730815 - Lecture BG 02.09 - London
Pradyumna: Translation: "Sañjaya said: Having spoken thus, Arjuna, chastiser of enemies, told Kṛṣṇa, 'Govinda, I shall not fight,' and fell silent." (BG 2.9)
Prabhupāda: In the previous verse, Arjuna said that, "There is no profit in this fighting, because the other side, they are all my relatives, kinsmen, and by killing them, even if I become victorious, so what is the value?" That we have explained, that such kind of renouncement sometimes takes place in ignorance. Actually, it is not very much intelligently placed.
So in this way, evam uktvā, "saying this, 'So there is no profit in fighting,' " evam uktvā, "saying this," hṛṣīkeśam . . . He is speaking to the master of the senses. And in previous verse he has said, śiṣyas te 'haṁ prapannam (BG 2.7): "I am Your surrendered disciple." So Kṛṣṇa becomes guru, and Arjuna becomes the disciple. Formerly they were talking as friends. But friendly talking cannot decide any serious question. When there is some serious matter, it must be spoken between authorities.
So hṛṣīkeśam, I have several times explained. Hṛṣīka means the senses, and īśa means the master. Hṛṣīka-īśa, and they join together: Hṛṣīkeśa. Similarly, Arjuna also: guḍāka-īśa. Guḍāka means darkness, and īśa. Darkness means ignorance.
- cakṣur-unmīlitaṁ yena
- tasmai śrī-guruve namaḥ
- (Śrī guru-praṇāma)
Guru's duty is . . . a śiṣya, a disciple, comes to the guru for enlightenment. Everyone is born foolish. Everyone. Even the human being, because they are coming from the animal kingdom by evolution, so the birth is the same, ignorance, like animal. Therefore, even though one is human being, he requires education. The animal cannot take education, but a human being can take education.
Therefore śāstra says, nāyaṁ deho deha-bhājāṁ nṛloke kaṣṭān kāmān arhate vid-bhujāṁ ye (SB 5.5.1). I have several times recited this verse, that now . . . in the lower than human being condition, we have to work very hard simply for four necessities of life: eating, sleeping, mating and defending. Sense gratification. Main object is sense gratification. Therefore everyone has to work very hard. But in the human form of life, Kṛṣṇa gives us so much facilities, intelligence.
We can make our standard of living very comfortable, but with the purpose of attaining perfection in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. You live comfortably—that's all right—but don't live like animals, simply increasing sense gratification. The human effort is going on how to live comfortably, but they want to live comfortably for sense gratification. That is the mistake of the modern civilization. Yuktāhāra-vihāraś ca yogo bhavati siddhiḥ (BG 6.17). In the Bhagavad-gītā it is said yuktāhāra. Yes, you must eat, you must sleep, you must satisfy your senses, you must arrange for defense—as much as possible; not to divert attention too much.
We have to eat, yuktāhāra. That's a fact. But not atyāhara. Rūpa Gosvāmī has advised in his Upadeśāmṛta:
- atyāhāraḥ prayāsaś ca
- prajalpo niyamagrahaḥ
- laulyaṁ jana-saṅgaś ca
- ṣaḍbhir bhaktir vinaśyati
- (NOI 2)
If you want to advance in spiritual consciousness—because that is the only objective of life—then you should not eat more, atyāhāraḥ, or collect more. Atyāhāraḥ prayāsaś ca prajalpo niyamagrahaḥ. That is our philosophy.
The other day in Paris one press reporter came to me, the Socialist press. So I informed him that, "Our philosophy is that everything belongs to God." Kṛṣṇa says—what is that?—bhoktāraṁ yajña-tapasāṁ sarva-loka-maheśvaram (BG 5.29): "I am the enjoyer, bhoktā." Bhoktā means enjoyer. So bhoktāraṁ yajña-tapasāṁ. Just like this body is working. The whole body is working, everyone's, to enjoy life, but wherefrom the enjoyment begins? The enjoyment begins from the stomach. You have to give sufficient nice foodstuff to the stomach. If there is sufficient energy, we can digest. If sufficient energy, then all other senses become strong. Then you can enjoy sense gratification. Otherwise not possible. If you cannot digest . . . just like we are now old man. We cannot digest. So there is no question of sense enjoyment.
