ pratiyotsyāmi
- pūjārhāv arisūdana
- (BG 2.4)
Now Kṛṣṇa was encouraging to fight; Arjuna was also very intelligently replying. He addressed Kṛṣṇa as Madhusūdana, Arisūdana. Madhusūdana means "The killer of Madhu demon," or "The killer of enemy." So his purpose is that, "I have to kill Bhīṣmadeva, who is my so kind grandfather, and I have to kill Droṇācārya, who is my teacher, from whom I have learned this military art.
So You have killed the demons and Your enemy, and why You are inducing me to kill my guru and my grandfather?" This is his argument. Kathaṁ bhīṣmam ahaṁ saṅkhye droṇaṁ ca madhusūdana, iṣubhiḥ pratiyotsyāmi (BG 2.4): "They, my grandfather, my teacher, may chastise me, but how I can pierce with arrows their body?"
So this is the problem, duty. Arjuna was forgetting duty. And Kṛṣṇa was inducing him: "Never mind. According to kṣatriya rules and regulation, even the opposite party is your own son, you should not hesitate to kill him. This is kṣatriya's business." If the opposite party is your own son, but when there is fight, there must be decided: one party must be killed. This is kṣatriya's business.
So he says, gurūn ahatvā hi mahānubhāvān (BG 2.5). "These guru, this Droṇācārya and Bhīṣma, they are not ordinary men." Mahānubhāvān. Bhīṣma, everyone knows. Bhīṣma is one of the authorities, authorities of religious principle. There are twelve authorities.
- svayambhūr nāradaḥ śambhuḥ
- kumāraḥ kapilo manuḥ
- prahlādo janako bhīṣmo
- balir vaiyāsakir vayam
- (SB 6.3.20)
There are four . . . twelve authorities. One of them is Bhīṣma. Prahlādo janako bhīṣmo balir vaiyāsakir vayam.
So Bhīṣma is not ordinary person. Therefore he said, katham, gurūn ahatvā hi mahānubhāvān śreyo bhoktuṁ bhaikṣyam apīha loke (BG 2.5). "I do not like to kill my guru, who is so great, and my grandfather. Better I shall become a beggar." A kṣatriya's business is not to beg. A brāhmin can beg. A brāhmin can accept charity, but kṣatriya cannot accept any charity from anyone else, neither he can come down to do business like the vaiśyas. That is not. Everyone should stick to his own principle.
If this is followed, then it is really secular government. A government must see whether—you are claiming as a brāhmin—whether you are actually discharging your duties as a brāhmin. That is secular government. You are claiming as a kṣatriya; whether you are discharging your duties as a kṣatriya?
You are a vaiśya; whether you are discharging your duties as vaiśya? This is government's duty. That is cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭam (BG 4.13). Now they are eager to wash off this social system. They want classless society. But in the material world there cannot be any classless society. It is not possible.
Classless society can be established in the spiritual world. Just like we are propagating this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. This is classless society. Here you will find Europeans, Americans, Indians, Africans, Hindus, Muslim, Christians, but they have forgotten that they are Hindus, Muslims or Christians or Americans or Indians. They are all identifying, "We are all servant of Kṛṣṇa." This is classless society. This is classless society. There is no distinction. Here a Hindu coming from very respectable brāhmin family and another man is coming from the dog-eater's family. It doesn't matter. As soon as one becomes Vaiṣṇava, he is classless society.
Therefore it is forbidden, vaiṣṇave jāti-buddhiḥ. Arcye viṣṇau śilā-dhīr guruṣu nara-matir vaiṣṇave jāti-buddhiḥ, nārakī (Padma Purāṇa). Just like we should not consider this Deity before us as made of some metal or wood. No. Arcye śilā-dhīḥ. No. Here is the Supreme Personality of Godhead standing. We should take it like that. Otherwise, does it mean that we are offering our obeisances to a metal doll? We have become so fool? No. We take it, "Here is Kṛṣṇa personally standing." That is the, that, if one cannot feel like that . . . the śāstra says you should feel like that.
