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000000 - Lecture SB 02.01.05 - Unknown
- tasmād bhārata sarvātmā
- bhagavān īśvaro hariḥ
- śrotavyaḥ kīrtitavyaś ca
- smartavyaś ca icchatābhayam
- SB 2.1.5
This verse we have been discussing last week, the answer of Śukadeva Gosvāmī to Parīkṣit Mahārāja, who inquired from him: "What is my duty at the verge of my death?" This is very important point, that we have to prepare ourself for the next moment of our death. People forget it. Janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi (BG 13.9) . Janma, the pangs of birth, the pangs of death, the pangs of disease and the pangs of old age. Anyone who is progressing in self realization, he should keep always these four things before him. He should not forget.
So Śukadeva Gosvāmī, after discussing that there are many subject matter for the materialistic persons who are unaware of self-realization... The very word used: apaśyatām ātma-tattvam SB 2.1.2 , those who are looking forward for self-realization. That is the only business for human life, but our education system is so defective that there is no program for self-realization. So Śukadeva Gosvāmī recommended that we should not be bewildered by the occupation of our materialistic life. He has very clearly discussed that all of these things, they cannot give us protection. There is nice example. Just like when a fly..., a bird flies in the sky, he has to depend on his own strength. In that flying method, neither his father, neither his mother nor his children can help. If he has got sufficient strength to fly, then he is fly very smoothly. Otherwise... Take the, for example, for an aeroplane also. If it has got sufficient strength, arrangement, to fly, it will nicely fly. Otherwise, there is crash. Similarly each of us individually should be preparing for our next death. Not that we should not think that "My family, my community, my nation, my friends can help me." No. Everyone is responsible for his own activities.
So Śukadeva Gosvāmī recommended, tasmād bhārata. Parīkṣit, the King Parīkṣit, he's addressed as Bhārata. You know India is called Bhāratavarṣa. Why it is called Bhāratavarṣa? Because it is named after the King Bhārata. There was a big emperor of the world whose name was Bhārata. From that Bhārata, his descendants have come also Bhārata, and the country is also called Bhārata. So Parīkṣit Mahārāja happens to be a descendant in that family of Bhārata Mahārāja; therefore he's addressed as Bhārata. Sometimes you'll find in the Bhagavad-gītā Arjuna is also addressed as Bhārata, because Arjuna was also grandfather of this Parīkṣit Mahārāja. Similarly you'll find in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam Vidura is also addressed as Bhārata. Sometimes Dhṛtarāṣṭra is addressed as Bhārata. So this common family designation is very prominent still in India. Gotra, the family designation. So the old custom, he's also following, addressing him Bhārata. Tasmād bhārata sarvātmā bhagavān īśvaro hariḥ SB 2.1.5 . He bhārata sarvātmā iti bhagavān iti sundarya. This very... Each word of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is important. This bhagavān word means all-attractive. Bhagavān... I've explained several times, bhaga means opulences, and van means one who possesses. So there are six kinds of opulences: richness, reputation, strength, beauty, wisdom and renunciation. Six kind of opulences. So anyone who possesses these six kinds of opulences in full, not partially, He's Bhagavān, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Take, for example, we are attracted. Suppose some rich man comes in this meeting, very rich man, very famous. We shall immediately be prepared to receive him, because he's attractive. If some reputed philosopher or scientist comes, we shall immediately be prepared to receive him nicely, because he's attractive. So these things are attractions: richness, beauty, education, knowledge, reputation, strength—either bodily strength or political strength or monetary strength; there are so many divisions of strength. So if one is strong, powerful, if one is beautiful, if one is wise, reputed, these things are attraction. Therefore the very word is used "Bhagavān," because God is all-attractive, Kṛṣṇa is all attractive. So he recommends that Bhagavān, that beautiful Kṛṣṇa, all-attractive, all-powerful, He should always be remembered. Smartavyaḥ śrotavyaḥ. And He should always be heard about His activities.
