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741201 - Lecture SB 03.25.31 - Bombay

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His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada

741201SB-BOMBAY - December 01, 1974 - 42:41 Minutes


maitreya uvāca
iditvārthaṁverse kapilo mātur itthaṁ
jāta-sneho yatra tanvābhijātaḥ
tattvāmnāyaṁ yat pravadanti sāṅkhyaṁ
provāca vai bhakti-vitāna-yogam
(SB 3.25.31)

Prabhupāda: jāta-sneho yatra tanvābhijātaḥ.


Nitāi: "Śrī Maitreya said: After hearing the statement of His mother, Kapila could understand her purpose, and He became compassionate towards her because of being born from her body. He described the Sāṅkhya system of philosophy, which is a combination of devotional service and mystic realization and is received by disciplic succession."


viditvārthaṁ kapilo mātur itthaṁ
jāta-sneho yatra tanvābhijātaḥ
tattvāmnāyaṁ yat pravadanti sāṅkhyaṁ
provāca vai bhakti-vitāna-yogam
(SB 3.25.31)

So Kapiladeva is the propounder of Sāṅkhya philosophy. This is original Kapiladeva. Later on, there was another Kapiladeva, so he is called the atheist Kapila. And this Kapiladeva is known as Devahūti-putra, "The son of Devahūti" Kapila. So Sāṅkhya yoga, the later atheist Kapila's Sāṅkhya yoga, is different from this Sāṅkhya yoga. The atheist Kapila's Sāṅkhya yoga is analysis of the material elements. So this analysis of material elements by the atheist Kapila is very much liked by the Western philosophers. And the Sāṅkhya yoga explained, propounded, by Devahūti-putra Kapila is practically unknown.

So this Kapila, Devahūti, son of Devahūti Kapila, His Sāṅkhya yoga means bhakti-vitāna-yogam: how bhakti, devotional service to the Lord, is expanded. That is Sāṅkhya yoga. And how it is received, that is also stated here, tattva āmnāyaṁ yad pravadanti sāṅkhyam. Āmnāyam, by disciplic succession. No philosophical speculation, but as it is received by predecessor, by tradition, āmnāyam. Tattvam āmnāyam. We cannot manufacture tattva. That is improper way of understanding the truth. Generally, the Western philosophers, they try to understand the Absolute Truth by the ascending process. There are two processes of understanding the Absolute Truth. One is called ascending process, or inductive logic, and another process is descending process, or deductive logic. So ascending process is based on speculation, and descending process is based on fact.

This evening we were talking about Bhagavad-gītā, that Bhagavad-gītā is understood by the descending process, as Kṛṣṇa said. Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā that this yoga system . . . Bhagavad-gītā is also yoga system. That is bhakti-yoga. Although there are description of karma, jñāna and the mystic yoga, and ultimately bhakti-yoga, but actually it is meant for bhakti-yoga, the Bhagavad-gītā. Those who are jñānīs, speculative, for them also, it is described. And those who are haṭha-yogīs, they are also described there. But ultimately, the conclusion is bhakti-yoga. Just like in the Sixth Chapter of Bhagavad-gītā the yoga system is described. The yoga system is described, that one has to go in a secluded place, and he has to sit down straight, right angular, and see the front portion of the nose, and the eyes half closed. In this way the haṭha-yoga system, or aṣṭāṅga-yoga system, is described in the Bhagavad-gītā.