So sense enjoyment begins from the stomach. The luxuriant growth of the tree begins from the root, if there is sufficient water. Therefore the trees are called pāda-pa: they drink water from the legs, the roots, not from the heads. Just like we eat from the head. So there are different arrangement. As we can eat from the mouth, the trees, they eat from their legs. But one must eat. Āhāra-nidrā-bhaya-maithuna. Eating is there, either you eat through your legs or your mouth or your hands. But so far Kṛṣṇa is concerned, He can eat from anywhere. He can eat from hands, from legs, from eyes, from ears—anywhere—because He is complete spiritual. There is no difference between His heads and legs and ears and eyes. That is stated in the Brahma-saṁhitā:
- aṅgāni yasya sakalendriya-vṛttimanti
- paśyanti pānti kalayanti ciraṁ jaganti
- govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi
- (Bs. 5.32)
So as in this body our sense enjoyment should begin from the stomach, similarly, as the tree begins developing luxuriantly from the root, similarly, Kṛṣṇa is the origin of everything, janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1), root. So without Kṛṣṇa consciousness, without pleasing Kṛṣṇa, you cannot be happy. This is the system.
Therefore how Kṛṣṇa will be pleased? Kṛṣṇa will be pleased that . . . we are all Kṛṣṇa's sons, God's sons. Everything Kṛṣṇa's property. These are fact. Now, we can enjoy taking prasādam of Kṛṣṇa, because He is the proprietor, bhoktā, enjoyer. So everything should be given first to Kṛṣṇa, and then you take the prasādam. That will make you happy. That is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā. Bhuñjate te aghaṁ pāpaṁ ye pacanty ātma-kāraṇāt (BG 3.13): "Those who are cooking for eating themselves, they are simply eating sins." Bhuñjate te tv aghaṁ pāpaṁ ye pacanty ātma . . . yajñārthāt karmaṇo 'nyatra loko' yaṁ karma . . .
Everything should be done for Kṛṣṇa, even your eating. Anything. All sense enjoyment, you can enjoy—but after Kṛṣṇa has enjoyed. Then you can eat. Therefore Kṛṣṇa's name is Hṛṣīkeśa. He is the master, master of the senses. You cannot enjoy your senses independently. Just like the servant. Servant cannot enjoy. Just like the cook cooking very, very nice foodstuff in the kitchen, but he cannot eat in the beginning. That is not possible. Then he will be dismissed. The master first of all must take, and then they can enjoy all the nice foodstuff.
So Kṛṣṇa is the master of the senses. The whole world is struggling for sense gratification. Here is the simple philosophy, truth, that "First of all let enjoy, let Kṛṣṇa enjoy. He is the master. Then we enjoy." Tena tyaktena bhuñjīthā, the Īśopaniṣad. Everything belongs to Kṛṣṇa. Īśāvāsyam idaṁ sarvam (ISO 1): "Everything belongs to Kṛṣṇa." This is the mistake. Everything belongs to Kṛṣṇa, but we are thinking, "Everything belongs to me." This is illusion. Ahaṁ mameti. Ahaṁ mameti. Janasya moho 'yam ahaṁ mameti (SB 5.5.8). This is illusion.
Everyone is thinking, "I am this body, and everything, whatever we find in this world, that is to be enjoyed by me." This is the mistake of civilization. The knowledge is: "Everything belongs to God. I can take only whatever He gives me, kindly allows." Tena tyaktena bhuñjīthā. This is not Vaiṣṇava philosophy; this is the fact. Nobody is proprietor. Īśāvāsyam idaṁ sarvam. Every . . . Kṛṣṇa says: "I am enjoyer. I am the proprietor." Sarva-loka-maheśvaram (BG 5.29). Mahā-īśvaram. Mahā means great. We can claim īśvaram, controller, but Kṛṣṇa is described as mahā-īśvaram, "controller of the controller." That is Kṛṣṇa. Nobody is independently controller.
