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730908 - Lecture BG 07.01 at Uppsala University - Stockholm

His Divine Grace
A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada

730908BG-STOCKHOLM - September 08, 1973 - 39:05 Minutes


. . . yogaṁ yuñjan mad-āśrayaḥ
asaṁśayaṁ samagraṁ māṁ
yathā jñāsyasi tac chṛṇu
(BG 7.1)

Śrī bhagavān uvāca. Bhagavān means the Supreme Being. That is also dictionary word. In the . . . I consulted the Oxford Dictionary, "God." God means "the Supreme Being." And the Supreme means . . . that is also stated in the dictionary, "The greatest authority." So God means the greatest authority, Supreme, Supreme Being. We have got little idea of supreme. Suppose when you go to work in our office, the proprietor of the establishment or the managing director of the establishment, he's called the supreme. We have got experience of the Supreme Court. In India, we have got Supreme Court. If there is any judgment which is not accepted by the litigant, he can go to the Supreme Court. And in the judgment given in the Supreme court is final. No more any appeal. That is final. Supreme means that—final.

So bhagavān uvāca. Bhagavān means the Supreme Being. We are all beings. We are also living entities. Similarly, Bhagavān, or God, He's also a living entity. As living entity, we are the same. But He's the supreme living entity. No more greater than Him. Here, we can distinguish. I am here. You may be greater than me. Another person may be greater than you. Another person may be greater than him. In this way, you go on searching—greater, greater, greater, greater—and when you come to a person, nobody is greater than Him, that is God. Nowadays it has become a fashion, so many Gods. Especially, they come to your country, Western country. But God can be plural number. God is always singular number, one. If God is plural number, then that is not God. That plural-number god may be the living entities. We are living entities, and God is also living entity, but the supreme living entity. That is the difference. It is Vedic statement.

nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām
eko yo bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān
(Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13)

Description of God. He's nitya. Nitya means eternal. And we living entities, we are also eternal. Na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre (BG 2.20). We, at the present moment, in the material condition, we are changing body. That change of body is called death. Actually, the living entity within the body, he has no death, no birth. Na jāyate na mriyate vā kadācit. This description we have got in the Vedic literature. So God is also nitya, eternal. We are also eternal. God is also cognizant, and we are also cognizant. We have got knowledge, and God has got knowledge. The difference is that I have got knowledge limited within this limit of this body. I have no knowledge what is going on in your body; neither you know what is going on in my body. Therefore, we are individuals. But God is, although individual, He's spread everywhere. That is God.

Aṇḍāntara-stha-paramāṇu-cayāntara-stham (Bs. 5.35). God is within this universe, within yourself, within myself, within the atom. Aṇḍāntara-stha-paramāṇu . . . paramāṇu means atom. He's within the atom also. But I, you, we are limited within this body. We are limited. I cannot say that I understand what is going in your body, pains and pleasure. That I cannot say. But I can understand pains and pleasure of my body. So the quality is the same. God has knowledge. You, you, me, we have got knowledge. But our knowledge is limited. God's knowledge is unlimited. But knowledge is there, cognizant. Therefore the Vedas says, nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13). He is the supreme eternal amongst all other eternals. He's the supreme cognizant amongst all other cognizants. This is the difference.

So Bhagavān means the supreme opulent. Bhaga means opulence. Just like riches, reputation, strength, beauty, knowledge, renunciation, these are called opulences. So every one of us has got little opulences. I have got also little money. You have got also little money. But I cannot claim, neither you can claim, that you are the proprietor of all the riches of the world or the universe. That you cannot claim. Nobody can claim. But God can claim. That is the difference. God can claim. As He claims . . . we understand from the Bhagavad-gītā:

bhoktāraṁ yajña-tapasāṁ
suhṛdaṁ sarva-bhūtānāṁ
jñātvā māṁ śāntim ṛcchati
(BG 5.29)

God says that, "I am the enjoyer of everything." We are acting in this material world to enjoy something. We are working day and night to get some fruit of our labor and enjoy it. Everyone, either he's doing business or he's a professional man or he's a worker or anything he is, he's working very hard, day and night, to enjoy something. So . . . but we cannot claim that we can enjoy everything in this world, although we have got the desire, but limited power to enjoy. The unlimited enjoyer is Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Just like we want to enjoy life, family life. We marry one wife, or, in some countries, more than one wife—two, three, four. But when Kṛṣṇa married, He married 16,108 wives. So . . . and sixteen thousand wives were given sixteen thousand palaces. And each wife got ten children. And Kṛṣṇa also expanded Himself into 16,108 forms. That is God.