Kṛṣṇa descends, and He leaves behind Him so many activities. In the Bhagavad-gītā it is said: paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām. Sādhūnām. Paritrāṇāya means to give protection; sādhu, those who are devotees. To give protection to the devotees. And vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām: and to annihilate the demons. Paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśāya (BG 4.8) . Yuge yuge sambhavām. So God comes. So far destruction or annihilation of the demons is concerned, God is not required to come down, because His agents Take, for example, this material energy. It is sufficient. If God wants, this whole city of Los Angeles can be, within a second, overpowered by this water of the Pacific Ocean. Within a second. It does not take much time. Therefore for annihilating purpose God does not require to come down. But He comes down for His devotee. Just like Hiraṇyakaśipu. Nṛsiṁhadeva appeared not He, He There was no necessity of His coming for killing Hiraṇyakaśipu; there were many agencies or implements to kill him. But He came to solace Prahlāda Mahārāja. He was so much harassed by his father that He came down just to put His hands, lotus hands, palms on the head of Prahlāda Mahārāja. So He comes. But the benefit, for both the demons and the devotees, are the same. That is God's mercy. Because He's absolute, if He kills somebody, he also gets the same result and as His devotee. This is absolute. Just like Pūtanā. Pūtanā was killed by Kṛṣṇa. Pūtanā planned to smear some poison on the nipples of her breast with a plan to kill Kṛṣṇa. But Kṛṣṇa took it otherwise, that "She acted as My mother; therefore she should be elevated to the position, as Mother Yaśodā is also be elevated." This is God's mercy.
So God is all-good, always. Even if He kills one or even if He protects one, the ultimate result is the same. Therefore Parīkṣit Mahārāja is advised that tasmād bhārata sarvātmā SB 2.1.5 . Sarvātmā means He is all-pervasive. He is living in everyone's heart. He knows everyone in particular details, and, at the same time, He is personally present also, personally present. How He is personally present? Just like in this temple, He's personally present. This arcā-mūrti, it is not idol worship. You practically try to understand. If it was idol worship, idol worship, then these boys and girls, they are American boys and girls, intelligent, educated, they should not have spared so much time for worshiping one idol. No. It is God's mercy that He incarnates Himself as we can handle Him. If we want to worship His gigantic universal form, we cannot approach Him. It is not possible. But He's so kind. He comes just suitable for our, for our being handled by us. That is God's mercy. He, He's in this temple, but He, if you like to worship Him, He can live within your closet. Everyone can take advantage of God, Supreme God. There is no difficulty. Patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ yo me bhaktyā prayacchati SB 2.1.5 . There is no expenditure. He is agreeable to accept a little fruit, a little flower, a little water. Simply He wants your devotional love. That's all. He's not hungry. Of course, this Society is, according to our capacity, offering Kṛṣṇa the best foodstuff. Not that because He says patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ, therefore we offer Him patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ. No. We offer Him to our best capacity—the best, the best foodstuff. That should be the motto.
So here it is recommended that the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is beautiful, full of all opulences, and all-pervading, He should be śrotyavyaḥ. Śrotavyaḥ means He should always be heard. Therefore we are presenting so many books so that one may read. Just like I'm reading Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam; you are hearing. This is śrotavyaḥ. The beginning of devotional service is hearing. Śrotavyaḥ. Hearing means somebody must be chanting. Therefore it is called śrotavyaḥ kīrtitavyaś ca. Kīrtitavya means chanting or reciting. Just like Parīkṣit Mahārāja. Parīkṣit Mahārāja is simply hearing. And Śukadeva Gosvāmī is simply chanting. There are nine methods of devotional services:
- śravaṇaṁ kīrtanaṁ viṣṇoḥ
- smaraṇaṁ pāda-sevanam
- arcanaṁ vandanaṁ dāsyaṁ
- sakhyam ātma-nivedanam
- (SB 7.5.23)
Śravaṇam means hearing. Kīrtanam means chanting. Smaraṇam, memorizing. Vandanam, prayers, offering prayers. So there are different methods. Whichever method is possible by you, you can adopt and you can become perfect. Not that you have to execute all the methods. Even one method, if you perfectly do, you'll become perfect. You'll be transferred to the spiritual kingdom. So we do not say that "This religion is good," "This religion is bad." In every religion there is some form of worship out of these nine. Just like in Christian church there is offering of prayers. We also offer prayer, and that is also recommended in the list: vandanam. Vandanam means offering prayers. Muslim also, they offer prayers in the mosque.