So therefore Kṛṣṇa is described Hṛṣīkeśa. Hṛṣīkeṇa hṛṣīkeśa-sevanaṁ bhaktir ucyate (CC Madhya 19.170). And bhakti means to serve Hṛṣīkeśa by the hṛṣīka. Hṛṣīka means senses. Kṛṣṇa is the master of the senses, and therefore, whatever senses I have got, the master is Kṛṣṇa, proprietor is Kṛṣṇa. So when our senses are engaged in the satisfaction of the master of the senses, that is called bhakti. This is the definition of bhakti, devotional service. And when the senses are engaged for sense gratification, not for the master, that is called kāma. Kāma and prema. Prema means to love Kṛṣṇa and do everything for satisfaction of Kṛṣṇa. That is prema, love.
And kāma means everything done for the satisfaction of my senses. This is the difference. The sense is the medium. Either you do it, satisfy your senses, or you satisfy Kṛṣṇa's senses. But when you satisfy Kṛṣṇa's senses, you become perfect, and when you satisfy your senses, you become imperfect, illusioned. Because you cannot satisfy your senses. That is not possible without Kṛṣṇa. Hṛṣīkeṇa hṛṣīkeśa-sevanaṁ bhaktir ucyate (CC Madhya 19.170).
Therefore one has to purify the senses. At the present moment, everyone is trying to satisfy his senses. Ahaṁ mameti. Janasya moho 'yam (SB 5.5.8). Puṁsaḥ striyā maithunī-bhāvam etat. The whole material world is that . . . there are two living entities: male and female. The male is trying also, satisfy his senses, and the female is also trying to satisfy her senses. Here the so-called love means . . . there is no love. It cannot be love, because the man and woman . . . nobody is trying to satisfy the other party's senses. Everyone is trying to satisfy his or her senses. A woman is loving a man for satisfying her senses, and the man is loving a woman for satisfying . . .
Therefore, as soon as there is some little disturbance in the sense gratification—divorce. "I don't want it." Because the central point is personal sense gratification. But we can make a picture, show-bottle, "Oh, I love you so much. I love you so much." There is no love. It is all kāma, lust. In the material world, there cannot be possibility of love. It is not possible. The so-called cheating, cheating only. "I love you. I love you because you are beautiful; it will satisfy my senses. Because you are young, it will satisfy my senses." This is the world. Material world means this. Puṁsaḥ striyā maithunī-bhāvam etat. The whole basic principle of this material world is sense gratification.
- yan maithunādi-gṛhamedhi-sukhaṁ hi tucchaṁ
- kaṇḍūyanena karayor iva duḥkha-duḥkham
- (SB 7.9.45)
This material world, so-called love, society, friendship and love—everything is depending on that sense gratification, maithunādi, beginning from sex. Yan maithunādi gṛhamedhi-sukhaṁ hi tuccham. So when one becomes free from this maithunādi-sukham, he is liberated. He is liberated, svāmī, gosvāmī. So long one is attached to this maithunādi, sex impulse, he is neither svāmī nor gosvāmī. Svāmī means when one becomes master of the senses. As Kṛṣṇa is the master of senses, so when one becomes Kṛṣṇa conscious, he becomes master of the senses. It is not that senses should be stopped. No. It should be controlled. "When I require, I shall use it; otherwise not." That is master of senses. "I shall not act impelled by the senses. Senses should act under my direction." That is svāmī.