But when Arjuna said that, "This system of yoga is very difficult for me. Kṛṣṇa, I cannot concentrate my mind in this way . . ."

cañcalaṁ hi manaḥ kṛṣṇa
pramāthi balavad dṛḍham
tasyāhaṁ nigrahaṁ manye
vāyor iva suduṣkaram
(BG 6.34)

Five thousand years ago a personality like Arjuna, who was so qualified that he could talk with Kṛṣṇa as ordinary friend . . . how much exalted he was, just we can imagine. And born in the royal family, very exalted position, great warrior. He said that "Kṛṣṇa, I cannot execute this yoga system. It is not possible." Cañcalaṁ hi manaḥ kṛṣṇa pramāthi balavad dṛḍham, tasyāhaṁ nigrahaṁ manye: "My mind is so disturbed that to control the mind is exactly like that to control the wind." Suppose there is very heavy wind, and if one tries to stop it by spreading his hand, is it possible? It is not possible. He has given this example. Pramāthi balavad dṛḍham. Mind is so uncontrollable, just like madman. Mind's business is like that. Immediately I am accepting something, and again rejecting. Everyone has got this experience. Therefore he frankly said that, "To control the mind is not possible for me. I cannot do it."

So now just try to understand the . . . a personality like Arjuna is not ordinary man. He was advised by Kṛṣṇa to practice this yoga system, meditation, generally. Actually yoga system means meditation. Dhyānāvasthita-tad-gatena manasā paśyanti yaṁ yoginaḥ. The yogīs, they, dhyānāvasthita manasā, mind being absorbed in meditation and concentrates the mind on Viṣṇu form of the Lord, four-handed Viṣṇu. That is dhyānāvasthita-tad-gatena manasā paśyanti yaṁ yoginaḥ.

yaṁ brahmā varuṇendra-rudra-marutaḥ stunvanti divyaiḥ stavair
vedaiḥ sāṅga-pada-kramopaniṣadair gāyanti yaṁ sāma-gāḥ
dhyānāvasthita-tad-gatena manasā paśyanti yaṁ yogina
yasyāntaṁ na viduḥ surāsura-gaṇā devāya tasmai namaḥ
(SB 12.13.1)

So this yoga system is meant for persons who are too much bodily attached, this haṭha-yoga system. And otherwise, real yoga system is the sāṅkhya-yoga, or bhakti-yoga, real yoga system. This is preliminary. Therefore when Arjuna declined that, "I cannot execute this yoga system," so Kṛṣṇa, in order to pacify Arjuna . . . because he was friend—Kṛṣṇa thought that Arjuna is thinking unable to execute this yoga—He pacified him by saying ultimately, "My dear Arjuna, don't be agitated." Indirectly He said that, "You are a first-class yogī." "How is that, I am first-class yogī?" "Now, because you are always thinking of Me." Arjuna, he did not know anything but Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa, when He placed Himself divided into two in the battlefield . . . because it was a family fight, so Kṛṣṇa said that, "I can divide Myself." Both of them approached. Duryodhana approached and Arjuna also approached, "Kṛṣṇa, You become my side." So Kṛṣṇa said that, "I have got eighteen akṣauhiṇī, division of soldiers. That is one side. And I personally, one side." So Arjuna (Duryodhana) thought that, "What shall I do simply by taking Kṛṣṇa? And He says that, 'I'll not fight. If I go to any side, I'll not fight.' " So Arjuna (Duryodhana) thought it wise that, "Let me take His soldiers, eighteen divisions, many thousands of elephants, horses, chariot." There is estimate, very big number of elephants, horses. I don't remember exactly. But . . . so Duryodhana decided to take the soldiers of Kṛṣṇa. (child making noise) (aside:) That child may be . . . but Arjuna thought that, "If I get Kṛṣṇa in my side, that is sufficient. I don't want His soldiers."