For us, it is very difficult to maintain even one wife at the present moment. This is the difference. Just try to understand what is the meaning of this word bhagavān. Bhaga means opulence. This is one of the opulences: richness. When Kṛṣṇa was present on this planet, He was so rich that He could maintain sixteen thousand queens in sixteen thousand very costly palaces made of marble, the furnitures made of ivory, and the beds were made of silk, and each and every room was decorated, bedecked with jewels, glittering jewels, so that at night there was no need of electricity or lamp. These descriptions are there in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam of Kṛṣṇa's palace, Kṛṣṇa's sixteen thousand wives, Kṛṣṇa's expansion into sixteen thousand forms. This is Bhagavān. Bhagavān means unlimitedly potential. That is Bhagavān.

So here in this chapter we are trying to understand what is Bhagavān. This Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement means to try to understand what is Bhagavān, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is our endeavor. It is very difficult to understand Bhagavān, but there is a process. If you adopt that process, you can understand God, or Bhagavān. That process is being described by the Supreme Lord Himself, Bhagavān. Bhagavān uvāca. What is that process?

mayy āsakta-manāḥ pārtha
yogaṁ yuñjan mad-āśrayaḥ
asaṁśayaṁ samagraṁ māṁ
yathā jñāsyasi tac chṛṇu
(BG 7.1)

"My dear Arjuna, now I shall explain to you. You hear with attention," tac chṛṇu. What is that? Mayy āsakta-manāḥ pārtha: "You have to increase your attachment for Me." Mayy āsakta. Mayi āsakta. Mayi means "unto Me," and āsakti means "attachment." Mayy āsakta-manāḥ. Mind has to be trained up in such a way that you increase your attachment for God, or Kṛṣṇa.

When we speak Kṛṣṇa, you understand "God." Kṛṣṇa is one of the names of God. There are many millions of name, of which "Kṛṣṇa" is the chief. Because this word Kṛṣṇa means all attractive, because He's fully opulent. Just like if, in this material world, if one man is very rich, he's attractive. He draws attention of the people in general. If he's very powerful, he draws attention. If he's very reputed, famous, he draws attention. If he's very wise, learned, he draws attention. But Kṛṣṇa has got all these things in fullness. Therefore, He draws attention of everyone. Therefore His name is Kṛṣṇa. This "Kṛṣṇa" name means all-attractive. He has got all the attractive features. Therefore He's called Kṛṣṇa.

So Kṛṣṇa says: "Just try to increase your attachment for Me. Practice this." It is not difficult. Just like we have got attachment for something here in this material world. Somebody's attached to do business, somebody's attached to woman, somebody's attached to man, somebody's attached to riches, somebody's attached to art, somebody's attached to . . . so many things. There are many subject matter of attachment. So attachment we have got. That we cannot deny. Everyone. We have got some attachment for something. That attachment should be transferred for Kṛṣṇa. That is called Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

We are attached to something with consciousness, not blindly. So we have got the consciousness. When we turn our attachment, or train ourself to increase our attachment for Kṛṣṇa, that is called bhakti-yogam. Bhakti-yogam. You have heard the name of yoga. yoga means connecting link. So if you practice this bhakti-yoga, then, gradually, you increase your attachment for Kṛṣṇa. That is the . . . it is stated also in the Bhagavad-gītā: bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ (BG 18.55): "If you practice bhakti-yoga," that is called bhaktyā, "then you can understand Me. Not otherwise."

There are different types of yoga system—bhakti-yoga, jñāna-yoga, karma-yoga, haṭha-yoga, dhyāna-yoga. So many yogas. But the bhakti-yoga is the supermost. That is stated in the last chapter. I am reading before you the Seventh Chapter. At the end of the Sixth Chapter, Kṛṣṇa says:

yoginām api sarveṣāṁ
śraddhāvān bhajate yo māṁ
sa me yuktatamo mataḥ
(BG 6.47)

Yoginām api sarveṣām. One who practices yoga system, he's called yogī. So Kṛṣṇa says, yoginām api sarveṣām: "Of all the yogīs . . ." I have already stated, there are different kinds of yogīs. "Of all the yogīs . . ." Yoginām api sarveṣām. Sarveṣām means "of all yogīs." Mad-gatenāntar-ātmanā: "one who is thinking of Me within himself." We can think of Kṛṣṇa. We have Kṛṣṇa's form, Kṛṣṇa Deity, we worship. So if we engage ourself in the worship of the Deity, the form of Kṛṣṇa, which is nondifferent from Kṛṣṇa, or, in the absence of Deity, if we chant the holy name of Kṛṣṇa, that is also Kṛṣṇa. Abhinnatvān nāma-nāminoḥ (CC Madhya 17.133).