Therefore Arjuna is called Guḍākeśa. He is master of . . . he is also, when he likes. He is not a coward, but he is compassionate, because he is devotee. Because he is devotee of Kṛṣṇa. Anyone who becomes a devotee of Kṛṣṇa, all the good qualities manifest in his body. Yasyāsti bhaktir bhagavaty akiñcanā sarvair guṇais tatra samāsate surāḥ (SB 5.18.12). All godly qualities. So Arjuna, he is also . . . otherwise, how he can become intimate friend of Kṛṣṇa unless of the same position? Friendship becomes very strong when both the friends on equal level: same age, same education, same prestige, same beauty. The more similarity of position, then the friendship is there, strong. So Arjuna is also on the same level of Kṛṣṇa. Just like if somebody becomes friend of the president, friend of the king or queen. So he is not ordinary man. He must be of the same position.
Just like the Gosvāmīs. The Gosvāmīs, when they gave up their family life . . . it is described by Śrīnivāsa Ācārya, tyaktvā tūrṇam aśeṣa-maṇḍala-pati-śreṇiṁ sadā tucchavat (Śrī Śrī Ṣaḍ-gosvāmy-aṣṭaka 4). Maṇḍala-pati, big, big leaders, maṇḍala-pati. Big, big leaders, zamindars, big, big, big men. He was minister. Who can become his friend unless he is also a very big man? So Rūpa Gosvāmī gave up their company. As soon as Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī became acquainted with Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, immediately they decided that, "We shall retire from this ministership and join Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to help Him." To serve Him, not to help Him. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu doesn't require anyone's help. But if we try to associate and try to serve Him, then our life becomes successful.
Just like Kṛṣṇa says . . . Kṛṣṇa came to preach Bhagavad-gītā. Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66). That was His mission that, "These rascals have become servant of so many things: society, friendship, love, religion, this, that, so many things, nationality, community. So these rascals should stop all this nonsense business." Sarva-dharmān parityajya: "Give up all this nonsense. Simply just become surrendered unto Me." This is religion. Otherwise, how Kṛṣṇa is advising that sarva-dharmān parityajya (BG 18.66): "You give up all religious system"? He came—dharma-saṁsthāpanārthāya (BG 4.8) — He came to reestablish the principles of religion. Now He says, sarva-dharmān parityajya: "Give up all." That means anything without Kṛṣṇa consciousness, without God consciousness, they are all cheating religion. They are not religion.
Religion means dharmāṁ tu sākṣat bhagavat-praṇītam (SB 6.3.19), the order of the Supreme Lord. If we do not know who is the Supreme Lord, if we do not know what is the order of the Supreme Lord, then where is religion? That is not religion. That may go on in the name of religion, but that is cheating. So the Bhagavad-gītā ends: sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66). And Bhāgavata begins from that point.
Therefore Bhagavad-gītā is the preliminary study of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Bhāgavata begins, dharmaḥ projjhita-kaitavaḥ atra (SB 1.1.2): "Now, in this Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, all cheating type of religions are rejected, projjhita." So there is link. Real religion means to love God. That is real religion. Therefore Bhāgavata says, sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmo yato bhaktir adhokṣaje (SB 1.2.6): "That is first-class religion." It doesn't mean that you follow this religion or that religion. You may follow any religion, it doesn't matter, either Hindu religion or Christian religion or Muhammadan religion, anything you like.
But we have to test. Just like a student who has passed M.A. examination. Nobody inquires, "From which college you have passed your examination?" You have passed M.A. examination? That's all right. And we are concerned, whether you are graduate, postgraduate. That's all. Nobody inquires, "From which college, from which country, from which religion you have passed your M.A. examination?" No. Similarly, nobody should inquire, "To which religion you belong?" One must see whether he has learned this art, how to love God. That's all. That is religion.
Because here is the religion: sarva-dharmān parityajya māṁ ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66). This is religion. Bhāgavata says. Dharmaḥ projjhita-kaitavaḥ atra: "All cheating type of religion is kicked out from this Bhāgavatam." Only nirmatsarāṇām, nirmatsarāṇām, those who are not envious of God . . . "Why shall I love God? Why shall I worship God? Why shall I accept God?" They are all demons. For them only, Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam—for them only, those who are actually serious to love. Ahaitukī apratihatā yenātmā samprasīdati.
