721018 - Lecture SB 01.02.07 - Vrndavana
Pradyumna: Translation: "By rendering devotional service unto the Personality of Godhead, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, one immediately acquires causeless knowledge and detachment from the world." (SB 1.2.7)
Prabhupāda: So in the previous verse it has been discussed what is first-class religion. Sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmo yato bhaktir adhokṣaje (SB 1.2.6). In the lower, animal life, lower species of life, there is no question of religion. We have discussed many times that there is a gradual process of evolution from low . . . lower animal life to the human life. Aśītiṁ caturamś caiva. Aśīti means eighty, catura means four, lakṣām, eighty-four lakhs, 8,400,000. Non . . . to tell . . . janma paryayāt. This is the evolution. From lower animals, from fish to plants, trees, insects, reptiles, birds, beasts. In this way, we come to the human form of life, and this human form of life is meant for dharma.
Practically also we see that the state laws, state laws are meant for the human beings. State laws are not for the animals. Animals, they do not require to observe the state laws, neither they are able to do so. That is the difference between animal and human being.
So therefore dharma begins from human life. Dharma is the law given by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Just like laws are given by the state, similarly the dharma is given by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. And it is meant for the human being, not for the animal. But at the present moment, they are trying to go back to the animal life. Therefore dharma is neglected. Or practically there is no dharma.
Just yesterday, the Chief Minister, Asan, came. He was speaking that, "It has become a fashion of the modern age that to become irreligious is religious." Yes. That is fact. Therefore in any human civilization, any human society, it doesn't matter whether they're following the Vedic principles or other principles, there is a system of dharma in every human society. That is the beginning of human society.
Dharmeṇa hīnāḥ paśubhiḥ samānāḥ (Hitopadeśa). If there is no dharma, religious principles . . . religious principles includes all moral principles also, social principles, social laws, economic laws. Dharma, artha, kāma, mokṣa (SB 4.8.41, CC Adi 1.90). Dharma is the beginning. Then artha, economic development; then sense gratification; then mokṣa, one after another.
So dharma is the life of human beings. And there are different types of dharmas. Not that, as some rascals say, that all dharmas are equal. No. According to qualities. There are three qualities, three modes of material nature. So one who is attached to the lowest quality, ignorance, his dharma is different from the person who is in the highest level of goodness. Therefore there are brāhmin's dharma, kṣatriya's dharma, vaiśya's dharma and śūdra's dharma.
So what is śūdra's dharma, that is not brāhmin's dharma, because śūdra cannot execute the dharma of the brāhmiṇ. And the brāhmin also cannot come down to the status of śūdras. These are Vedic principles. Therefore in the Vedic society there are divisions: this class of men are brāhmins, this class of men kṣatriyas, this class of men are vaiśyas. Everything, their quality and their activities, are mentioned in the Bhagavad-gītā.
Samo damas titikṣā ārjavam, jñānaṁ vijñānam āstikyaṁ brahma-karma svabhāva-jam (BG 18.42). Śauryaṁ vīryaḥ yuddhe cāpy apalāyanam īśvara-bhāvaś ca (BG 18.43). Just like seven qualities for the kṣatriyas, seven qualities; nine qualities for the brāhmins; three qualities for the vaiśyas; and one quality for the śūdras. But the ultimate goal of life is to attain bhakti-yoga. Therefore in this verse it is said:
- vāsudeve bhagavati
- bhakti-yogaḥ prayojitaḥ
- janayaty āśu vairāgyaṁ
- jñānaṁ ca yad ahaitukam
- (SB 1.2.7)
To execute religious principles means gradually elevated to the highest principle of knowledge. The highest principle of knowledge is bhakti-yoga. Bhakti-yoga. Therefore, in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, in the beginning, it has been described what kind of dharma is described in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. There are different types of dharma. Dharmaḥ projjhita-kaitavaḥ atra.
In the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, in the introduction . . . Vyāsadeva is giving you introduction: dharmaḥ projjhita-kaitavaḥ atra, "All kinds of cheating religious systems are swept away, thrown away, kicked out." Kicked out. Projjhita. Prakṛṣṭa-rūpeṇa ujjhita. Just like we sweep over some room to get out the dust, similarly, dusty, hazy system of religion is completely thrown away. Dharmaḥ projjhita-kaitavo 'tra paramo nirmatsarāṇāṁ satāṁ vāstavaṁ vastu, vāstavaṁ vastu vedyam atra (SB 1.1.2).