Arcye śilā-dhīr guruṣu nara-matiḥ. Guru, a spiritual master, should not be considered as ordinary human being. Guruṣu nara-matiḥ. The Ganges water, one should not think that it is ordinary water. Or caraṇāmṛta. These are forbidden. Similarly, vaiṣṇave jāti-buddhiḥ. One should not think, "He is American Vaiṣṇava," "He is brāhmin Vaiṣṇava," "He is African Vaiṣṇava," "He is black Vaiṣṇava," "He is white Vaiṣṇava." No. Vaiṣṇava is Vaiṣṇava, servant of God.
Just like in the Ganges water, there are so many . . . in Calcutta I have seen so many mill water coming, sewer ditches' water is coming. But when it falls down on the Ganges water, it is no more any other water; everything is Ganges water. Practically we accept it. In Calcutta there are many rigid Hindus, brāhmins, they are taking bath in the Ganges, but even stool is floating there, they set it aside and take bath, Ganges water.
Actually, you see chemically, although so many unclean water is coming there, it is still pure. Similarly, Vaiṣṇava, he may come from any family, it doesn't matter. He becomes immediately transcendental. Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā:
- māṁ ca yo 'vyabhicāreṇa
- bhakti-yogena sevate
- sa guṇān samatītyaitān
- brahma-bhūyāya kalpate
- (BG 14.26)
Immediately he becomes. We are trying to become, to understand ahaṁ brahmāsmi. So this realization immediately become effective if one is a pure devotee. Māṁ ca 'vyabhicāreṇa bhakti-yogena yaḥ sevate, sa guṇān samatītyaitān (BG 14.26). He is above all these three qualities.
So if actually you want to make classless society, then you have to accept this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. There is no other way. If you make artificially classless society, it will never be effective. The Communists are trying to make classless society. That classless society can be formed on spiritual platform, not on the material platform. This will be artificial. Paṇḍitāḥ sama-darśinaḥ (BG 5.18). When one is actually advanced in knowledge . . .
Advanced with knowledge means one should understand that, "I am eternal servant of Kṛṣṇa, or God." That is advancement of knowledge. Ahaṁ brahmāsmi: "I am not this body; I am spirit soul. And Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Soul. I am part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa." Brahmā-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati na kāṅkṣati (BG 18.54). Simply by understanding that, "I am spirit soul, I am Brahman," will not help us. You must act like Brahman. Then it will be . . . janma . . . guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ (BG 4.13). There must be realization; that is guṇa. At the same time, there must be practical work.
That is Vedic civilization. You should not claim falsely. If you are actually brāhmin, you must act as a brāhmin. If you are a kṣatriya, you must act as a kṣatriya. Guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ. Not that "I am a brāhmin; now I have become something else." Just like in Calcutta we have seen there are small slaughterhouses, and they have posted one deity, Goddess Kālī, and have got sacred thread, and the signboard is: "This meat is sacri . . . slaughtered by a brāhmin; therefore it is pure." "Therefore it is pure." And that is going on. Oh, the meat-eaters, they take all this meat, and they think, "It is the prasāda of Goddess Kālī, and it is slaughtered by a brāhmin. There is no sin; it is all right." This is going on.
No. brāhmin is not meant for becoming a slaughterer, a killer. No. brāhmin should be truthful. brāhmin should be cleansed, no sinful life. brāhmin should be controlling the senses, controlling the mind. brāhmin must be well-educated, jñāna, and he must apply the knowledge in practical life and believe in the Vedic injunctions. These are the qualifications of brāhmin. Similarly, there are qualification of kṣatriyas, vaiśyas. We should follow that.
And it is the duty of the government to see that, "This man is claiming as a brāhmin, whether he is actually executing the duties of brāhmin?" That is government's duty. Not that they should simply fight that "I am brāhmin," "I am kṣatriya," "I am Hindu," "I am Muslim." No. The government's duty is to see that actually whether he is as he claims to be.