So real success of life is that when you learned how to love God. Then your heart will be satisfied. Yaṁ labdhvā cāparaṁ lābhaṁ manyate nādhikaṁ tataḥ (BG 6.22). If you get Kṛṣṇa, or God . . . Kṛṣṇa means God. If you have got another name of God, that is also accepted. But God, the Supreme Lord, the Supreme Person, when you have got this . . . because we are loving somebody. The loving propensity is there, in everyone. But it is misdirected. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, "Kick out all these loving objects. Try to love Me." Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekam (BG 18.66). In this way your loving will never be able to satisfy you. Yenātmā samprasīdati. If you want real satisfaction, then you must love Kṛṣṇa, or God. That is the whole philosophy of . . . Vedic philosophy. Or any philosophy you take.
Because after all, you want satisfaction of yourself, full satisfaction of your mind. That can be only achieved when you love God. Therefore that religion is first class which teaches, which trains the candidate how to love God. That is first-class religion. Sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmo yato bhaktiḥ . . . (SB 1.2.6). And that love not with a motive. Just like here in this material world, "I love you; you love me," background is some motive. Ahaituky apratihatā. Ahaitukī, no motive. Anyābhīlāṣitā-śūnyam (Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu 1.1.11). All other desires making zero. Zero. That will be taught in the Bhagavad-gītā. Anyābhīlaṣitā-śūnyaṁ jñāna-karmādy-anāvṛtam (CC Madhya 19.167).
People are working . . . somebody is working for knowledge and somebody is working for sense gratification. This is the material world. This is the material world. Somebody is trying to become very big scholar, knowledge, "What is this? What is this? What is this?" Not for understanding God, but for having some superfluous knowledge. So this is called jñāna. And karma means working day and night for sense gratification. So bhakti is transcendental. Anyābhīlāṣitā-śūnyaṁ jñāna-karmādy-anāvṛtam (Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu 1.1.11). Not tinted by all these contamination, jñāna and karma.
Therefore Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura says, jñāna-kāṇḍa, karma-kāṇḍa, sakalī viṣera bhāṇḍa: either you are engaged in the activities ofkarmaor either you are engaged in the activities of speculating knowledge or acquiring knowledge. This is jñāna-kāṇḍa and karma-kāṇda. So Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura says that, "Both these, jñāna-kāṇḍa and karma-kāṇḍa, are pots of poison. Either you drink this or that, it doesn't matter." (break) he is spoiling the human form of life being engaged in karma-kāṇḍa, jñāna-kāṇḍa. He is spoiling his life. What benefit he will derive? Karma-kāṇḍa—according to karma he'll get a different body. Jñāna-kāṇḍa also. If you actually become very much advanced in knowledge, you can get a body in a brāhmaṇa family, in a very educated family. But I'll have to go through the transmigration of the soul, repetition of birth and death.
There is risk. I do not know what I am going to get. It is no guarantee. Little mistake. Little mistake . . . just like Bharata Mahārāja, little mistake. At the time of . . . he was thinking of a deer. Next life he got the life of a deer. Little mistake. Yaṁ yaṁ vāpi smaran loke tyajanty ante kalevaram (BG 8.6). Because nature is so perfect, at the time of your death, what is the mental condition, you will get a similar body, next life. Karmaṇā daiva-netreṇa (SB 3.31.1). Because daiva, Kṛṣṇa is with you. Kṛṣṇa will see, "Now he is thinking of become a king," "Now he is thinking to become a dog."
So Kṛṣṇa immediately gives you. You take the body of a dog. You take the body of a lion. You take the body of a king. Take the body . . . similarly, if you are thinking of Kṛṣṇa, take the body of a Kṛṣṇa, immediately. Tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti mām eti kaunteya (BG 4.9).
This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness: how to train the mind to die thinking of Kṛṣṇa. Then your life is successful. Therefore we have to chant Hare Kṛṣṇa, always think of Kṛṣṇa. Man-manā bhava mad-bhakto mad-yājī māṁ namaskuru (BG 18.65). Then your life is perfect.
Thank you very much.
Devotees: Haribol . . . (cut) (end)