This is meant for paramo nirmatsarāṇām, this dharma. Paramo nirmatsarāṇām. Paramo nirmatsara means Vaiṣṇavas. Vaiṣṇava is not envious. They are very merciful. Just like Gosvāmīs: lokānāṁ hita-kāriṇau. Nānā-śāstra-vicāraṇaika-nipuṇau sad-dharma-saṁsthāpakau, lokānāṁ hita-kāriṇau (Śrī Ṣaḍ Gosvāmy Aṣṭaka 2). This dharma, vaiṣṇava-dharma, rūpānuga-dharma, following the footsteps of Rūpa Gosvāmī, that is meant for paropakāra.
All other dharmas, any dharma, they execute dharma for personal benefit. Just like in Christian religion, they pray to God . . . everyone, not only Christians. Hindus, Muslims, they go to God to pray something for personal gain: "O God, give us our daily bread." So the same prayer is offered by everyone under different shape only. So in the calculation of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, such dharmas, system of dharma, which is meant for sense gratification, personal interest, that is called kaitava-dharma, cheating.
Cheating . . . dharmaḥ projjhita-kaitavaḥ atra . . . in this connection, Śrīdhara Svāmī has commented, artha mokṣavāṁś ca nirastham. Those who are aspiring after liberation, that is also rejected. Why? There are so many great saintly persons, jñānīs, philosophers; they're trying to get liberation. And it is cheating? Yes. It is cheating. Vyāsadeva says kaitava, cheating. And a great commentator like Śrīdhara Svāmī, he also gives his confirmation that up to mokṣa-vāñchā, that is cheating.
Why cheating? That is explained by Kavirāja Gosvāmī in his Caitanya-caritāmṛta. Kavirāja Gosvāmī says that:
- bhukti-mukti-siddhi-kāmī—sakali 'aśānta'
- kṛṣṇa-bhakta—niṣkāma, ataeva 'śānta'
- (CC Madhya 19.149)
So bhukti-mukti-siddhi. Bhukti means karmīs, those who are aspiring after being elevated to the higher planetary system, Svargaloka, or higher status of life. That is called bhukti. And mukti, the jñānīs, nirbheda-brahmānusandhana, just to become merged into the existence of the Absolute Brahman. They are, they are called jñānīs, or muktīs, mukti-kāmī. Bhukti-kāmī. And siddhi-kāmīs means the yogīs They are aspiring after so many material opulences.
So because they are demanding something, aspiring something for sense gratification, therefore that is cheating. That is not religion. Bhukti-mukti-siddhi-kāmī sakali aśānta. Aśānta. If you have . . . if you have got some intention to cheat others, then you will be restless, aśānta. But if you are simple, plain, then there is no aśānta; there is śānti.
But we are after śānti. We are not for aśānti. Therefore in the previous verse it has been explained, yayātmā suprasīdati, yenātmā suprasīdati. What is that? Sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmo yato bhaktir adhokṣaje (SB 1.2.6). Unless you come to the platform of bhakti, devotional service, there is no question of śānti. That is not possible. After all, everyone is hankering after śānti. So if for achieving śānti we follow some path which is full of aśānti, how we can get śānti?
Therefore Bhāgavata says, dharmaḥ projjhita-kaitavo 'tra (SB 1.1.2). I am searching after śānti, but I am accepting, say, for karma . . . karma, ordinary karma, a person is working hard, day and night, going here and there. Where is śānti? But because he's a fool, therefore working very hard, when he gets some money, he thinks it is śānti. He thinks it is śānti. But it is not śānti, because to get that money he has to undergo so much aśānti. But because they are flatterers, they, the modern civilization, they want śānti, and if somebody is chanting or is engaged in bhakti-yoga, they do not like it. They say: "They're escaping."
So actual śānti, if anyone wants śānti, as it is described in the previous verse, sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmo yato bhaktir adhokṣaje (SB 1.2.6). You can execute any type of religious system. It does not matter. But if it is leading you to the ultimate goal of life, bhakti, then you are successful. Why? The next verse says, vāsudeve bhagavati bhakti-yogaḥ prayojitaḥ (SB 1.2.7). Bhakti-yoga . . . the Adhokṣaja. In the previous verse it has been explained: adhokṣaja. And who is that Adhokṣaja? Adhokṣaja means "That you cannot realize by your sense perception." He's called Adhokṣaja.