So Kṛṣṇa was so friendly and very loving friend, not ordinary friend. Therefore Kṛṣṇa said: "My dear Arjuna, don't be disappointed because you cannot execute this aṣṭāṅga-yoga. The first-class yogī is he who always thinks of Me." Yoginām api sarveṣāṁ mad-gatenāntar-ātmanā (BG 6.47). One who has taken Kṛṣṇa within his heart and always thinking of Kṛṣṇa, satataṁ smartavyaḥ viṣṇuḥ (CC Madhya 22.113), this is the system. This is meditation. If one is thinking of Kṛṣṇa twenty-four hours, that is the first-class meditation. You are seeing Kṛṣṇa here, standing with Rādhārāṇī. And if you see always, then you naturally you get impression of Kṛṣṇa within the heart. And if you serve Kṛṣṇa . . . those who are engaged in service, just like they are offering this foodstuff, Kṛṣṇa. They have prepared this foodstuff very nicely, thinking that "Kṛṣṇa will eat. Let us do it very cleanly and attentively." And whatever they can offer, first-class thing . . . that is meditation, because they are thinking of Kṛṣṇa, "This foodstuff will be taken by Kṛṣṇa. This dress will be used by Kṛṣṇa. These flowers will be offered to the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa." Real meditation is this. And that is the first-class yoga. Therefore Kṛṣṇa is advising in the Seventh Chapter that, "If you cannot think of Me, then you can think of Me in your ordinary dealings." Raso 'ham apsu kaunteya (BG 7.8): "I am the taste of the water."

So that . . . this yoga system we have to practice, this yoga system. This is called sāṅkhya-yoga. That is explained here, provāca vai bhakti-vitāna-yogam. The more you think of Kṛṣṇa . . . satataṁ cintayanto mām, satataṁ kīrtayanto mām (BG 9.14). These are advised in the Bhagavad-gītā. If you always chant Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, then you remember Kṛṣṇa. Immediately the form of Kṛṣṇa is awakened within your heart. And Kṛṣṇa says, yoginām api sarveṣāṁ mad-gatenāntar-ātmanā: "Always within the heart . . ." That is the sāṅkhya-yoga system, or perfect yoga system, bhakti-yoga-vitānam. And Kṛṣṇa says personally:

yoginām api sarveṣāṁ
śraddhāvān bhajate yo māṁ
sa me yuktatamo mataḥ
(BG 6.47)

They are first-class yogī. So anyway, some way or other, if you can think of Kṛṣṇa always . . . that is . . . we have named "Kṛṣṇa consciousness," always conscious of Kṛṣṇa. Then you become the first-class sāṅkhya-yogī. Bhakti-vitānam.

So Kapiladeva could understand the desire of His mother. The mother was submissive, because to understand the sāṅkhya-yoga, bhakti-yoga, it requires . . . the first condition is submission. Tad viddhi praṇipātena (BG 4.34). You cannot understand the sāṅkhya-yoga system or bhakti-yoga system by falsely being proud that you are very learned scholar or speculator. These things will not help. You have to hear about Kṛṣṇa very submissively and accepting, not challenging. Then you will be able to understand. Sthāne sthitāḥ śruti-gatāṁ tanu-vāṅ-manobhiḥ. You remain in your position. It doesn't matter what you are; simply you hear about Kṛṣṇa. There are so many things about Kṛṣṇa we can hear. Even if we are not educated, we can hear from a person who can speak rightly. But that person must be selected, not ordinary person, not professional person, but here it is said, tattva āmnāyam. Āmnāyam means by disciplic succession.

We have to accept a positive party. Just like in political activities you accept some party, Congress party or this party or that party. That is the system, even in politics. Similarly, you have to accept a party of devotee. There are not different parties; they are of the same party. Just like the political parties may be different, but their aim is how to improve the condition of the country or the people. The aim is the same, but they may be a little different in their ways. Similarly, there are four āmnāya party. Āmnāya means disciplic succession. One party is coming from Lord Brahmā, and one party is coming from Lakṣmī, goddess of fortune, or the consort of Nārāyaṇa, Viṣṇu. That is called Brahma-sampradāya and the Śrī-sampradāya. Śrī. Śrī means Lakṣmī. Śrī means beauty. Śrī means fortune. Therefore, according to Vedic system, the "śrī" word is added before anyone's name, śrī. So there is Śrī-sampradāya, and there is Kumāra-sampradāya and there is Rudra-sampradāya. There are four sampradāyas of Viṣṇu, er, Vaiṣṇava. So Brahma-sampradāya, Śrī-sampradāya, Rudra-sampradāya and Kumāra-sampradāya—they are called āmnāya. If you want to know the truth, then you have to accept. Tattva āmnāyam. Tattva āmnāyaṁ yat pravadanti sāṅkhyam. This is Sāṅkhya philosophy. You try to understand the Absolute Truth through the disciplic succession of āmnāya. Āmnāya.