So Arjuna says that, "I do not like to kill my grandfather or my guru." Not only ordinary guru . . . Guru is never ordinary. Guru, that I have explained—never we should consider guru as ordinary human being. Guru means as king is the representative for giving protection to the people, similarly, a guru or brāhmin is also meant for giving protection to the people from spiritual side. The king, kṣatriya, is meant for giving protection to the people from material side. The vaiśya is to produce from the material side. Everything is systematically arranged.
So brāhmin means the intelligent class of men, kṣatriya means the administrative class of men, and vaiśya means the productive class of men, and the śūdra means ordinary worker. These divisions are everywhere. You cannot say that only the brāhmins and kṣatriyas and vaiśyas are in India. No. When it is a creation of Kṛṣṇa, or God, it must be everywhere—in every planet, in every country, every city.
Because anywhere you go, either in Europe or America, you will find some classes of men very intelligent class. They are interested in philosophy, science. Similarly, there is a class of men who are interested in politics. They are kṣatriyas, you can say. Similarly, there are persons who are interested in making money, vaiśyas. And there are ordinary class of men, they neither brāhmin nor kṣatriya nor . . . they cannot live independently.
Śūdra means he must find out a master. A master. Paricaryātmakaṁ karma śūdra-karma svabhāva-jam (BG 18.44). Śūdra's business is to find out a master. Just like a dog: a dog must find out a nice master. Otherwise it is a street dog; its condition is not very good. Similarly, a śūdra means he must have a nice paying master. Otherwise his life is at risk. So if you consider in that way, the śāstra says, kalau śūdra-sambhavaḥ.
In this Kali-yuga, everyone is a śūdra. You hardly find a real brāhmin or real kṣatriya or vaiśya. Because they are after service. In the śāstra it is said that a brāhmin, if he is in difficulty, he may take the profession of a kṣatriya or up to a vaiśya, but never take the business of a śūdra, like a dog. That is prohibited. And nowadays we are claiming to become brāhmin and going here and there with application, "If there is any vacancy, sir?"
So these things are topsy-turvied. Simply it has become a farce. Actually if we want to establish Vedic civilization, then we must follow strictly the principles of Vedas as it is described in the Bhagavad-gītā. And if it is practiced, then daiva-varṇāśrama-dharma. That is required.
Daiva-varṇāśrama-dharma. There must be the four division. Just like we have got four divisions in our body: the head division, the arm division, the belly division and the leg division. The leg division is the śūdra, the belly division is the vaiśya, and the arm division is the kṣatriya, and the head division is the brāhmin.
So these divisions are now lost. Actually, there is no kṣatriya, no brāhmin. Maybe there are some vaiśyas and śūdras. So suppose if your whole body there is only belly and leg, then what is the body? If you have no head and no arm, then how it is? What kind of body it is? So therefore, in the social order of the present day, there is no brāhmin, no kṣatriya. Only there are some few vaiśyas and śūdras. So therefore there is chaos all over the world.
So this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is meant for creating some real brāhmin. At least, there may be head. They are all mad after the influence of the material energy. So there is need of some brāhmin who can give advice to the people how to lead, how to become God conscious, how to become happy. There is great need of this movement. Simply so-called classless society will not help us. That is not Vedic civilization.
- hatvārtha-kāmāṁs tu gurūn ihaiva
- bhuñjīya bhogān rudhira-pradigdhān
- (BG 2.5)
So Arjuna is giving his nice argument that, "If I kill my such great-grandfather and such noble, my teacher, then after killing them, if I enjoy this world, it will be mixed with blood and fire. So I cannot fight. I can . . ." Arjuna clearly declined to fight. Then again he says:
- na caitad vidmaḥ kataran no garīyo
- yad vā jayema yadi vā no jayeyuḥ
- yān eva hatvā na jijīviṣāmas
- te 'vasthitāḥ pramukhe dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ
- (BG 2.6)
He said that, "After killing my family men . . ." Dhṛtarāṣṭra, dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ, pāṇḍavāḥ . . . Dhṛtarāṣṭra and Pāṇḍu, they were two brothers, and their sons, cousin-brothers. So generally, people want to increase his material opulence to show to his friends and relatives. When one person constructs a very new, very nice house, he invites his relatives and his friends to show them that, "Now I have become so opulent."