Kṛṣṇa is Absolute. Therefore, there is no difference between Him and His name. There is no difference between Him and His form. There is no difference between Him and His picture. There is no difference between Him and His topics. Anything about Kṛṣṇa is Kṛṣṇa. This is called absolute knowledge. So either you chant the Kṛṣṇa's name or you worship Kṛṣṇa's form—everything is Kṛṣṇa. So there are different forms of devotional service.

śravaṇaṁ kīrtanaṁ viṣṇoḥ
smaraṇaṁ pāda-sevanam
arcanaṁ vandanaṁ dāsyaṁ
sakhyam ātma-nivedanam
(SB 7.5.23)

You just hear about Kṛṣṇa. That hearing is also Kṛṣṇa. Just like just now we are trying to hear about Kṛṣṇa. So that hearing is also Kṛṣṇa. These boys and girls, they are chanting. That chanting is also Kṛṣṇa. Śravaṇaṁ kīrtanam. Then smaraṇam. When you chant of Kṛṣṇa, if you remember the picture of Kṛṣṇa, that is also Kṛṣṇa. Or you see the picture of Kṛṣṇa. That is also Kṛṣṇa. You see the Deity of Kṛṣṇa. That is Kṛṣṇa. You learn something about Kṛṣṇa. That is also Kṛṣṇa. So anyway:

śravaṇaṁ kīrtanaṁ viṣṇoḥ
smaraṇaṁ pāda-sevanam
arcanaṁ vandanaṁ dāsyaṁ
sakhyam ātma-nivedanam
(SB 7.5.23)

Any of the nine items, if you accept, you immediately contact Kṛṣṇa. Either you accept all the nine items or eight or seven or six or five or four or three or two, at least one, if you rigidly take and . . . suppose this chanting. It does not cost anything. We are chanting all over the world. Anyone can chant by hearing us. It does not cost you. And if you chant, there is no loss on your part. So . . . but if you do, then immediately you contact Kṛṣṇa. That is the benefit. Immediately. Because Kṛṣṇa's name and Kṛṣṇa is non . . . abhinnatvān nāma-nāminoḥ (CC Madhya 17.133). These are the descriptions of the Vedic literature. Abhinnatvān nāma-nāminoḥ.

Nāma cintāmaṇiḥ kṛṣṇaḥ. Kṛṣṇa's name is cintāmaṇi. Cintāmaṇi means spiritual. Cintāmaṇi-prakara-sadmasu kalpa-vṛkṣa-lakṣāvṛteṣu (Bs. 5.29). These are the Vedic description. Where Kṛṣṇa lives, the place is described: cintāmaṇi-prakara-sadmasu kalpa-vṛkṣa-lakṣāvṛteṣu surabhīr abhipālayantam. So nāma, the holy name of Kṛṣṇa, is also cintāmaṇi, spiritual. Nāma cintāmaṇiḥ kṛṣṇaḥ. He is the same Kṛṣṇa, person. Nāma cintāmaṇiḥ kṛṣṇa caitanya (CC Madhya 17.133). Caitanya means not dead, but living entity. You can get the same benefit by chanting name as you get personally talking with Kṛṣṇa. That is also possible.

But this will be gradually realized. Nāma cintāmaṇiḥ kṛṣṇa caitanya-rasa-vigrahaḥ. Rasa-vigraha means the pleasure, reservoir of all pleasure. As, as you chant the name of Hare Kṛṣṇa, so gradually you relish some transcendental pleasure. Just like these boys and girls, while chanting, they're dancing in joyfulness. Nobody could follow them. But they are not crazy fellows, that they're chanting. Actually, they're getting some pleasure, transcendental pleasure. Therefore they're dancing. It is not that the dog-dance. No. It is really spiritual dance, the soul's dance. So . . . therefore, He's called rasa-vigraha, reservoir of all pleasure.

Nāma cintāmaṇiḥ kṛṣṇa caitanya-rasa-vigrahaḥ pūrṇaḥ. Complete. Not that one percent less than Kṛṣṇa. No. Cent percent Kṛṣṇa. Complete. Pūrṇa. Pūrṇa means complete. Pūrṇaḥ śuddhaḥ. Śuddha means purified. There is contamination in the material world. Material, any name you chant, because it is materially contaminated, you cannot continue it for very long. This is another experience. But this chanting of Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, if you go on chanting for twenty-four hours, you'll never feel fatigued. That is the test. You go on chanting.