So generally prayers offered in every religious institution. But so far we are concerned, we not only offer prayers, but also hear about Him. And what we shall hear about Him unless He has got activities? Just like you hear in the newspaper the activities of the general people. Similarly, if we have to hear something, there must some activities. That activities we find in the Vedic literatures-immense, unlimited activities. There are eighteen Purāṇas, you'll find activities of the Lord. There is Mahābhārata, you'll find activities of the Lord. There is Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam . We have published. It will come very soon. Kṛṣṇa... The... Full of activities of the Lord, in two volumes of four hundred pages. So simply if you read and hear the activities, either read or hear, both of them are śravaṇam. Activities of the Lord, you get liberation, simply by reading. You have got a tendency for reading book or hearing about somebody, but, generally, for our sense gratification we hear some man and woman making love affairs, and that is the subject matter of a drama or a fiction or a story. The same tendency, if you transfer for hearing about Kṛṣṇa, you get liberation. It is so nice thing. And you'll find so attractive to read about the activities of the Lord that they will... Cannot leave the book. The Nectar of Devotion and Kṛṣṇa. It is practically. If you go on reading, you'll find at times some philosophical topics, but the story is so attractive. Because God, Kṛṣṇa is so attractive, His activities are also attractive.
That is recommended here: śrotavyaḥ bhagavān hariḥ. Bhagavān hariḥ. Śrotavyaḥ and kīrtitavyaś ca. And He should be glorified, smartavyaś ca, and memorized. If you read, if you are serious, then... Actually, these are our... Of course, a Kṛṣṇa conscious person has no leisure. He's twenty-four hours engaged. So other people, they might have some leisure hours, but here, we are engaged, these devotees, in such a way that they want, instead of twenty-four hours, another three-four hours more. But that is not possible. Kīrtanīyaḥ sadā hariḥ. Caitanya Mahāprabhu has recommended that this śravaṇaṁ kīrtanam is so nice that if you engage yourself twenty-four hours you'll find it nice. Kīrtanīyaḥ sadā hariḥ.
- tṛṇād api sunīcena
- taror api suhiṣṇunā
- amāninā mānadena
- kīrtanīyaḥ sadā hariḥ
- CC Adi 17.31
- etāvān sāṅkhya-yogābhyāṁ
- janma-lābhaḥ paraḥ (sic) pumān
- ante nārāyaṇa-smṛtiḥ
- SB 2.1.6
This is very important. Ante nārāyaṇa. Ante means at the end of your life. The ante nārāyaṇa. Etad, etad, etāvān sāṅkhya-yogābhyām. Sāṅkhya-yogābhyām. Sāṅkhya means those who are inclined to discuss about self-realization through philosophical or speculative way. They are called sāṅkhya. And yogi... You know, in your countries, yoga practice is very popular. But this yoga practice is also difficult also. Anyway, those who are interested in yoga practice, for them also. Not that only for the devotees.
It is recommended by Śukadeva Gosvāmī that those who are inclined to make progress in the matter of self-realization by philosophical speculation, for them... Philoso... Even for the scientist. Not only for the philosopher—even for the scientist. They are also called sāṅkhya-yogī. Scientists, they are also, in one way, they are yogis because they are concentrating their attention to certain type of scientific method. Therefore they are also called yogis. The karmīs, they are also called yogi. A karmī, a business man, is improving his business. Just like in your country there are..., there were many great business brain-Mr. Henry Ford, Rockefeller. So they concentrated their attention how to earn money. They are also called yogi in that way.
