730803 - Lecture BG 02.02 - London
(Redirected from Lecture on BG 2.2 -- London, August 3, 1973)
Pradyumna: Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. (leads chanting of verse) (Prabhupāda and devotees repeat)
- śrī bhagavān uvāca
- kutas tvā kaśmalam idaṁ
- viṣame samupasthitam
- anārya-juṣṭam asvargyam
- akīrti-karam arjuna
- (BG 2.2)
śrī bhagavān uvāca—the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; kutaḥ—wherefrom; tvā—unto you; kaśmalam—dirtiness; idam—this lamentation; viṣame—this hour of crisis; samupasthitam—arrived; anārya—persons who do not know the value of life; juṣṭam—practiced by; asvargyam—that which does not lead to higher planets; akīrti—infamy; karam—the cause of; arjuna—O Arjuna.
Translation: "The Supreme Person, Bhagavān, said: My dear Arjuna, how have these impurities come upon you? They are not at all befitting a man who knows the progressive values of life. They do not lead to higher planets, but to infamy."
Prabhupāda: So in this verse Vyāsadeva is writing. Of course, the . . . the speaking is through Sañjaya, but the original writer is Vyāsadeva. In other ślokas he writes arjuna uvāca, sañjaya uvāca, like that. Similarly, he could write here kṛṣṇa uvāca. He could write. No. He's writing bhagavān uvāca. So Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. By this writing it is established, śrī-bhagavān uvāca. He cannot be equal with Arjuna or Sañjaya or anybody else. Asammaurdhva. Bhagavān, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is supreme. Nobody is equal to Him, nobody is higher than. Everyone is lower. That is the meaning of Bhagavān. Nobody can claim, "I am Bhagavān." But nowadays there are so many rascals, they are claiming that everyone is Bhagavān.
So Vyāsadeva is mistaken? Actually, these Māyāvādī philosophers, they are so great rascals they sometimes say like that, that Vyāsadeva is also mistaken. They have got the audacity to say Vyāsadeva . . . He is accepted as incarnation of Nārāyaṇa, who has given us the Vedic literature, so many books he has given: the Vedas, thePurāṇas, the Mahābhārata, Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Vedānta-sūtra. Everything is given by Vyāsadeva in writing, and he's accepted, Nārāyaṇa, incarnation of Nārāyaṇa, mahāmuni-kṛte. He is also Vyāsa-muni, but He is also mahāmuni-kṛte.
So there cannot be any mistake in the words of Vyāsadeva. This is the difficulty. If one does not come through the channel of disciplic succession, so they are in so many ways mistaken. Vyāsadeva is above all this. He is not an ordinary writer, for material description, for material name and faith. He cannot be mistaken. As Bhagavān, Kṛṣṇa cannot be mistaken, similarly Vyāsadeva, incarnation of Bhagavān, he also cannot be mistaken. Neither devotee of Kṛṣṇa can be mistaken. Devotee of Kṛṣṇa, he does not say anything as his own opinion. He never says. What Kṛṣṇa says, he says. He may be not perfect, but what Kṛṣṇa has said, that is perfect. Therefore a pure devotee, who does not say anything beyond which was spoken by Kṛṣṇa, therefore his statement is also without mistake.
Common man within this material world, he commits mistake: "To err is human." Even big, big personalities, they commit mistake. But nārāyaṇa paraḥ. He is transcendental. Kṛṣṇa is transcendental. There cannot be any mistake; there cannot be any illusion. Those who are within this material world, they have got four defects: they commit mistake, they are illusioned, and their senses are imperfect—bhrama, pramāda, vipralipsā—and they're cheaters. Because . . . just like modern-day scientists and philosophers, they propagate so many branches of knowledge, but when, on the crucial point, they are caught, they say: "I, I do not know perfectly. I do not know perfectly. We are trying to know. In future, we shall tell you the perfect." But if you are not in perfect knowledge, why should you take the post of a teacher? If your knowledge is imperfect, then whatever you speak, that is imperfect. Therefore with imperfect knowledge, why you should become a teacher? That is cheating. That is cheating.
Therefore purposefully Vyāsadeva is writing sri-bhagavān uvāca: where there is no cheating, no imperfection, no illusion, no mistake. Four things: no mistake, no illusion, no cheating and no imperfection. This is Bhagavān. Why we are taking Bhagavad-gītā so seriously? There are so many other books we can read, so many theories, so many philosophers, big, big philosophers. But we cannot take them, because they are defective. The author is sure to commit mistake. He is illusioned. Because his senses are not perfect, therefore imperfection. So with all these defects, we cannot accept anyone's knowledge.