Now we have got our senses. If it is beyond our senses, then we become disappointed, that "We have got our senses. Everything we realize by our senses. And the Absolute Truth has to be understood by some method which is beyond our senses." That means, beyond our senses, the method or the system of religion beyond our senses means bhakti-yoga. Just to clear the disease. Bhakti-yoga is not sense activities. Bhakti-yoga is transcendental activities, beyond senses, beyond the three guṇas, three modes of material nature. That is explained by Kṛṣṇa Himself in the Bhagavad-gītā, māṁ ca 'vyabhicāreṇa bhakti-yogena sevate (BG 14.26). There also this very word has been used, bhakti-yoga. Avyabhicāreṇa bhakti-yoga. Not vyabhicārī.
Vyabhicārī and avyabhicārī. There are different types of, according to the person. Avyabhicārī. Avyabhicārī means just to the point, as it is described by the authorities. Just like Rūpa Gosvāmī. He describes the bhakti-yoga:
- ānukūlyena kṛṣṇānu-
- śīlanaṁ bhaktir uttamā
- (Brs. 1.1.11)
So this is avyabhicāriṇī-bhakti, without any adulteration. There are so-called bhakti-yoga. They are not bhakti-yoga. Someone is thinking that "By executing bhakti-yoga, I shall become merged into the body of the Supreme." There are many. Superficially, they appear to be bhakti-yogīs, but at heart, they are nirbheda-brahmānusandhana. They clearly say also, śaṅkarera mata caitanyera patha: "When you adopt the process of Caitanya Mahāprabhu—that means chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra—but ultimately we accept the opinion of Śaṅkarācārya."
Śaṅkarācārya means nirbheda-brahmānusandhana, to become one with the Absolute. This is Śaṅkara's philosophy. "When we are liberated, there is no more distinction between the Absolute and myself. I'll be, both of us, we become one, merge." This is the Māyāvāda philosophy. But Caitanya philosophy's different. Caitanya philosophy is stated by Caitanya Mahāprabhu in His Śikṣāṣṭaka:
- na dhanaṁ na janaṁ na sundarīṁ
- kavitāṁ vā jagadīśa kāmaye
- mama janmani janmanīśvare
- bhavatād bhaktir ahaitukī tvayi
- (CC Antya 20.29, Śikṣāṣṭaka 4)
Caitanya Mahāprabhu says, na dhanaṁ na janam. Dhanam, riches; janam means men, manpower; na kavitāṁ vā jagadīśa kāmaye. Kavitām, nice wife. So this means that it is not karma and jñāna. In the next line He says, mama janmani janmani. Jñānīs' process is to stop birth and merge into the existence of the Absolute.
So for jñānīs, there is no question of janma. "Finish this." Of course, the bhaktas, they also do not take birth again. Tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti (BG 4.9). But they get their birth in the spiritual world. But the jñānīs, they finish their any kind of birth, either material or spiritual. That is the difference.
So this definition, śuddha-bhakti, avyabhicāriṇī-bhakti, jñāna-karmādy-anāvṛtam (CC Madhya 19.167), that is Caitanya Mahāprabhu's philosophy. And Rūpa Gosvāmī is following Caitanya Mahāprabhu's footprints. Therefore śuddha-bhakti. Śuddha-bhakti, avyabhicāriṇī-bhakti is defined here. What is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā:
- māṁ ca 'vyabhicāreṇa
- bhakti-yogena sevate
- sa guṇān samatītyaitān
- brahma-bhūyāya kalpate
- (BG 14.26)
Anyone who is engaged in pure devotional service, under the lotus feet of Vāsudeva, Kṛṣṇa, he's already liberated. He doesn't require liberation; he's already liberated. "How he can become . . . become liberated? He has not studied Vedānta. He has no sufficient knowledge. We see that he's illiterate, and he cannot read, write. What kind of liberation he has got?" the question may be.
But because such questions are raised by atheist class of men, they cannot understand that how a so-called illiterate man also elevates himself to the highest platform of knowledge. That is explained here: janayaty āśu vairāgyaṁ jñānaṁ ca. Do not think that a devotee, who is on the unadulterated platform of devotional service, can remain without knowledge. He's full of knowledge. How he becomes full of knowledge? Yes. That is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā:
- teṣām evānukampārtham
- aham ajñāna-jaṁ tamaḥ
- nāśayāmy . . .
- jñāna-dīpena bhāsvatā
- (BG 10.11)
So Kṛṣṇa says: "To My devotees," teṣāṁ satata-yuktānāṁ bhajatāṁ prīti-pūrvakam (BG 10.10), "those who are engaged twenty-four hours in unadulterated devotional service to the Lord," buddhi-yogaṁ dadāmi tam, "I give them intelligence how he can go back to home, back to Godhead."