These boys can chant twenty-four hours, without eating anything, without drinking water. It is so nice. Because it is complete, spiritual, śuddha. Śuddha means pure. Not materially contaminated. Material pleasure, any pleasure . . . the highest pleasure in the material world is sex. But you cannot enjoy it twenty-four hours. That is not possible. You can enjoy it for few minutes, that's all. Even if you are forced to enjoy—you'll reject it, "No, no more." That is material. But spiritual means there is no end. You can enjoy perpetually, twenty-four hours. That is spiritual enjoyment. Brahma-saukhyam anantam (SB 5.5.1). Anantam. Anantam means unending.

So in order to enjoy this spiritual pleasure, you have to practice some tapasya, austerity. Because you are spiritual, every one of us, spiritual, ahaṁ brahmāsmi. We are not this material body. We change. It is for certain years. Again we change: another body, another body. This changing of body is going on because we are seeking material pleasure. So God is giving us different types of body for enjoying different types of material pleasures. But if you want to enjoy spiritual pleasure, then you do not require to change body. That is the mission of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. That every one of you want pleasure, but that pleasure, in the material world, you cannot enjoy perpetually. But if you purify yourself of this material contamination, if you do not accept this material body again, and you remain in your spiritual body, then you enjoy transcendental bliss eternally.

So this human form of life is meant for that purpose. Lower than the human form of life, cats and dogs, they cannot understand what is spiritual pleasure. That is not possible. But in the human form of life you can understand what is spirit and what is matter and what is spiritual pleasure and what is material pleasure. This distinction we can make. That much consciousness is developed in the human form of life. But if we misuse this developed consciousness for material pleasures, then we are missing the opportunity. This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. Our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is that you have got this human form of body. Don't miss the opportunity that you can, if you properly utilize, if you train yourself, you can be transferred to the platform of eternal, spiritual bliss. This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement.

So here Kṛṣṇa is teaching, Himself, how you can become Kṛṣṇa conscious. The first item, He says, mayy āsakta-manāḥ pārtha: "My dear Arjuna, if you increase your attachment for Me, that is the beginning." And that is the end. That is beginning and that is end. It is not that beginning is something . . . spiritual means it is nothing beginning, nothing end. The beginning and end, the same thing. If you increase your attachment for Kṛṣṇa . . . because, at the present moment, in our material conditional life, we have no attachment for Kṛṣṇa. We have got attachment for non-Kṛṣṇa. So you have to transfer that attachment to Kṛṣṇa. Attachment is there; simply you have to transfer the object of attachment.

So here it is said, mayy āsakta-manāḥ pārtha yogaṁ yuñjan mad-āśrayaḥ. This is yoga. This is meditation. If you are fond of meditation, then you meditate upon Kṛṣṇa, on the form of Kṛṣṇa, playing flute, bluish color, having a peacock feather on His head. The description is there. Barhāvataṁsam asitāmbuda-sundarāṅgam.

veṇuṁ kvaṇantam aravinda-dalāyatākṣaṁ
barhāvataṁsam asitāmbuda-sundarāṅgam
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi
(Bs. 5.30)

Veṇuṁ kvaṇantam. Kṛṣṇa is . . . you'll see, Kṛṣṇa's picture, always a flute in His hand. Always joyful. Because He's the Supreme Lord, there is nothing moroseness. Always joyful. That is the symptom of spiritual life. You'll see Kṛṣṇa always smiling, always playing on His flute. As you see in this material world also, some boy, he has got a flute and he's playing, enjoying. So this is imitation. That enjoyment will not last. But Kṛṣṇa's flute-playing is eternal. He's enjoying eternally. Veṇuṁ kvaṇantam aravinda-dalāyatākṣam (Bs. 5.30): and His eyes are just like lotus petals. Very beautiful.

Veṇuṁ kvaṇantam aravinda-dalāyatākṣam, barhāvataṁsam asitāmbuda-su . . . barhāvataṁsam, a peacock feather. He's very fond of a peacock feather. So that is on His head. Barhāvataṁsam asitāmbuda-sundarāṅgam: very beautiful body like new, blackish cloud. But very beautiful. Blackish cloud. Asitāmbuda-sundarāṅgam. Kandarpa-koṭi-kamanīya. But, although He's blackish, He is more beautiful than millions and trillions of Cupids. Kandarpa . . . therefore, He's all-beautiful.

veṇuṁ kvaṇantam aravinda-dalāyatākṣaṁ
barhāvataṁsam asitāmbuda-sundarāṅgam
kandarpa-koṭi-kamanīya-viśeṣa-śobhaṁ . . .
(Bs. 5.30)

Viśeṣa-śobham. Specifically beautiful. Viśeṣa-śobhaṁ govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi.