This is Vedic process. This is called paramparā system, disciplic succession. We receive knowledge perfectly from the Supreme Bhagavān. And if I receive the knowledge from Bhagavān, and if I distribute the same knowledge as Bhagavān has said, without any interpretation of my cheating policy, then the knowledge which I distribute, that is also perfect. I may not be perfect, but the knowledge which I have taken from Kṛṣṇa, if I present it as it is, without any interpretation, then what I give you, that is perfect. It is very easy to understand. I have given several times . . . just like a peon has brought a money order for you, thousand dollars. So he's giving you. So you cannot say: "Oh, here is a peon. He's a poor man. How he can give me one thousand dollars?" He's not giving; the money is sent by somebody else. He's simply handing you over.
Therefore Caitanya Mahāprabhu says, āmāra ājñāya guru haya tāra sarva-deśa, tāra ei deśa (CC Madhya 7.128). He's asking everyone to become a spiritual master. So how everyone can become spiritual master? A spiritual master must have sufficient knowledge, so many other qualification. No. Even without any qualification one can become a spiritual master. How? Now the process is, Caitanya Mahāprabhu says, āmāra ājñāya: "On My order." That is the crucial point. One does not become spiritual master by his own whims. That is not spiritual master. He must be ordered by superior authority. Then he's spiritual master. Āmāra ājñāya.
Just like in our case. Our superior authority, our spiritual master, he ordered me that, "You just try to preach this gospel, whatever you have learned from me, in English." So we have tried it. That's all. It is not that I am very much qualified. The only qualification is that I have tried to execute the order of superior authority. That's all. This is the secret of success.
- ekeha kuru-nandana
- bahu-śākhā hy anantāś ca
- buddhir avyavasāyinām
- (BG 2.41)
Bahu-śākhā hy anantāś ca. Vyavasāyātmikā-buddhiḥ, niścayātmikā-buddhiḥ. If one has got unflinching faith in Kṛṣṇa and guru, guru-kṛṣṇa-kṛpāya . . . (CC Madhya 19.151). We have to receive mercy both from the spiritual master and Kṛṣṇa. We cannot jump over to Kṛṣṇa. That is another nonsense. We must approach Kṛṣṇa through guru. That is paramparā system. Kṛṣṇa is not so cheap thing that you can jump over. Somebody says: "Oh, why shall I accept guru? I can approach Kṛṣṇa directly." No. Kṛṣṇa does not accept such . . . mad-bhaktaḥ pūjābhyadhikaḥ. Kṛṣṇa says that, "First of all you become devotee of My devotee." Caitanya Mahāprabhu says, gopī-bhartuḥ pada-kamalayor dāsa-dāsa-dāsānudāsaḥ (CC Madhya 13.80): "I am the servant of the servant of the servant of Kṛṣṇa." This is called paramparā system.
You have to learn how to become servant of the servant of Kṛṣṇa. The more you become in the lower position—servant, servant, servant, servant, servant, hundred times servant's servant—then more you are advanced. Here in this material world everyone is trying to be master of the master. Just opposite. And the spiritual world, the endeavor is to become servant's servant. This is the secret.
- yasya deve parā bhaktir
- yathā deve tathā gurau
- tasyaite kathitā hy arthaḥ
- prakāśante mahātmanaḥ
- (ŚU 6.23)
This is Vedic instruction.
So Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura, in connection with the verse vyavasāyātmikā-buddhir ekeha kuru-nandana . . . (BG 2.41). Niścayātmikā-buddhiḥ. So Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura says that, "The instruction which I have received from my spiritual master, that is my life and soul." This is called niścayātmikā-buddhiḥ, means assurance: "Whatever I have received, the order from my spiritual master, that will give me salvation." Or even no salvation. It doesn't matter. A real devotee, a servant, does not expect anything, but kāryam: "It is my duty. It is my duty." If one takes in such spirit . . .
Anāśritaḥ karma-phalaṁ kāryaṁ karma karoti yā (BG 6.1). Kāryam. Kāryam means "It is my duty. It must be done. That's my duty." Without any result. Anāśrita-karma-phalaṁ. Karma-phalaṁ. Every action, there is a result. Bad or good, it doesn't matter, there must be some result. So anāśritaḥ karma-phalaṁ. Don't take shelter of the result of your work. Generally we work: if the result is very good, then we like to work; if the result is not very good, then we don't like to work. But a devotee should not take . . .