Why this is? Now, teṣām evānukampārtham: special favor for these persons who are twenty-four-hours engaged in devotional service under the direction of bona fide spiritual master. You cannot become a pure, perfect devotee unless you are directed by another pure, unadulterated devotee. Evaṁ paramparā-prāptam (BG 4.2). So therefore Rūpa Gosvāmī has mentioned in his Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, ādau gurvāśrayam. You have to find out. You have to take shelter, not find out. You have to take shelter of a bona fide spiritual master. That is the beginning, ādau gurvāśrayaṁ sad-dharma-pṛcchā.
Then you'll have to inquire, inquiry, sad-dharma, about pure devotional service. That is sad-dharma. Sad-dharma-pṛcchā. Sādhu-vartmānuvartanam. Sad-dharma-pṛcchā. You learn something about devotional service, but the devotional service should be executed by following mahājana. Mahājano yena gataḥ sa panthāḥ (CC Madhya 17.186). Therefore we are rūpānugas. We follow the footsteps of Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī, Sanātana Gosvāmī.
So sādhu-vartmānuvartanam. Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura says: sādhu-śāstra-guru vākya, tinete kariyā aikya. You must learn from guru, from śāstra, what is actually pure devotional service. Just like Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu. One should read thoroughly this Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu to understand the science of devotion. Sādhu-śāstra. And the śāstra means it is enunciated by sādhu, Rūpa Gosvāmī. You cannot read anyone's book. If he's approved sādhu, you can read his book. Then you'll be benefited. If you read hodgepodge, then you will not be able to understand. Therefore sādhu.
And sādhu means he gives quotation from śāstras, authorized śāstra. He's sādhu. Sādhu will not give anything manufactured by him. No. He's not sādhu. Sādhu means whatever he'll speak, immediately he'll give evidence from the śāstra. Sādhu-śāstra-guru. And guru means who is following sādhu and śāstra. The guru who does not follow sādhu and śāstra, who does not follow Rūpa Gosvāmī, does not follow śāstric injunction . . . Śāstric injunction is that if one wants to become leader, if one is the spiritual leader or political leader or brāhmin, he must give up four principles of sinful life: illicit sex life, intoxication, gambling and meat-eating, fish-eating. He must give up. This is called sādhu-mārgānugamanam.
If you don't follow these principles, then how you are following sādhu? If you are intoxicant, if you are fond of smoking, drinking, gāñjā, bīḍī, wine, even chewing pān . . . pān is also intoxication. Drinking tea. These are all intoxication. So if you are addicted to these habits, how you can be sādhu? Sādhu-mārgānugamanam.
So . . . but if one therefore engages himself, vāsudeve bhagavati bhakti-yoga . . . vāsudeve bhagavati. Then you have to follow the devotees of Vāsudeva. Tad-vijñānārthaṁ sa gurum eva abhigacchet (MU 1.2.12). Guru, who requires a guru? Jijñāsuḥ śreya uttamam. One who is inquisitive to learn about the transcendental science, he requires a guru. It is not a fashion that we keep a guru, just like sometimes we keep a dog. Yes. A pet, pet dog, pet cat. So that is for my sense gratification. Guru, I keep a guru, a poor man guru, and guru wants some money from me. Then guru . . . śiṣya says: "My dear guru, if I do not eat meat and fish, my health will fail." "All right, I order you. Under my order you can do that."
This kind of compromise is not there. That is not guru. The guru thinks that "If I say 'Don't eat meat,' then this disciple will go away, and there is no chance of getting money from him." That kind of compromise is not required. And nobody requires to have a guru if he has got such attitude. Guru . . . accept guru means you must surrender there. Samit-pāṇiḥ śrotriyaṁ brahma-niṣṭham. Tad-vijñānārthaṁ sa gurum eva abhigacchet, śrotriyaṁ brahma-niṣṭham (MU 1.2.12). One has to surrender. Tad viddhi praṇipātena (BG 4.34). Bhagavad-gītā says that "You learn from guru by praṇipāta, surrendering." The whole system is surrender.
So vāsudeve bhagavati bhakti-yogaḥ (SB 1.2.7). Bhakti-yogaḥ prayojitaḥ means in order to enter into bhakti-yoga one has to first of all surrender to a bona fide spiritual master. Ādau gurvāśrayam. This is the beginning of bhakti-yoga. And what kind of guru? An . . . that is also explained in the śāstras: śābde ca pare ca niṣṇātaṁ brahmaṇy upaśamāśrayam. Guru must be śābde pare ca niṣṇātam (SB 11.3.21). Śābde means śabda-brahman, Vedic knowledge. He must be dipped into the Vedic knowledge, śābde pare ca, and in devotional service, śābde pare ca niṣṇātam, brahmaṇy upaśamāśrayam. And accepting the Supreme Brahman, Paraṁ Brahman, as the ultimate goal of life. Not he has got any other goal of life. These are the signs of guru.
