730816 - Lecture BG 02.10 - London
(Redirected from Lecture on BG 2.10 -- London, August 16, 1973)
Pradyumna: Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. (leads chanting of verse) (Prabhupāda and devotees repeat)
- tam uvāca hṛṣīkeśaḥ
- prahasann iva bhārata
- senayor ubhayor madhye
- viṣīdantam idaṁ vacaḥ
- (BG 2.10)
tam—unto him; uvāca—said; hṛṣīkeśaḥ—the master of the senses, Kṛṣṇa; prahasan—smiling; iva—like that; bhārata—O Dhṛtarāṣṭra, descendant of Bharata; senayoḥ—of the armies; ubhayoḥ—of both armies; madhye—between; viṣīdantam—unto the lamenting one; idam—the following; vacaḥ—words.
Translation: "O descendant of Bharata, at that time Kṛṣṇa, smiling, in the midst of both armies, spoke the following words to the grief-stricken Arjuna."
Prabhupāda: Hm. So hṛṣīkeśaḥ, prahasann iva. Kṛṣṇa began to laugh, smiling—"What a nonsense this is, Arjuna." First of all he said: "Put me . . ." Senayor ubhayor madhye rathaṁ sthāpaya me acyuta (BG 1.21): "Kṛṣṇa, just put my chariot between the two parties of soldiers."
(aside) Bring me water.
And now . . . he was so enthusiastic in the beginning that, "Put my chariot between the two armies." Now this rascal is saying na yotsya, "I'll not fight." Just see the rascaldom.
So even Arjuna, Kṛṣṇa's direct friend, māyā is so strong that he also becomes a rascal, what to speak of others. First of all very enthusiasm, "Yes, put my chariot between the two armies." And now in the . . . na yotsya iti govindam (BG 2.9): "I am not going to fight." This is rascaldom. So he was smiling, that "He is My friend, direct friend, and such a big . . . and he is now saying that 'I will not fight.' "
So Kṛṣṇa smiling, this smiling is very significant, prahasann. Tam uvāca hṛṣīkeśaḥ prahasann iva bhārata, senayor ubhayor viṣīdantam, lamenting. First of all he came with great enthusiasm to fight; now he is lamenting. And Kṛṣṇa is mentioned here as Hṛṣīkeśa. He is solid. He is Acyuta. He is solid. He is not changed. Another significance of this word Hṛṣīkeśa . . .
Because in Nārada-Pañcarātra the bhakti means hṛṣīkeśa-sevanam. Therefore this very name is mentioned here, Hṛṣīkeśa. Hṛṣīkeśa-sevanaṁ bhaktir ucyate. Bhakti means to serve Hṛṣīkeśa, the master of the senses. And the master of senses . . . some rascals are describing that Kṛṣṇa is immoral. He is master of senses, and He is immoral. Just see how he has studied Bhagavad-gītā.
If Kṛṣṇa is perfect brahmacārī . . . Kṛṣṇa is perfect brahmacārī, for . . . it was declared by Bhīṣmadeva. Bhīṣmadeva is the first-grade brahmacārī in the universe. He promised to Satyavatī's father . . . you know the story. Satyavatī's father . . . his, Bhīṣmadeva's father was attracted by a fisher woman, fisher girl. So he wanted to marry. And the father of the girl denied, "No, I cannot give my daughter to you." So "Why? I am king, I am asking your daughter." "No, you have got a son." Bhīṣmadeva was the son of his first wife, Mother Ganges.
The Mother Ganges was wife of Santanu Mahārāja, and Bhīṣmadeva was the only remaining son. The contract was between Santanu Mahārāja and Ganges, Mother Ganges that, "I can marry you if you allow me that all the children born I shall throw in the water of the Ganges. And if you do not allow me, then immediately I shall leave your company." So Santanu Mahārāja said: "All right, still I shall marry you." So she was throwing all the children in the Ganges. So this Bhīṣmadeva . . . so after all, father, so he became very much sorry that, "What is this? What kind of wife I have got? She is simply throwing all the children in the water." So at the time of Bhīṣmadeva, Santanu Mahārāja said: "No, I cannot allow it. I cannot allow it." Then Mother Ganges said: "Then I am going." "Yes, you can go. I don't want you. I want this son."
So he was wifeless. Again he wanted to marry the Satyavatī. So the father said: "No, I cannot give my daughter to you, because you have got a son, grown-up son. He will be king. So I cannot give my daughter to you to become your maidservant. Her . . . if I would have thought that her son would be the king, then I can offer you my daughter." So he said: "No, that is not possible." But Bhīṣmadeva understood that, "My father is attracted with this girl." So he approached, that . . . he said to the fisherman that, "You can offer your daughter to my father, but you are thinking that I shall become king. So your daughter's son will be king.
On this condition you can offer your daughter." So he replied: "No, I cannot." "Why?" "Now, you may not be king, but your son may be king." Just see, this material calculation. Then at that time he said: "No, I shall not marry. That's all. I promise. I shall not marry." So he remained brahmacārī. Therefore his name is Bhīṣma. Bhīṣma means very solid, firmly fixed. So he was a brahmacārī. For the sake, for the satisfaction of his father's senses, he remained brahmacārī.
So Bhīṣmadeva, in Rājasūya-yajña, admitted that, "Nobody is better brahmacārī than Kṛṣṇa. He was within the gopīs, all young girls, but He remained a brahmacārī. If I would have been within the gopīs, I do not know what was . . . what would have been my condition." So therefore Kṛṣṇa is the perfect brahmacārī, Hṛṣīkeśa. And these rascals, they are saying that Kṛṣṇa is immoral. No. Kṛṣṇa is perfect brahmacārī, dhīra. Dhīra means one who is not agitated even there is cause of being agitated.