(aside) Why you are moving so fast?
Devotee: I have got difficulty with my body. So I stand . . .
Prabhupāda: So by moving you shall be cured?
Devotee: Well . . . I'm sorry.
Prabhupāda: Anāśritaḥ karma-phalaṁ kāryaṁ karma karoti yaḥ (BG 6.1). Do not take shelter of your result of your activities. You must take it as duty. He is sannyāsī. Anāśritaṁ karma-phalaṁ kāryaṁ karma karoti yaḥ, sa sannyāsī. He's actually sannyāsī. A sannyāsī does not become simply by changing dress. No. Sannyāsī means he's to work for Kṛṣṇa, without taking shelter of the result. It doesn't matter. "Kṛṣṇa has ordered, and Kṛṣṇa's representative has ordered. Therefore I have to do it." Kāryaṁ karma karoti yaḥ, sa sannyāsī.
So here, bhagavān uvāca. Vyāsadeva does not say that kṛṣṇa uvāca. If, if he would have said "Kṛṣṇa," then people would have misunderstood. He's directly speaking, bhagavān uvāca, "the Supreme Personality of Godhead." So anyone who is impersonalist, how he can understand Bhagavad-gītā? Bhagavān means person. Bhagavān is not imperson. The Absolute Truth is manifested in three features: Brahman, Paramātmā, Bhagavān. Brahman is the beginning, impersonal. Sarvaṁ idaṁ khalu brahma. Because . . . just like fire. Fire is burning somewhere, but its heat and light is impersonal. Suppose here is big fire. Just like we got fireplace. That is in one corner. But the whole room you are feeling heat. That heat is impersonal. But the fireplace, where there is blazing fire, that is personal.
So impersonal conception is the offshoot of the person. That will be explained in the Thirteenth Chapter: mayā tatam idaṁ sarvam (BG 9.4). Kṛṣṇa says that, "Everyone . . . everywhere I am spread. I exist everywhere." How does He exist? By His energy. That energy is impersonal. But the Supreme Person, He's not impersonal. He's person. Therefore it is said, śrī-bhagavān uvāca. Bhagavān means who is full with six kinds of opulence, aiśvarya: the richest, the most famous, the most learned, the most beautiful, the most strong and the most renouncer. He's Bhagavān.
So Bhagavān is the ultimate understanding of the Absolute Truth. Just like when you feel temperature . . . just like we feel temperature from the sunshine, heat. And light. The sun is giving heat and light. Everyone can . . . we enjoy the light and heat. But if you trace wherefrom this heat and light is coming, then you go to the sun planet. That is localized. That is not impersonal. And again, if you enter into the sun planet, then you will see the sun-god, Vivasvan. So we should not conclude final simply by heat and light. So Brahman understanding, impersonal understanding of the Absolute Truth, is imperfect understanding, partial understanding. It is not full understanding. Full understanding is Bhagavān. Therefore it is stated here, śrī-bhagavān uvāca. There cannot be any mistake. That is final.
So Bhagavān is criticizing. Arjuna became a very good man: "Why shall I . . .? Oh, I cannot kill my kinsmen." From material point of view, people will very much appreciate, "Oh, here is Arjuna. He's so nice, nonviolent. He is foregoing his claim. He has given up his astra, bow and arrows. He's no, no longer fighting. He has decided not to fight with kinsmen, kill his own men." So from material point of view, Arjuna is supposed to be very, very good man. But the Supreme Person, Kṛṣṇa, what does He say? Anārya-juṣṭam: "You rascal, you are speaking like anārya." He'll say "rascal" later on. He posed himself to be very good man, but when he comes to the test of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He refuses to accept him as a good man. He's saying that, "You are anārya."
There are two kinds of men: anārya and ārya. Āryan. Āryan means advanced in knowledge. He's called Āryan. And anārya means uncivilized. So immediately He rebukes him, anārya-juṣṭam: "You are talking just like non-Āryan, uncivilized person." People are very much, nowadays, eager how to stop war. But Kṛṣṇa says . . . (break) . . . at any case is not required. There is necessity of war. Just like He's trying to convince Arjuna. Our war means . . . according to Vedic civilization, that is dharma-yuddha, religious fight. When the actual need is there to fight, we must fight. Not that when there is need of fight, one becomes nonviolent.