So in the Vaiṣṇava sampradāya these four sampradāya, this Brahmā is Brahma-sampradāya and Śrī-sampradāya. The Brahma-sampradāya is, at the present moment, is represented by the Madhva-sampradāya. Just like we are belonging to the Madhva-gauḍīya-sampradāya, our original sampradāya from the Madhvācārya. So in that sampradāya, disciplic succession, there was Mādhavendra Purī. From Mādhavendra Purī, his disciple is Īśvara Purī, and Īśvara Purī's disciple is Lord Caitanya. And we are coming through the disciplic succession of Lord Caitanya. Therefore our sampradāya is called Madhva-gauḍīya-sampradāya. But we are in the āmnāya-sampradāya. We are not upstart. We have not manufactured a sampradāya. It is coming from Lord Brahmā. Similarly, there is Rāmānuja-sampradāya. They are coming from Śrī-sampradāya. Similarly, there is Viṣṇu Svāmī. They are coming from Lord Śiva, Rudra-sampradāya. And there is Kumāra-sampradāya, Nimbāditya-sampradāya. So śāstra says, sampradāya-vihīnās te mantrās te viphala matāḥ (Padma Purāṇa): "If you do not belong to any sampradāya, party of bhakta or devotees, then viphala matāḥ, your verdict or conclusion is, without any fruit." It is not acceptable.

So our this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is to present the Kṛṣṇa consciousness, or the conclusion given by Kṛṣṇa, or the conclusion in the Bhagavad-gītā, in this āmnāya Sāṅkhya philosophy, disciple after disciple. Not that, "I know little more A-B-C-D. I am, therefore, a big scholar. I can interpret Bhagavad-gītā in my own way." This is useless. This is useless. You cannot make your own comment. But . . . that is not also good. So many commentaries which have been made without this āmnāya, Sāṅkhya process, they are useless. There is no effect. This is very essential. Therefore Bhagavān Kṛṣṇa says in the Fourth Chapter, evaṁ paramparā prāptam imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ (BG 4.2). That is required, paramparā, āmnāya, disciplic succession. Otherwise it will be useless. This is the secret of success. You have to accept the same philosophy as it was contemplated by Brahmā, by Nārada, by Brahmācārya . . . er, Madhvācārya, by Mādhavendra Purī, by Īśvara Purī, by . . . you cannot make any new thing beyond the scope of the āmnāya, Sāṅkhya philosophy system. That is called āmnāya. Because we are imperfect. We must first of all know that we are all imperfect. However great scholar I may be, because my senses are imperfect, therefore, whatever conclusion I make by my so-called scholarship, that is imperfect. Therefore all these scientists, philosophers, they use this word "perhaps," "it may be," because there is no right conclusion. There is no right conclusion. He is simply speculating.

So speculative knowledge cannot be perfect. Just like we are sitting here. If there is some sound on the roof . . . now we are, say, one hundred persons sitting here. We can speculate that, "This sound may be for this reason." That, all of them, may be imperfect, and if somebody says from the roof that, "This sound was caused for this reason," that is perfect. That is perfect, because he has got direct experience. That I was speaking in the evening, that you have to accept Bhagavad-gītā by this āmnāya-prathā. Tattva āmnāyam. Kṛṣṇa says to Arjuna that this bhagavad-bhakti-yoga or Bhagavad-gītā yoga . . . that is a yoga. Yoga means which connects, and viyoga means which disconnect. So we are now disconnected with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Now we have to connect again our relationship. That is called yoga. That yoga is described in the Bhagavad-gītā as karma-yoga, jñāna-yoga and aṣṭāṅga-yoga, and at last bhakti-yoga.

