690112 - Lecture BG 04.34-39 - Los Angeles
(kīrtana) (prema-dhvani) (devotees offer obeisances) (indistinct background comments by devotees) (Prabhupāda enters, devotees offer obeisances)
Prabhupāda: Hare Kṛṣṇa. Page? Page?
Devotees: One thirty-one. Verse 34.
Prabhupāda: Hmm. Go on.
Madhudviṣa: Verse thirty-four: "Just try to learn the truth by approaching a spiritual master. Inquire from him submissively and render service unto him. The self-realized soul can impart knowledge unto you because he has seen the truth." Purport . . .
Prabhupāda: This is the process of understanding spiritual knowledge. "Just try to learn the truth by approaching a spiritual master." So if you want to learn, this is a commonsense affair. Whatever subject matter you want to learn, you have to find out an expert.
Suppose if you want to learn engineering, so you cannot go to a butcher; you must find out an engineer. You must admit yourself into the engineering college, learn how to practice engineering. Suppose if you want to become a medical practitioner, so you have to admit yourself in some medical college. Similarly, if you want to know about spiritual matter, then you must approach a spiritual master who knows the things. How you can learn it from anywhere and everywhere? One must be expert in spiritual knowledge. From him you have to learn. Therefore it is said here, "Just try to learn the truth by here . . ."
"Truth" means the Absolute Truth, not relative truth. Or even if you want to know relative truth, you have to approach a particular expert. But here, it is indicated, truth means the Absolute Truth. So Kṛṣṇa indicates that "Just try to learn the truth by approaching a spiritual master." Tad-vijñānārthaṁ sa gurum evābhigacchet.
That is the Vedic injunction.
In the Kaṭhopaniṣad the Vedas says that "If you want to learn transcendental science, so you have to approach a bona fide spiritual master." And who is bona fide spiritual master? That is also described, śrotriyaṁ brahma-niṣṭham: "One who has heard from his spiritual master." This is . . . Spiritual master becomes by disciplic succession, ascending process. Just like we learn "Man is mortal" from some higher authority—from my father, from mother or any other authority.
Or just a child. A child is attracted generally to his mother—in human being, in animals, everywhere. So if a child wants to know his father, then the authority is the mother, and there is no other authority. The child cannot know the name of his father by his own imagination or speculation. If he thinks, "Oh, he may be my father," "He may be my father," "He may be my father . . ." go on imagining, speculating, but you will never be able to understand who is your father. But the mother indicates, "My dear child, he is your father"—immediately business finished. You see?
So if you want to speculate how is God, who is the supreme father, you go on speculating for lives together. But if somebody knows, "Here is your God," you accept it—the business finished. Very simple truth. You cannot imagine, you cannot speculate, even on your ordinary father, what to speak of the supreme father. Is it possible? No.
Therefore just try to learn the truth by approaching a spiritual master. One who is fortunate to have a bona fide spiritual master, he is supposed to . . . Ācāryavān puruṣo veda (Chāndogya Upaniṣad 6.14.2):
"One who has taken shelter of a real ācārya, spiritual master, from the disciplic succession, he knows." Ācāryavān puruṣo veda. Veda means "He is in the knowledge." One who has accepted a bona fide spiritual master, he is in the knowledge. Others are fools. This is the Vedic version everywhere. Here also, Bhagavad-gītā, it is said that "You try to learn the truth by approaching spiritual master."
And how to learn from the spiritual master? "Inquire from him submissively." You don't approach a spiritual master whom you can challenge. Then your selection of spiritual master is wrong. If you keep one spiritual master as show bottle, then your selection is not right; it is wrong. The spiritual master . . . you must select a spiritual master where you can bow down your head, "Yes," submissive. Therefore you have to see.
Suppose you are going here. You are coming here to learn something. When you are convinced that "Swāmījī knows the thing," when you are convinced, then you accept. Then you ask for initiation. Otherwise don't do it hesitatingly or knowing half. Therefore in the system it is enjoined that the spiritual master also observe the disciple at least for one year, and the disciple also study the spiritual master at least for one year.
So when both of them are convinced that "He can be my spiritual master" or "He can be my disciple," then the relationship is established. We initiate our students. The preliminary initiation is offering chanting. Then we observe, at least for one year, how he is chanting, how he is doing. Then the second initiation confirms. That is the system.