So to attempt vāsudeva-bhakti means perfection of life. Vāsudeve bhagavati bhakti-yogaḥ prayojitaḥ (SB 1.2.7). If we execute pure devotional service into the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, then jñānam, janayaty āśu vairāgyam. This is the test of bhakti. Janayaty āśu vairāgyam. A man is tested how much he has advanced in bhakti-yoga by his detachment from material enjoyment. If you . . . if one is attached to sense enjoyment, at the same time he poses himself as a great devotee, that cannot work.
Just like if you are eating something, then there will be no hunger. A man is hungry so long he does not eat something. So if, if he, if you say: "Yes, I have eaten so much, and still I am feeling hungry," that cannot be. Actually if you have eaten, then you must not feel hungry. Similarly, if you have actually tasted bhakti-yoga, then there will be no more material attachment. This is the test. Not that artificially keeping a big tilaka on forehead and thinking within always, "How to get money? How to get woman?" That kind of is not. They, there . . . there will be no more hunger for these material things, especially woman and money. That is the test of bhakti.
Therefore that pure bhakti-yoga can be attained only by executing devotional service to Vāsudeva. Otherwise it is not possible. Vāsudeve bhagavati bhakti-yogaḥ prayojitaḥ, janayaty āśu vairāgyam (SB 1.2.7). Without vairāgya, there is no question of liberation. Of course, a devotee's not hankering after liberation. Why he should hanker? As soon as he's a pure devotee of Vāsudeva, he's already liberated. Already liberated.
- māṁ ca 'vyabhicāreṇa
- bhakti-yogena sevate
- sa guṇān samatītyaitān
- brahma-bhūyāya kalpate
- (BG 14.26)
Brahmā-bhūyāya. At the present moment, in our conditional state, we are jīva-bhūta. And when we become actually situated in our spiritual platform, that is called brahma-bhūtaḥ. Brahmā-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati na kāṅkṣati (BG 18.54).
So everything, there is link. So bhakti-yoga means detachment and knowledge. Somebody thinks like that, foolishly, that "Bhaktas are generally fools and rascals, and therefore they take to bhakti-yoga." But actually that is not bhakti-yoga. One who has taken to bhakti-yoga, he cannot be fools and rascals. He must be very learned. Svayam eva sphuraty adaḥ. How he becomes learned? Now, svayam eva sphuraty adaḥ. Everything becomes revealed. Kṛṣṇa reveals.
Nāśayāmy ātmā . . . ātma-bhāvastho jñāna-dīpena bhāsvatā (BG 10.11). If one is pure devotee, then Kṛṣṇa, from within, He will give knowledge. The Kṛṣṇa . . . just like Kṛṣṇa is giving knowledge to Arjuna. He's a gṛhastha. He's a soldier. He's not even a brāhmin. But who can be greater man of knowledge than Arjuna? Because he's directly receiving from Kṛṣṇa. And who can be greater teacher than Kṛṣṇa? So Kṛṣṇa says that, "If you are engaged twenty-four hours in devotional service," then, Kṛṣṇa says from within He will give all knowledge.
Therefore vāsudeve bhagavati bhakti-yogaḥ prayojitaḥ (SB 1.2.7). If you actually engage in the devotional service of Vāsudeva, then jñāna and vairāgya automatically becomes revealed unto you. There is no endeavor.
Thank you very much. (break)
Devotee: . . . keep a compromising spiritual master like a dog. Are these people considered to be more unfortunate than the people who have no desire for spiritual life, because they are making just some artificial show?
Prabhupāda: According to Īśopaniṣad, they are most unfortunate. Because they are keeping the show of spiritual master, but within they have got a different, ulterior purpose. So they are more unfortunate.
Devotee: Because they are pretending?
Prabhupāda: Yes. Those who are not pretending—simple, ignorant—they are not unfortunate. But those who are pretending, they're most unfortunate. (break)
Devotee: Where is that śloka, what . . . what's Kṛṣṇa . . . is that from, that starts: brahma-bhūtaḥ . . .
Prabhupāda: It is Bhagavad-gītā.
Devotee (2): Bhagavad-gītā 18.54.
Prabhupāda: So, finished? (break) (end)