So here it is stated, sāṅkhya-yogābhyām sva-dharma-pariniṣṭhayā. It is clear, in next word is clear... Sva-dharma. Sva-dharma means a particular type of engagement for a particular type of man. Everyone has got a particular type of engagement. Suppose you are lawyer. Your particular engagement is study of law or executing legal business. So that is sva-dharma. Similarly a businessman, an engineer, a medical man. So these are particular type of occupation of a particular type of man. So here it is recommended, sva-dharma-pariniṣṭhayā. One who is faithfully engaged in his own business, particular type of business, janma-lābhaḥ paraḥ pumān, his human birth, his human life is successful, janma-lābhaḥ paraḥ pumān, if he's successful man, then by successfully, properly executing his particular type of business, if he can, at the end of his life, remember Nārāyaṇa, the Supreme Lord, that is the success of life. It doesn't matter that you have got to chant or dance, but here it is recommended somehow or other, if you can manage to remember or memorize the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa, at the end of your life, that is your success. Etāvān sāṅkhya-yogābhyāṁ sva-dharma-pariniṣṭhayā. Otherwise, your life is failure. If after Suppose you have earned millions of dollars and you have become a very successful businessman or lawyer or politician Just like in your country President Kennedy. He was killed, but we do not know, after his death, what he has become. That information there is no. But if you somehow or other you can remember about the Supreme Personality of Godhead, about His activities, about His form, about His name, anything, form, name, quality, paraphernalia, anything, if you can remember, then that is success of your life.
Because there are various examples. Just like Ajāmila. He was very sinful man in his life, but at the time of death, he called for his son, whose name was Nārāyaṇa. So as soon as he called his son, Nārāyaṇa, immediately he remembered the Supreme Personality of Godhead and he was liberated. Even from his sinful life. There are many examples. And Bhagavad-gītā also confirms. We have to accept this Vedic literature; otherwise we cannot make progress. Our process, this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, our process is to accept the Vedic version. Therefore we are presenting Bhagavad-gītā as it is. We don't make any adulteration or alteration or addition. No. We accept, as it is. That is our process. And if you accept, then our time is saved and we can make progress very quickly.
So that we should do. That is our system. Ācārya upāsanam. We receive the knowledge throughout the disciplic succession of ācāryas, and we accept it and we follow it, and practically you see the result. That is our request. Ante nārāyaṇa smṛtiḥ SB 2.1.6 . Bhagavad-gītā also confirms this version: yaṁ yaṁ vāpi smaran bhāvam tyajaty ante kalevaram SB 2.1.6 . Yaṁ yaṁ vāpi smaran bhāvaṁ tyajaty ante, at the end of life, kalevaram Kalevaram means this body, within this body. This is another problem. Generally people, they do not understand that after giving up this body we enter another body. But this is the first instruction of self-realization in the Bhagavad-gītā . And that is actually we are experiencing. We are changing our body every moment. So similarly, at the ultimate end of this body, when this body is no more useful Because, after all, it is machine. Just like your car, your car or any other machine, if it goes for long time it becomes useless. That is the nature of anything material. In the beginning it is very nice. It is new. Just like this body, my body. When I was a baby I might have been very nice, beautiful, a child. Now it is becoming old and ugly. So this is the nature of..., this is the nature of material thing, that anything material, that will deteriorate, one after another, one after So when this body is completely deteriorated, there is no, there is no more chance of prolonging it, then we accept another body. And the example is vāsāṁsi jīrṇāni yathā vihāya SB 2.1.6 . Just like we change our dress when the dress is old enough or dirty, we give it up and accept another dress. So this is going on.