So inquire from him submissively. Where you cannot submit, if you think that "Oh, what is this spiritual master? I can challenge him," then there is no question of accepting as your spiritual master. You have to submit yourself, fully surrender yourself. You have to bow your head: "Yes. Here is my spiritual . . ." Just like Kṛṣṇa, er, Arjuna said, śiṣyas te 'haṁ śādhi māṁ prapannam (BG 2.7).
Arjuna in the beginning was speaking with Kṛṣṇa on friendly level, but at last he submitted that "I am Your disciple. Please teach me." This is the process: submissively. "Inquire from him submissively."
And what is that submission? "Render service unto him." Try to please him by satisfying him by service. Yasya prasādād bhagavat-prasādaḥ, you singing. If he is pleased, then you know Kṛṣṇa is pleased. And if he is displeased, then there is no other way. This is the process, submissive. "The self-realized soul can impart knowledge." And because you have to select spiritual master, a self-realized soul. Just like if you want to study particular subject matter, you have to approach a realized person, a perfect person. Then you get. "The self-realized soul can impart knowledge unto you because he has seen the truth." One who has not seen the truth, he cannot.
Now, one may question, "Whether you have seen Kṛṣṇa?" So how Kṛṣṇa can be seen? Yes. A spiritual master must have seen Kṛṣṇa. Without seeing, he cannot be spiritual master. But how Kṛṣṇa can be seen? Kṛṣṇa can be seen by love. Premāñjana-cchurita-bhakti-vilocanena (Bs. 5.38).
Premāñjana-cchurita-bhakti-vilocanena santaḥ sadaiva hṛdayeṣu vilokayanti. Just like if you are in love with somebody, you can see him constantly—he is always on your eyes, anyone you love—so similarly, Kṛṣṇa also can be seen by development of love. Otherwise, how we can see Kṛṣṇa? He is so great, unlimited. Your eyes, your senses, are all limited. You cannot see the unlimited by your limited sense perception. But you can see . . . not you can see, but svayam eva sphuraty adaḥ (CC Madhya 17.136).
When you are developed in the sense of love of Godhead, then He reveals unto you. Therefore you can see.
Just like the sun. You cannot see the sun by challenge at night. If somebody says, "Come on. I shall show you. See. Take some aeroplane," what he will see? He can travel all the sky; still, he cannot see the sun. Similarly . . . This is an example. At night you cannot see the sun, but when the sun rises, you can see the sun, you can see yourself also. By seeing sun, you can see yourself, you can see the world. Similarly, when you see Kṛṣṇa, then you see everything. Without seeing Kṛṣṇa, your eyes are blind, your senses are imperfect. Therefore it is said that "Self-realized soul can impart knowledge unto you because he has seen the truth."
Go on. Purport.
Madhudviṣa: Purport: "The path of spiritual realization is undoubtedly difficult. The Lord therefore advises us to approach a bona fide spiritual master in the line of disciplic succession from the Lord Himself. Nobody can be a bona fide spiritual master without following this principle of disciplic succession. The Lord is the original spiritual master, and the person in the disciplic succession can convey the message of the Lord as it is to his disciple. No one can be spiritually realized by manufacturing his own process, as is the fashion of the foolish pretenders. The Bhāgavatam says, dharmaṁ hi sākṣād bhagavat-praṇītam (SB 6.3.19)."
Prabhupāda: Yes. Dharma means religion. Actual translation of the word dharma is "religion." But actually, "religion" is not the right translation of the word dharma. Dharma means your eternal occupation. That is called dharma: which you cannot avoid. Just like somebody is Christian; next day he becomes a Hindu. Or somebody is Hindu; next day he becomes Christian. This is not dharma. This change of faith cannot be applied in dharma. Dharma cannot be changed.
Just like this candle. Candle has power, illuminating power. If you change this illuminating power of the candle, if you make it dark, then it is no more candle. And there are many examples. Just like sugar. Sugar is sweet. If you change the taste of the sugar into salty, then it is no more sugar. So dharma is like that. It cannot be changed. So dharmaṁ hi sākṣāt (SB 6.3.19). What is that dharma? It cannot be changed.