So Arjuna is thinking in that term that, "Suppose I conquer over and I get the kingdom. But if my relatives and brothers are dead, whom shall I show?" This is another kind of vairāgya: how this material relationship makes one foolish, Arjuna is playing the part of a foolish man, and Kṛṣṇa will chastise him. We shall see later on.
Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (break)
Indian man: I have got a doubt about this Hiraṇyākṣa, Prahlāda's father . . .
Indian man: Hiraṇyakaśipu. Because God has taken the shape of a Narasiṁha Swami, and then He finishes him by tearing his stomach. And then He takes all the intestines and pushes out. That is the pictures normally shown. What is the significance, and how this is actually, what it is meaning? Whether He is . . . why He is . . . this sort of picture is being given and everywhere I see this picture in bazaar and everywhere right from my childhood I have been seeing this. What does this signify?
Prabhupāda: It is no significant. Keśava dhṛta-nara-hari-rūpa.
- tava kara-kamala-vare nakham adbhuta-śṛṅgaṁ
- keśava dhṛta-nara-hari-rūpa . . . nṛsiṁha-rūpe
- jaya jagadīśa hare
So Kṛṣṇa assumed the nara-hari, nṛsiṁha-rūpa, half man, half lion. So these are description in the śāstras.
- rāmādi-mūrtiṣu kalā-niyamena tiṣṭhan
- nānāvatāram akarod bhuvaneṣu kintu
- kṛṣṇaḥ svayaṁ samabhavat paramaḥ pumān yo
- govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam . . .
- (Bs. 5.39)
So there is no significance. This Hiraṇyakaśipu wanted to become immortal. Then, when he was refused by Lord Brahmā that, "You cannot become immortal; that is not possible," then, in a roundabout way, he took benediction from Lord Brahmā that he would not die on land, on water, on the sky; no weapon can kill him, no demigod can kill him. In this way, roundabout way, he thought now he has become immortal.
So to keep the words of Brahmā as it is, the Lord assumed a form which is not within his description. And instead of killing him with a weapon He killed him by the nails. Nail is not considered as a weapon. So He killed him between day and night, because he also took benediction that, "I shall not die during daytime or nighttime."
So God, Kṛṣṇa, is so intelligent that we may try to become immortal by so many scientific brain, but there will be some flaw, and he wants . . . must be killed. This is God's intelligence
Indian lady: Swāmījī, what would happen if a person . . . (indistinct)?
Prabhupāda: I cannot follow. Eh?
Indian lady: (indistinct about animals)
Pradyumna: (explaining) Someone in college, if they start to study biology or zoology, it involves killing animals, dissection. Is that a sin?
Prabhupāda: Yes, certainly. You cannot kill even an ant.
Indian lady: Then you should give up such study?
Prabhupāda: That is your business. What can I say? (chuckles) (laughter) But any kind of animal killing is sin, sinful. (break) Kṛṣṇa says:
- sarva-yoniṣu kaunteya
- sambhavanti mūrtayo yāḥ
- tāsāṁ mahad yonir brahma
- ahaṁ bīja-pradaḥ pitā
- (BG 14.4)
Kṛṣṇa says that, "I am the seed-giving father of all living entities in any form." Sarva-yoniṣu. Sarva means all, 8,400,000 species and forms. So Kṛṣṇa is the father, and all living entities are part and parcel of the Lord. They have different dresses according to different karma, but actually, every living entity is part and parcel of God, sons.
So suppose a father has got ten sons and one of them or two of them are useless. So if the elder brother wants to make some experiment by killing the younger brother, would the father be pleased? No. Father will be sorry even the intelligent boy is killed or the dull boy is killed.
For father, there is no such distinction. Similarly, you cannot kill animals without being sanctioned. That sanction is in the sacrifice, I have already explained, for testing. According to Vedic system, if you kill anybody, then you must be responsible for the sinful life. (break) (end)