Now, if at the ultimate end of this body, if we can remember Kṛṣṇa, then our life is successful. What? How is that? Now as soon as we remember Kṛṣṇa, immediately we are transferred to the spiritual world, the abode of Kṛṣṇa or Goloka Vṛndāvana. It does not take even a second's time. Spirit soul is so forceful that anywhere... The yogic success is like that. Yogic, those who are successful yogis, they, at the..., they do not die by nature's law. They control even their death. How is that? They make yoga practice, and when they think that one is perfect now, so he leaves this body and he transfers himself to any planet he likes. There is no need of sputnik. Similarly, the bhakta-yogī, he does not like to stay in any one of the planets within the material world, because he knows from the authoritative description of Bhagavad-gītā and Vedic literature. Just like you'll find in the Bhagavad-gītā, Kṛṣṇa says, ā-brahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ punar āvartino 'rjuna: (BG 8.16) "My dear Arjuna, beginning from the Brahmaloka, the highest planetary system within this universe, down to any other, I mean to say, downwards planet, you can travel anywhere, wherever you like..." Ā-brahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ. There are fourteen status of planetary system within this universe. So we are in the middle. So ā-brahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ punar āvartino 'rjuna: (BG 8.16) even if you are transferred to the Brahmaloka, you have to come down. Punaḥ. Martya-lokaṁ viśanti. Kṣīṇe puṇye martya-lokaṁ viśanti (BG 8.16) . Just like in modern days, especially your American scientists, they are going to the moon planet. But when their stock of, that machine, is finished, immediately they come down. Similarly, you may go to the heavenly planet or to the Brahmaloka... There are very large span of life and opulence you can enjoy. But as soon as like your bank balance is finished, you have to come down. Ā-brahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ punar āvartino 'rjuna (BG 8.16) .
Therefore a devotee is not allured by any of the opulences of this material world. They are not interested. They are interested to transfer themselves in the spiritual world where, it is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā, yad gatvā na nivartante tad dhāma paramaṁ mama (BG 15.6) . That sphere, that sky, where going, nobody comes back to this sky... This is material sky, and there is spiritual sky. These informations are there. If you accept it, then it is all right. But if you..., even if you don't accept it, that is also all right, because we take Vedic version as absolute truth. So these informations are there and they have been accepted by great ācāryas. Not that we are simply accepting. Great ācāryas. Just like Vyāsadeva, Nārada, Asita, and modern age Śrī Rāmānuja, Śrī Madhvācārya, Śrī Caitanya. They are great scholars. They're great, expert in the spiritual science. They have accepted. And we accept Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, by His activities, by the definition of possessing all the six opulences. We don't accept anybody, an ordinary man... Just like now it is a fashion. Everybody comes and says, "I am God." No. We don't accept in that way. Arjuna was talking with Kṛṣṇa. He knew that Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but, in order to convince us that in future there may not be any misunderstanding about the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he requested Kṛṣṇa to show His universal form. So He showed him. So there is no doubt about, about Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
So here it is recommended, ante nārāyaṇa-smṛtiḥ SB 2.1.6 . Somehow or other, if you can remember the Supreme Personality of Godhead in any way, by His name, by His form, by His quality, by His activities, by His paraphernalia, anything, then your life is successful. Now Śukadeva Gosvāmī is speaking about his own self. Śukadeva Gosvāmī's supposed to be liberated from his birth. So he says,
- prāyeṇa munayo rājan
- nivṛttā vidhi-ṣedhataḥ
- nairguṇya-sthā ramante sma
- guṇānukathane hareḥ
Even those who are liberated persons, they are also attracted by the pastimes of the Lord. Not that only the conditioned souls should execute this order, but even one who is liberated. He's giving his personal experience. He says,
- idaṁ bhāgavataṁ nāma
- purāṇaṁ brahma-sammitam
- adhītavān dvāparādau
- pitur dvaipāyanād aham
Śukadeva Gosvāmī is supposed to be liberated soul from the beginning of his life. That is a long story. He was sixteen years within his mother's womb. Anyway, he's accepted as a liberated soul. But still, he's attracted by the activities of the narration of the activities of the Lord, and he says that, idaṁ bhāgavataṁ nāma purāṇam, nairguṇya-sthā ramante sma guṇānukathane hareḥ. Idaṁ bhāgavataṁ nāma. This Bhāgavata, this Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, brahma-sammitam... Brahma-sammitam. So "I heard it from my father, Dvaipāyana." Vyāsadeva, he composed this Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, and he found his son, Śukadeva Gosvāmī... He had many other sons, but this son, Śukadeva Gosvāmī, because he thought that "This body is liberated," so he taught him about the lessons of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, and this is the first time... Because śravaṇaṁ kīrtanam. He heard it from his father, Dvaipayana, and he is now narrating, kīrtanam. He got the chance of narrating Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam at the time of death of Parīkṣit Mahārāja.