So bhakti-yoga is the last status of yoga system. Therefore it is said, bhakti-vitāna-yogam. Bhakti . . . just like you are going upstair, and step by step, when you go to the topmost step, that is the end of your going up; similarly, the karma-yoga, jñāna-yoga and dhyāna-yoga, and then bhakti-yoga. So ultimate end is bhakti-yoga. So if you have got . . . gone few steps, that is karma-yoga; if you have got few more steps, that is jñāna-yoga; and if you go few more steps, that is dhyāna-yoga; and when you reach the ultimate status, that is called bhakti-yoga. The step is the same. Mama vartmānuvartante manuṣyāḥ pārtha sarvaśaḥ (BG 4.11). Everyone is going, trying to reach the ultimate Absolute Truth. But it is simply a partial understanding. By jñāna-yoga, dhyāna-yoga, karma-yoga you can understand partially the Absolute Truth. But bhakti-yoga, you can understand completely. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā, bhaktyā mām abhijānāti (BG 18.55). He does not say: "By jñāna, by karma, by meditation one can understand Me fully." No. He does not say. He says clearly, bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ: "Tattvata, in truth what I am, that can be understood only by bhakti-yoga." You see Bhagavad-gītā.

So to understand the Absolute Truth you have to accept this sāṅkhya-yoga or bhakti-vitāna-yogam. Then you will understand very . . . because the question was, by Devahūti, that manda-dhīḥ sukhaṁ buddhyeya. Sukhaṁ buddhyeya: "Very easily, without any much trouble, I may understand. You kindly describe in this way—the Absolute Truth I can understand very easily." So that is bhakti-yoga. In the Ninth Chapter of Bhagavad-gītā it is said, susukhaṁ kartum avyayam (BG 9.2). Susukham. If you practice bhakti-yoga, it is very easy, at the same time very pleasing. Very pleasing. Susukhaṁ kartum avyayam. And avyayam. Avyayam means not deteriorating. Svalpam apy asya dharmasya trāyate mahato bhayāt (BG 2.40). If you execute even partially, it has got so potency that it will lead you more and more to the ultimate goal of life. This is called perfect sāṅkhya-yoga.

So this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is meant for giving education to the people of this sāṅkhya-yoga system, or bhakti-yoga system, because it is the recommended process by authorities. And all the āmnāya, origin of the āmnāya, just like Lord Brahmā, Lord Śiva, then Kapiladeva—here is Kapiladeva—they are mahājana. Mahājana means great authorities. Dharmasya tattvaṁ nihitaṁ guhāyāṁ mahājano yena gataḥ sa panthāḥ (CC Madhya 17.186). It is very difficult to understand the path of perfection. Therefore the śāstra recommended that, "You follow the mahājana." This is called āmnāya. "You follow the mahājana." And who are mahājana? They are also described in the śāstras: svayambhūr nāradaḥ śambhuḥ (SB 6.3.20). Svayambhū means Lord Brahmā. Lord Brahmā is . . . another name is Svayambhū. He was found in the lotus flower emanating from the navel of Viṣṇu. So practically, he was not born of father and mother; therefore he is called Svayambhū. Svayambhūr nāradaḥ śambhuḥ. Nārada Muni is authority. And Śambhu, Lord Śiva. Therefore there is Rudra-sampradāya, āmnāya, because he is authority. Svayambhūr nāradaḥ śambhuḥ, kumāraḥ, this Kumāra. And Kumāra means catuḥsana, Sanaka, Sanat-kumāra, catuḥsana. They are also authorities. And Kapiladeva, here, Devahūti-putra Kapiladeva, He is also authority. In this way, Lord Brahmā, Lord Śiva, Kapiladeva, Manu and Bhīṣmadeva, Janaka, Janaka Mahārāja, Bhīṣmadeva, and Śukadeva Gosvāmī, Prahlāda Mahārāja—in this way there are twelve authorities, and all of them are following the Sāṅkhya philosophy or bhakti-yoga, all of them.