Just like yesterday in the evening, when we were talking with Dr. Schumacher, so they were supporting that "Why should you kill any animal who is coming to . . . if you are determined not to kill . . ." We were talking of not killing, that why should you kill one animal who is coming to attack? No. You must kill. That is necessity. You should not go to the forest to find out some living entities, living beings, to kill. That is not your business. That is hiṁsa. But if a tiger comes to attack you, you must kill. That is self-defense. And that is not hiṁsa.
So a devotee knows, a Kṛṣṇa conscious person knows when to kill and when not to kill. But it is not that because we accept not killing, therefore in every case killing should be stopped. No. If there is necessity, killing should be accepted. Therefore Arjuna decided not to kill, not to fight. And Kṛṣṇa says that, "This is anārya-juṣṭam. This kind of decision is made by the uncivilized rascal." Anārya-juṣṭam asvargyam akīrti-karam (BG 2.2). So many things He says. Asvargyam. Because the aim of human life should be to make progress. That is called ārya, progressive march.
Now we have got this human form of body, progressing from the lowest species of life in aquatics, then trees, plants, insects, birds, beasts, 8,400,000 . . . now I have got this civilized form of body. Then the . . . my endeavor should be how to make further progress. The further progress is described in the Bhagavad-gītā, that you can go to the higher planetary system. Ūrdhvaṁ gacchanti sattva-sthāḥ (BG 14.18). Ūrdhvam, higher planetary system.
Madhye tiṣṭhanti rājasaḥ. Madhye, in the middle planetary system, those who are contaminated with the passion quality, they remain. And jaghanya-guṇa-vṛtti-sthā adho gacchanti tāmasaḥ: and those who are miscreants, jaghanya-guṇa-vṛtti-sthāḥ, most hatefully accustomed, these hatefully accustomed, illicit sex, meat-eating, gambling, intoxication . . . these are habits of hateful nature. So jaghanya-guṇa-vṛtti-sthāḥ adho gacchanti tāmasaḥ, they go down. Either become animals or . . . there are seven kinds of lower planetary systems: tala, atala, nitala, pātala, talātala, rasātala, like that.
So ārya means must make progress. Anārya means one who does not know what is progress of life. They think there is no life after death. "So I have got this life now. Let me enjoy my senses to the best capacity." This is anārya, demon. "Eat, drink, be merry and enjoy." Because as soon as the body will be finished, the senses also will be finished. Now let me use the senses. So anārya, they do not know that there is life after death. They think that as soon as . . .
(break) Big, big professors, in Europe, they say like that, "After death, everything is finished." Cārvaka Muni's theory. This kind of theory was accepted long, long ago in the Vedic culture. Not accepted; was heard. Never it was accepted. Cārvaka theory. Cārvaka theory was atheist. He was not . . .
(break) So his philosophy was atheistic philosophy. He used to say that bhaṣmi bhūtasya dehasya kuto punar āgamaḥ, means bodily concept of life, talking of this body, deha, that it is burned into ashes. So he used to say, "When the body is burned into ashes, then where is the chance of coming back?" That means he had no information of the soul.
(break) . . . accepted by the Vedic civilization. The anārya . . . (break) The Āryan theory is that what is next life, what is next life—progressive. That is ārya. Civilized man. They may think like that, "But you are belonging to the Āryan family, Pāṇḍava family. Akīrti-karam. You are celebrated as Kṛṣṇa's friend. (break) So people will say that 'Kṛṣṇa's friend, he's not fighting.' "
Therefore akīrti-karam, reputation defamation it is. "Don't do this." And He says, kutaḥ-kaśmalam idaṁ viṣame samupasthitam. "And in this, at this time of danger . . . there is fighting; you have to fight." And viṣame: "At this time of danger, you are so much bewildered that you given up your weapons down. And now you promise that, 'No, I shall not fight.' " So immediately Arjuna was condemned.
Therefore the so-called good men of this world, who are engaged in so many welfare activities, humanitarian activities, by mental concoction, they may be all foolish activities in the estimation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. They are very much puffed up that, "We are doing this, opening hospital and school, and philanthropism, nationalism." Is there any such thing in the Bhagavad-gītā? Is there any advice that, "You open hospital, school and do this philanthropic work"? No.
If you have got anything to give in charity, you are charitably disposed, Kṛṣṇa says: "Give it to Me. If you are so rich and if you have got this good intention to give in charity, give it to Me." Yat karoṣi yaj juhosi yad aśnāsi yat tapasyasi dadāsi yat (BG 9.27). Dadāsi yat means "Whatever you give in charity." Kuruṣva tad mad-arpanam: "Give it to Me. Yes, I am expanding My hand. Come on." But they have forgotten Kṛṣṇa or Kṛṣṇa's advice, and they remain puffed up that, "I am engaged in this activity, that activity, this activity."