Service. Either you become human being or animal or anything—bird, beast or American, Indian or this, that, whatever—if you are living being, then your dharma is service. You may become tomorrow Hindu or Muslim or Christian, but you cannot change your spirit of service. That is your dharma. So dharmaṁ hi sākṣād bhagavat-praṇītam. This duty, this eternal occupational duty, is there in every living entity: the service spirit. But the service spirit is now misplaced on account of our conditioned stage. So when it is properly placed, service, that is our dharma.
That dharma is directly from the Supreme Lord, bhagavat-praṇītam. It cannot be manufactured by any man or any demigod or any somebody else. No. It is eternal. And that is taught in Bhagavad-gītā, sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66):
"My dear Arjuna, the most confidential knowledge I am giving you, that you give up all your occupational duties. Simply surrender unto Me." This surrender process is dharma, is your business, and nothing more. That's all. If you learn how to surrender to God, or Kṛṣṇa, then you, actually, you are religious or you are in dharma. And if you practice so many things without surrendering to Kṛṣṇa, or God, then it is all useless labor. That's all. Dharmaṁ hi sākṣād bhagavat-praṇītam (SB 6.3.19).
Yes. Go on.
Madhudviṣa: "The path of religion is directly enunciated by the Lord. Therefore mental speculation or dry arguments cannot help one progress in spiritual life. One has to approach a bona fide spiritual master to receive the knowledge. Such a teacher should be accepted in full surrender, and one should serve the spiritual master like a menial servant, without false prestige."
Prabhupāda: Yes. The brahmacārī means . . . These are indication. When a person . . . when a boy becomes brahmacārī, even if he is the son of a very rich man, he should live with the spiritual master as a menial servant. These are the injunction. That Kṛṣṇa . . . Kṛṣṇa, He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Apart from His Godheadship, He was very rich man's son. Really He was a very great king's son, Vasudeva, but He was given under the protection of King Nanda, Nanda Mahārāja, His foster father. He was also very rich man, very . . . he was king . . .
(break) . . . training of brahmacārī. So how he can see? If he is grown up, he cannot see any other woman in other way. He thinks, "Every woman is mother." This is the training. Of course, that training is not possible at the present moment. The days have changed. But this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is so nice that even brahmacārī begins immediately, he is trained up. He is trained up very nicely.
Madhudviṣa: "Satisfaction of the self-realized spiritual master is the secret of advancement in spiritual life. Inquiries in submission constitute the proper combination for spiritual understanding. Unless there is submission in service, inquiries from the learned spiritual master will not be effective. One must be able to pass the test of the spiritual master. And when the spiritual master sees the genuine desire of the disciple, he automatically blesses the disciple with genuine spiritual understanding. In this verse both blind following and absurd inquiries are condemned."
Prabhupāda: Yes. Blind following and absurd inquiries. These things are condemned in this verse. Blind following means, "Oh, there is a svāmī. So many thousands of people are following. Let me become his disciple." This is called blind following. You do not know what is that svāmī, whether he is a svāmī or he is rascal. You do not know. But because everyone is going, "Oh, let me become his disciple." This is blind following. Without any knowledge, blind following. The svāmī says that "You give me money. I make you immediately God." So this is blind following. And another thing . . . what it says? What? What is that? Blind following?
Madhudviṣa: Absurd inquiries.
Prabhupāda: And absurd inquiries. Absurd inquiries . . . just like somebody goes to so-called spiritual master. There are so many stories, that such-and-such person approached his spiritual master, and he asked his spiritual master, "Can you show me God?" And the spiritual master immediately showed him God. You see? This rascaldom is going on.
Suppose if you go to a professor, and if you say, "Oh, if you are a professor, can you make me immediately M.A.?" and if he says, "Yes, why not?" Then are you not a fool? He is also fool. The so-called spiritual master is also rascal, and the man who has gone to him, he is also rascal. God is so cheap thing that immediately you go to a rascal and he shows you God immediately? Is it magic?
But these things are going on. "Oh, such-and-such Swāmījī had a spiritual master who immediately showed him God." Huh? Dhruva Mahārāja went to the forest, and he had practiced so much penance and austerities. Then he saw God. And I can see God immediately without being trained, without undergoing training? No. It is not possible. These are absurd thing.