So here he admits that idaṁ bhāgavataṁ nāma purāṇaṁ brahma-sammitam. Brahma-sammitam means it is actually transcendental knowledge. Brahma-sammitam, adhītavān dvāparādau. So "By the end of Dvāpara Yuga I studied it from my great father, Kṛṣṇa Dvaipayana Vyāsa." So
- pariniṣṭhito 'pi nairguṇya
- gṛhīta-cetā rājarṣe
- ākhyānaṁ yad adhī...
Now the question may be that "You are liberated person. Why you are attracted with the narration of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam? " So he says that pariniṣṭhito 'pi nairguṇya. "Yes, although I'm situated in the transcendental position, uttama-śloka-līlā, the narration of Kṛṣṇa..." Kṛṣṇa is called uttama-śloka. Uttama-śloka means when Kṛṣṇa is described, He's described by chosen language, not ordinary language. You'll find, those who are students of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, you'll find each and every word so nice and so sublime, even from literary point of view. Therefore He's called Uttama-śloka. And His līlā, His pastimes So Śukadeva Gosvāmī admits that "Although I was situated in the liberated stage of life, still I was attracted by the activities or pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa." Pariniṣṭhito' pi nairguṇya uttama-śloka-līlayā, gṛhīta-ceta rājarṣe. "My dear King, I, I heard it wholeheartedly. It was, it is so nice, it is so sublime that it was attractive to me."
So the question is that a liberated person is never attracted with anything which is material. That is the sign of liberated person. But he was attracted by the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa. That means the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa are not material activities. Otherwise how a liberated person can be attracted? For example, Lord Caitanya. Lord Caitanya, He took sannyāsa. He was very... Sannyāsī. For a sannyāsī to talk with women, to mix with women, is very restricted. So he was very much careful about Him, about this matter. Even some of the women who were wives of His disciples and devotees, they could not come near Caitanya Mahāprabhu. They would offer their obeisances from a distant place. They were not forbidden, but that was the system. But this Caitanya Mahāprabhu, He took pleasure in hearing about the gopīs. Just try to understand. So therefore gopīs' pastime with Kṛṣṇa, they are not material. They are spiritual. Otherwise, how Caitanya Mahāprabhu was attracted?
So Kṛṣṇa and His pastimes, His name, quality, paraphernalia, entourage, everything is spiritual. That is accepted by great scholars like Śaṅkarācārya. He says: nārāyaṇa parā. "Nārāyaṇa, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is beyond this material world." There are many examples. In your Bible also, those who are Christians, God said, "Let there be creation." So there was creation. Now this world, this word is not vibration of this material world. In the material world, if I say, "Let there be some mango," so no. That is not possible. But in the spiritual vibration, that is possible. That is possible. So the study is that God said, "Let there be creation." So there was creation. Now this word existed before the creation, because "Let there be creation" means when God is speaking there was no creation. And the creation means this material world. Therefore this vibration is not material. So when God is saying, "Let there be creation," then He's a person. Therefore His personality is also transcendental, spiritual. Otherwise how He speaks? These things are there in the Vedic literature. Sa aikṣata: "He glanced over, and there was creation." And Bhagavad-gītā also it is said that mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ sūyate sa-carācaram (BG 9.10) .
So Kṛṣṇa's or God's position is always transcendental. Therefore those who are impersonalists, they are not attracted with the variegatedness of this material life. They want to make it void, because they have no information of the spiritual variegatedness. But this Śukadeva Gosvāmī, he became attracted with the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa because Kṛṣṇa's pastimes are not variegatedness of this material world. It completely spiritual. And to discuss about Kṛṣṇa, to hear about Kṛṣṇa, to chant about Kṛṣṇa, to glorify about Kṛṣṇa, everything is spiritual. So if you are engaged twenty-four hours in this business you are not in this material world. You are in the spiritual world.
Thank you very much. (end)