So we have to accept one of these mahājana. Mahājano yena gataḥ sa panthāḥ (CC Madhya 17.186). Then you will be successful. Tarko 'pratiṣṭham: If you want to learn the Absolute Truth by logic and argument, it will never be possible. Logician . . . you may be one logician, better logician than me, and another logician may be better than you. But the Absolute Truth is avan manasa-gocara. By logical arguments how you can reach? That is not possible. Tarko 'prati . . . therefore it is useless waste of time. Tarko 'pratiṣṭhaḥ śrutayo vibhinnāḥ. Scriptures, even you take the Vedic scriptures, there are so many: four Vedas . . . some of them are following the Yajur-veda, some of them following Ṛg-veda, some of them Sāma-veda, Atharva-veda. Then there are Upaniṣads. Then there are Purāṇas, then Brahma-sūtra, the Rāmāyaṇa, Mahābhārata. They are all right. But because I am ill-advised, I take conclusion differently. Śrutayo vibhinnāḥ. Or you take Bible or Koran.

So by simply reading all the scriptures, it is very difficult also. So śrutayo vibhinnā nāsāv munir yasya mataṁ na bhinnam. Muni, means thoughtful men, philosophers, they are also defeating one thoughtful man, another thoughtful man. Unless he defeats another man, philosopher, he does not become a very big philosopher. Therefore it is said, nāsāv munir yasya mataṁ na bhinnam. Why? You cannot become a muni unless you propound a different system of philosophy. So this is the position. Dharmasya tattvaṁ nihitaṁ guhāyām. Therefore the truth of spiritual life is very complicated. It is very difficult to understand. Then how I shall be able to understand? The conclusion is mahājano yena gataḥ sa panthāḥ (CC Madhya 17.186). You follow the mahājana. Out of these twelve mahājana, you follow any one of them, and you will be successful.

So our proposition is that Kṛṣṇa is the original mahājana. Kṛṣṇa instructed Brahmā. Brahmā is also mahājana. And Kṛṣṇa instructed everyone. Just like Bhagavad-gītā, He is instructing everyone. How? Aham ādir hi devānām (BG 10.2): "All the demigods, they are subordinate to Me." Aham ādi: "I am the original." Everyone has learned from Kṛṣṇa. In the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam it is said, tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye (SB 1.1.1). So Kṛṣṇa is teaching personally just like Kapiladeva is teaching personally. So you take Kapiladeva's philosophy, Sāṅkhya philosophy, Kṛṣṇa's philosophy, Bhagavad-gītā, but try to understand as He says. Don't interpret in the wrong way. So this is āmnāya-tattvam. So if we fix up the idea how to receive transcendental knowledge and how to practice it, if we simply take the instruction of these mahājana, āmnāya, so that will be very beneficial and easy also.

So Kapiladeva will describe the Sāṅkhya philosophy to His mother; not only mother, but tanvābhijātaḥ. Naturally, if we take birth from my mother, I have got natural affection for my mother. But Devahūti is not ordinary mātra. She is very submissive. Therefore it is said that jāta-snehaḥ. Naturally there is affection, and when Kapiladeva saw that, "This woman . . . woman is supposed to be less intelligent, but she is very submissive and My mother," in both ways He became compassionate that, "She is eager to know about the truth, and she is so submissive, and after all, I have taken . . . I have received this body from this woman, My mother. So let Me try to give her the best of the philosophical conclusion." And that is Sāṅkhya philosophy. He will speak from the next verse.

Thank you very much.

Devotees: Haribol. Jaya. (end)