Suppose if you are not qualified, how you can see things? Suppose if you have never seen what is ten dollar note, then if you ask somebody, "Can you give me ten dollar note?" and if he gives you one piece of paper, "Yes, it is ten dollar note," then are you not cheated? You must know what is ten dollar note. Otherwise you'll be satisfied with a paper, piece of paper. That's all. If you do not know God, then how you can see God? You have to check it.
You go to a market place. You buy something. Suppose you buy, purchase, one knife. You know what is knife. It must be a sharpened instrument. You see how it is cutting. You test it. So suppose if you go on to somebody to see God, how you'll test it if you do not know what is God? Then he will give you, supply you, deliver you one dog, and you'll understand, "This is God." So what is your testing power? At least, you must have some theoretical knowledge what is God. So these things are going on, absurd things. You must know what is God.
Just like here the Bhagavad-gītā is the description what is God, how He is creating. God . . . you know that God has created this world. Now, here there is description how He creates. So such inquiries, such spiritual master, is overcrowded; but you have, if you are sincere, then you have to find out some spiritual master, bona fide spiritual master, who knows about the science of God. You must know also theoretically what is meant by "God," then you try to see God. Otherwise you'll be cheated.
Somebody says, "Oh, everyone is God." Oh, he becomes puffed-up: "I am also God." But what you know about God? You are thinking, "My spiritual master has said that I am God." But you should not inquire that "How I become God"? We learn from scripture, God has created this material universe. Oh, what I have created? And still I am puffed-up—"I am God"? So this cheating business is going on. So these are absurd. Absurd inquiries are condemned herewith. One must approach to the real spiritual master in submission. Inquire from him by rendering service. Then, gradually, you learn the science.
Here we are teaching our students—not abruptly say that "You have learned." We are teaching them Bhagavad-gītā, Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, so many books. And we are discussing about God practically whole day and night. We are publishing paper. So in this way one has to learn.
It is not a cheap thing that immediately you learn God. But if you are submissive—if you are really inquisitive—then God reveals unto you. Svayam eva sphuraty adaḥ.
Sevonmukhe hi jihvādau svayam eva sphuraty adaḥ. (Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu 1.2.234)
When you are actually in service spirit, then He reveals. That is God-realization.
Madhudviṣa: "One should not only hear submissively from the spiritual master, but one must also get a clear understanding from him . . ."
Madhudviṣa: ". . . with submission, and service, and inquiries."
Prabhupāda: Yes. Clear understanding. Don't accept anything. First of all there must be submissiveness, no challenge. But at the same time, you must clearly understand. Because you have submitted, it is not that you have to understand something dogmatic. No.
Submission must be there, but at the same time, you should have clear understanding. This is science. Not that if something is pushed and you are: "Oh, my spiritual master has said; therefore I accept it." That is fact, that you should, but at the same time, by inquiries, by inquisitiveness, you must clear everything: "Yes, God is like this."
Madhudviṣa: "A bona fide spiritual master is by nature very kind towards the disciple, and therefore when the student is submissive and is always ready to render service, the reciprocation of knowledge and inquiries becomes perfect."
Prabhupāda: Perfect. This is the perfect way. Hmm. Go on.
Madhudviṣa: Thirty-five: "And when you have thus learned the truth you will know that all living beings are My parts and parcels, and that they are in Me and are Mine."
Prabhupāda: This is knowledge. When one understands that God is such and such by the mercy of spiritual master, by studying, by serving, then what is that understanding? "When you have thus learned the truth you will know that all living beings are My part and parcel." This is real knowledge. Part and parcel is not the whole.
This finger is part and parcel of my body, but it is not the whole body, although you can call it body. Suppose somebody touches my finger. I can say, "Oh, why you have touched my body?" This can be called body, but it is . . . actually it is not body; it is finger.
Similarly, part and parcel of God can be called god, but he is not Supreme God. Therefore there are two words in Vedic language: ātmā, Paramātmā. Ātmā. Ātmā means living entities. We are all ātmās. And God is Paramātmā. And in the Kaṭhopaniṣad it is said, nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13).
God is also a living entity like us, but He is the Supreme. Kṛṣṇa appears just like human being, but He is Supreme.
- Paraṁ brahma paraṁ dhāma
- pavitraṁ paramaṁ bhavān
- (BG 10.12)
You will find in the Tenth Chapter. Although He appears . . . just like your President Nixon. He's also American gentleman. If she (he) appears here, he will appear just like one of you. But he is not one of you. He is distinct. Similarly, if the president is distinct, if the minister is distinct, then how much God is distinct from you. Try to understand.