Thousands of millions of such activities may be very good in the estimations of the fools and rascals, but it may not be accepted by Kṛṣṇa. That is the crucial point. But our point is that unless accepted by Kṛṣṇa, it is simply śrama eva hi kevalam (SB 1.2.8), simply waste of time. Our philosophy says. We have to satisfy Kṛṣṇa. We haven't got to satisfy ourself, that "I am doing very nice work in this way."
So all these people, they are manufacturing concocted ideas. Mano-rathena asato dhavato bahiḥ. By mental concoction. Harāv abhaktasya kuto mahad-guṇā mano-rathena āsato dhāvato bahiḥ (SB 5.18.12). One who is not Kṛṣṇa conscious, not devotee of Kṛṣṇa, he has no good qualification. "No, he's a very big man. He has opened such big, big hospitals, big, big schools, big, big, big . . ." Yes, that may be good from the material estimation, but because he's not a devotee of Kṛṣṇa, these are not good qualifications.
Harāv a . . . this one word: Harāv abhaktasya, harāv abhaktasya. If one has no devotion to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he cannot have any good qualities. These are not good qualities. Actually that is so. Suppose if you, the . . . according to karma-kāṇḍa vicāra, if you open a school, so in the next time, you will have good education. It is pious activities from material point of view. So the benefit will be that you will have good education in your next life. Accepting that it is very nice, next life I shall be very learned scholar, but to become that learned scholar I'll have to take my birth. But he does not know that how much difficulties are there to take birth.
Kṛṣṇa says, janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi-duḥkha-doṣānu-darśanam (BG 13.9). One should see to the duḥkha, unhappiness, on account of birth and death. So suppose you will get next life in the heavenly planet, or you shall become very rich man, or you shall become very learned man, but you have to go through these distresses, janma. They do not consider this. Janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi-duḥkha-doṣānu-dar . . . those who are actually learned, they, they should know that, "Why shall I go again in the process of birth and death?" We have forgotten how much difficulty it is, how much troublesome it is, how much distress it is to remain in the womb of the mother for taking birth again. That we have forgotten. Therefore this kind of conclusion is not very intelligent conclusion. The intelligent conclusion is: tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti (BG 4.9). That is intelligent. After giving up this body, no more coming to material world. That is intelligence.
So how many people do understand this intelligence? And where is the teaching? Therefore one who is not devotee, he has no good qualifications. If he's still under the distresses of this material world, that is not very intelligent question. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, bahūnām janmanām ante jñānavān (BG 7.19). Jñānavān means intelligent, wise. What does he do? Bahūnāṁ janmanām ante jñānavān maṁ prapadyate. He surrenders to Kṛṣṇa. This is intelligence. This is wisdom.
So here also, the same thing. Kṛṣṇa has already expressed that, "You must fight." But he is showing himself as very good man, nonviolent—"I shall not kill. I shall not do this. I shall not do this." So immediately Kṛṣṇa very strongly criticizing him that "You are talking just like anārya, not civilized man." Kṛṣṇa, still He has not used very strong words. He has simply mildly rebuked his doing to Arjuna that "You are not talking just like a intelligent man or advanced in civilization. You are talking like uncivilized man." Anārya-juṣṭam.
So these things are there in the Bhagavad-gītā. We may be very much puffed up by our mental concoction that, "I am doing very nice work," but it may not be accepted by God. It may not be accepted by Kṛṣṇa. You may concoct. And naturally, one who is not guided by Kṛṣṇa, one who is not guided by the Kṛṣṇa's representative, he's fool. He must be misguided. He must be misguided. Anārya. Ārya, anārya, yes. Therefore we have to take shelter of Kṛṣṇa through His representative so that we may become ārya. Ārya, āryan. Āryan civilization means being guided by the Supreme Person, Vedic culture. That is called Āryan civilization, Vedic culture. And what is the purpose of Vedas? Vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyam (BG 15.15).
Therefore the ultimate goal of civilization should be, Āryan civilization, progressive civilization, how to understand Kṛṣṇa. That is perfect civilization. And Kṛṣṇa . . . everything minus Kṛṣṇa, that is not civilization. This is anārya-juṣṭam asvargyam akīrti-karam (BG 2.2). We should not waste our time in such thing which is devoid of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. This is first-class civilization.
Thank you very much.
Devotees: Haribol . . . (end)