So this Deity, description of Kṛṣṇa, is there in the temple, in the book. So if you always simply think of this beautiful form of Kṛṣṇa, that is called perfect meditation. If you simply think of. That is very easy. If you . . . we are always attracted by beautiful things. So Kṛṣṇa is the most beautiful. So if you meditate upon Kṛṣṇa, then your meditation becomes very easy and perfect. Because Kṛṣṇa has said that yoginām api sarveṣāṁ mad-gatenāntar-ātmanā (BG 6.47): "Of all the yogīs, one who is thinking of Me within himself," mad-gatenāntar-ātmanā śraddhāvān, "with devotion and faith," bhajate yo mām, "engaged in devotional . . ." sa me yukta . . . "he's the first-class yogī."

So you can become a first-class yogī at home without any expenditure, without any loss. But you come . . . become the greatest yogī and achieve the result. Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is so nice. And we are distributing this system of yoga. We don't charge anything. We are not businessman, that we give you something and charge something. Of course, when we give you book, we take, because we have to pay to the printers, to the press man. That is another thing. So far our words are concerned, our service is concerned, we don't charge anything. That is not our movement. That is free.

So Kṛṣṇa says, mayy āsakta-manāḥ pārtha. In this way, you can begin your attachment for Kṛṣṇa. Mayy āsakta-manāḥ pārtha yogam . . . this is yoga. To increase attachment for Kṛṣṇa is the first-class yoga system. But how it can be done? Mayy āsakta-manāḥ pārtha yogaṁ yuñjan mad-āśrayaḥ. You have to take shelter of Kṛṣṇa or His representative. Āśraya. Āśraya means to take shelter. You cannot practice this yoga separately.

You have to take shelter of Kṛṣṇa or His devotee. That is called mad-āśraya. Or mad-āśraya means "one who has taken shelter of Me." One may say that, "How can I take shelter of Kṛṣṇa? Kṛṣṇa is not here present." He's present everywhere. It is a question of realization. Then you can take shelter of His representative. Mad-āśraya. Asaṁśayaṁ samagraṁ māṁ yathā jñāsyasi tac . . . (BG 7.1). Asaṁśayam, "without any doubt," samagram, "in complete," yathā, "as," jñāsyasi, "you can understand," tac chṛṇu, "you hear from Me." Kṛṣṇa is describing Himself how you can increase your attachment for Kṛṣṇa.

This will be very elaborately described. We have no time to read now, but one or two verses I can speak before you. Just like Kṛṣṇa says, raso 'ham apsu kaunteya prabhāsmi śaśi-sūryayoḥ (BG 7.8). Raso 'ham. Rasa means the taste, or the attractive taste. Just like when you eat sweetmeat or any, any eatables, there is some nice taste for which you eat. Or you drink water. You are thirsty; you want water. But there is a good taste in the water. Otherwise, how you quench your thirst? There is taste. Everyone knows.

So Kṛṣṇa says, raso 'ham apsu kaunteya: "Any liquid thing, the taste which attracts you, that is I am." Even you are a drunkard, you are fond of tasting wine, I should recommend that you simply think that "This taste of wine is Kṛṣṇa." That will make a yogī of you. That will make you the greatest yogī. If you simply think this, that "I am tasting wine. Oh, very nice taste. This is Kṛṣṇa." Is there any loss if you think like that? This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Raso 'ham apsu kaunteya prabhāsmi śaśi-sūryayoḥ (BG 7.8): "I am the shining of the sun and the moon." Now, every day, morning, you see the sun shining. So as soon as you see the sun shining, if you think of Kṛṣṇa: "Oh, this sun shining is Kṛṣṇa," you become a yogī. You become a yogī. At night also, as soon as you see the moonshine, so immediately if you think, "This moon shining is Kṛṣṇa . . ."

So you can become Kṛṣṇa conscious in any circumstances. There is no limitation that, "You have to become Kṛṣṇa conscious under this condition, that condition." The condition will be enunciated later on. First of all, try to become Kṛṣṇa conscious, that you, at least, you drink water, and so many times in a day you just try to think that the taste of the water is Kṛṣṇa.

That is the beginning of your Kṛṣṇa yoga system. And then, if you chant Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare, then you'll become, gradually, the greatest yogī without becoming very learned scholar, without becoming Vedāntist, without becoming religionist or . . . simply by this process you try to practice, and your life will be perfect.

Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)