You are claiming that "I am God." This is all nonsense. We are part and parcel. Part and parcel. Just like a small part of the Pacific Ocean, a small drop, you taste it, it is salty. So you can understand the whole Pacific Ocean is salty. Immediately you understand what is Pacific Ocean.
Similarly, if you study yourself, "What I am?"—that is called meditation—then you can understand God, that "God is like me also. But He is profuse, unlimited; I am limited. But the same qualities are there." Same qualities. Otherwise, how can you get it? The part and parcel of gold is gold, but that is not whole gold. The quality is gold. You cannot say it is iron. Even a small particle of gold, no chemist will say, "No, it is iron." It is gold, but not that whole gold. This is understanding.
So one who approaches a bona fide spiritual master, then he can understand what is God and what is he. He does not makes a conglomeration . . . what is called? A mixing up.
Prabhupāda: Yes. Yes. So here is the knowledge. Then? Go on.
Madhudviṣa: Thirty-six: "Even if you are considered to be the most sinful of all sinners, when you are situated in the boat of transcendental knowledge you will be able to cross over the ocean of miseries."
Prabhupāda: Yes. This material world, conditioned life, because . . . The other day we explained: our sinful life means ignorance, due to ignorance. Just like if I touch this flame, it will burn. Somebody may say, "Oh, you are burned. You are sinful." This is common sense. "You are burned. You are sinful, therefore you are burned." That is, one sense, it is right. "I am sinful" means I do not know that if I touch this flame, I will be burned. This ignorance is my sin.
Sinful life means the life of ignorance. Therefore, in this thirty-fourth verse, "Just try to learn the truth. Don't remain ignorant. Just try to learn the truth by approaching a spiritual master." Why should you remain in ignorance if there is way and means? That is my foolishness. Therefore I am suffering.
The government has open education institution, universities. Why don't you take advantage of it? Then you must suffer. When you go, when you are grown up—"Oh, I am not educated. I cannot give . . . I cannot have any good job," so who wanted you to remain uneducated? Why did you not take advantage? That is your fault.
Sinful life means our fault, to remain in ignorance. You take knowledge. There is book of knowledge. There is spiritual master. They are canvassing. We are canvassing, "Come here. Try to understand God consciousness." Nobody is coming. Who is responsible?
They are responsible. God is not responsible. For your sinful activities God is not responsible. You are responsible. God is canvassing you, "Please come to Me. I will give you all protection." Oh, I am stubborn: "No. I shall not go to You." Then you suffer. What can be done?
Therefore knowledge, when one understands by the grace of spiritual master—"Oh, I am part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa. Why not go to Kṛṣṇa?" Therefore, "Even if you are considered to be the most sinful all sinners, when you are situated in the boat of transcendental knowledge . . ." This is transcendental knowledge, that "I am part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa. So why I am rotting here? Let me see where is Kṛṣṇa." " . . . you will be able to cross over the ocean of miseries."
Madhudviṣa: Thirty-seven: "As the blazing fire turns wood to ashes, O Arjuna, so does the fire of knowledge burn to ashes all reactions to material activities."
Prabhupāda: Yes. I may be very seriously sinful, but when I get the knowledge of Kṛṣṇa consciousness, all my sins will be burned into ashes. Just like if you have . . . you have got a small fire. You bring tons of wood. Go on putting it. Go on putting it. Gradually everything will become ashes. This example. Tons of wood, you go on putting in that small fire. May not be immediately, but you go on putting, day after day, hours after, after; all the wood will be burned into ashes. Very nice example.
Similarly, if you keep yourself Kṛṣṇa consciousness burning, your tons and millions of sinful activities will be burned into ashes. These are practical. So we have to keep the fire blazing, Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Hare Kṛṣṇa. Then everything is all right.
Madhudviṣa: Verse thirty-eight: "In this world there is nothing so sublime and pure as transcendental knowledge. Such knowledge is the mature fruit of all mysticism, and one who has achieved this enjoys the self within himself in due course of time."
Prabhupāda: Yes. Knowledge: "I am part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa, or God. My duty as part and parcel is to serve Kṛṣṇa." Just like this finger is the part and parcel of my body. The duty of the part and parcel is to serve.
Just like you are part and parcel of American state. As soon you are called by the state, oh, you have to go to fight. You have to do it. That's your duty, to serve the state. Similarly, if I am part and parcel of God, what is my duty? To serve God. This is religion. This is religion, not that you become God. You become God . . .
Just like I told you, this finger is body so long the finger is giving service to the body. If the finger is cut off, you don't care for this . . . but so long this finger is attached with body, if there is any trouble, you spend millions of dollars to cure it. But when it is cut off, it has no value. Similarly, so long you are attached with Kṛṣṇa in Kṛṣṇa consciousness—you are giving service—then your life is sublime. And as soon as you are apart from Him, then it is useless. This is knowledge. This is sublime knowledge. Hmm.
Madhudviṣa: Thirty-nine: "A faithful man who is absorbed in transcendental knowledge and who subdues his senses quickly attains the supreme spiritual peace."
Prabhupāda: Yes. So a faithful man who understands that "I am part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa," and he is always engaged in the service of Kṛṣṇa in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, who is absorbed in transcendental knowledge—this is samādhi, absorbed—and who subdues his senses quickly . . . Subdue means if you apply your senses in the service of Kṛṣṇa, then your senses are subdued automatically.
Just like if you make your promise that "I shall take only kṛṣṇa-prasādam," then your nonsense eating or satisfying the tongue by nonsense eating—immediately stopped. That is subduing. God does not say that "You starve." God does not say. Or "You do not eat nice things." But God says, "You eat really nice things; don't eat nonsense nice thing." Instead of eating nonsense meat, you eat sweet balls. You see? It is not stoppage, but giving better.
So better food, better consciousness, better knowledge, better life, better association—what do you want more? Better philosophy. What do you want more? Naturally "attains the supreme spiritual peace." His everything is better; there must be . . . the result must be the better, the supreme peace.
All right. (devotees offer obeisances)
(break) Hmm. Any question?
Devotee: Prabhupāda, who was the spiritual master of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa?
Prabhupāda: Gargamuni. His name is Gargamuni. Gargamuni, and there is another, Sāndīpani Muni. They are sages, Sāndīpani Muni. Kṛṣṇa is spiritual master of His spiritual master, but just to teach us, He also accepts a spiritual master. Nobody can be spiritual master of Kṛṣṇa. That is not possible.
Just like nobody can be Kṛṣṇa's father. He is father of everyone. God is father of everyone. But He, out of His love, He accepts some of His devotee as father, as mother, as spiritual master, as teacher, as friend, as elder brother. That is His līlā. Yes.
Therefore in the Bhagavad-gītā you will see . . . in the Fourth Chapter you have already read, janma karma me divyaṁ yo jānāti tattvataḥ (BG 4.9).
The dealings of Kṛṣṇa—how Kṛṣṇa, being the supreme father, how He accepts His father and appears as a child of the father—this is transcendental knowledge. So if a . . . somebody simply understands this—how Kṛṣṇa being the supreme father, He accepts another father—then he becomes liberated; immediately he is transferred to the spiritual kingdom. You see. This is knowledge.
Devotee (2): I was looking at the copy of the disciplic succession, and where does Kṛṣṇa instruct Arjuna? Where is the disciplic succession broken?
Prabhupāda: This book? You . . . do you not know that this Bhagavad-gītā instruction is being given by Kṛṣṇa to Arjuna? Then why do you ask this question?
Devotee (2): Huh . . .
Prabhupāda: That is a . . . (indistinct) . . . Do you mean to say from Kṛṣṇa only one dozen or two dozen disciples have come? There are many millions and trillions. It has given one list only. That's all. Just like Kṛṣṇa says in this Fourth Chapter, imaṁ vivasvate yogaṁ proktavān aham avyayam (BG 4.1).
So He first of all taught to the sun-god. So sun-god had many sons, many disciples. Kṛṣṇa taught to Nārada. Oh, Nārada has got innumerable disciples. They have got different branches. So that whole thing is not complete there. It is simply given idea, that "There is one disciplic succession like this."
So any other question? Chant Hare Kṛṣṇa. (devotees offer obeisances)
(kīrtana) (prema-dhvani) All glories to the assembled devotees. All glories to the assembled devotees. All glories to the assembled devotees. Thank you very much. (end)