So Kṛṣṇa is such a brahmacārī. In spite of in His . . . just on the verge of youthhood, at the age of fifteen, sixteen years, all the village girls were friends, they were very much attracted with Kṛṣṇa's beauty. They used to come to Kṛṣṇa for dancing in the village. But He was brahmacārī. You will never hear that Kṛṣṇa had some illicit sex. No. There was no such thing description. The dancing is description, but no contraceptive pill. No. That is not described here. Therefore He is Hṛṣīkeśa. Hṛṣīkeśa means perfect brahmacārī. Vikāra-hetu, even there is cause of being agitated, He is not agitated. That is Kṛṣṇa. He has got thousands and thousands of devotees, and some of the devotees, if they want Kṛṣṇa as lover, Kṛṣṇa accepts that, but He does not require anyone else. He does not require. He is self-sufficient. He does not require anyone's help for His sense gratification. Therefore Kṛṣṇa is Hṛṣīkeśa, the master of the senses.
So at least Kṛṣṇa's devotees . . . there are many instances of Kṛṣṇa's devotees, they are also . . . why many? Almost all devotees, they are master of the senses, gosvāmī. Just like Haridāsa Ṭhākura, you know. Haridāsa Ṭhākura was young man, and the village zamindar, he was Muhammadan. So everyone was eulogizing Haridāsa Ṭhākura, such a great devotee. So the zamindar, the village zamindar, he became very much envious. So he employed one prostitute to pollute Haridāsa Ṭhākura. And she came at dead of night, nicely dressed, attractive. She was also young, very beautiful. So she proposed that, "I have come, being attracted by your beauty." Haridāsa Ṭhākura said: "Yes, that's all right. Come on, sit down. Let me finish my chanting. Then we shall enjoy." So she sat down. But Haridāsa Ṭhākura chanting, he was chanting . . . we, we cannot chant even sixteen rounds, and he was chanting three times sixty-four rounds. How many it is?
Revatinandana: A hundred and ninety-six.
Prabhupāda: Hundred and ninety-six rounds. That was his only business: Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa . . . so sometimes somebody wants to imitate Haridāsa Ṭhākura. It is not possible.
So Haridāsa Ṭhākura, when it became morning, the prostitute, "Sir, now it is morning." "Yes, next night I shall . . . come next night. Today I could not finish my chanting." That was a plea. In this way three days passed. Then the prostitute became converted, fell down on his (her) . . . "Sir, I came to pollute you. Now save me; I am so fallen." So Haridāsa Ṭhākura said: "Yes, I know that. I could have leaved this place immediately when you came, but I wanted that you have come to me, you may be converted to this Vaiṣṇavism." So the prostitute became a great devotee by the mercy of . . . Haridāsa Ṭhākura said that, "You sit down in this place. You chant Hare Kṛṣṇa before this tulasī plant. Now I am leaving this place."
So kṛṣṇa-bhakti is like that—full control over the senses. As Kṛṣṇa has got full control over the senses, similarly, those who are actually Kṛṣṇa devotees, they have got full control over the senses. Hṛṣīkeśa. Just like Yamunacārya, he is praying, he is speaking:
- yad-avadhi mama cetaḥ kṛṣṇa-pādāravinde
- nava-nava-dhāmany udyataṁ rantum āsīt
"Since I have begun to feel transcendental bliss, being taken shelter of the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa," yad-avadhi mama cittaḥ kṛṣṇa-padāravinde, kṛṣṇa-padāravinde, the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa. "Since my citta, my heart, has been attracted by the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa," tad-avadhi bata nārī-saṅgame, "since then, as soon as I think of sex life," bhavati mukha-vikāraḥ, "I hate, I spite on it." This is kṛṣṇa-bhakti. Kṛṣṇa-bhakti is like that. Bhakti-pareśānubhava viraktir anyatra syāt (SB 11.2.42).
This most attractive feature in this material world is sex. That is the foundation of material life. All these people are working so hard day and night only for that sex enjoyment. Yan maithunādi-gṛha . . . they have taken so much risk. They are working, karmis, they are working so hard. What is their pleasure of life? The pleasure of life is sex. Yan maitunādi-gṛhamedhi-sukhaṁ hi tuccham (SB 7.9.45). Very abominable activities, but that is their pleasure. This is material life.
So Kṛṣṇa is not like that. But the rascals, they paint picture, and that pictures are very much appreciated, that Kṛṣṇa is embracing gopīs. Somebody was telling me that . . . last . . . who came? That Kṛṣṇa's picture.
Haṁsadūta: . . . (indistinct)
Prabhupāda: So when Kṛṣṇa is killing Putanā, that picture they will not paint, or killing Kaṁsa, or . . . Kṛṣṇa has got so many pictures. These pictures they will not, artist. They will simply paint the pictures, His confidential dealing with the gopīs. One who cannot understand Kṛṣṇa, what is Kṛṣṇa, which Vyāsadeva has described what is Kṛṣṇa in nine cantos to understand Kṛṣṇa, and then in the Tenth Canto he begins the birth advent of Kṛṣṇa . . . but these rascals, they jump over immediately to the rāsa-līlā.
First of all understand Kṛṣṇa. Just like if you become a friend of some very big man, so first of all try to understand him. Then you'll try to understand his family affairs or confidential things. But these people jump over to the rāsa-līlā, and misunderstand. And therefore they sometimes say: "Kṛṣṇa is immoral." How Kṛṣṇa can be immoral? By accepting, by chanting Kṛṣṇa's name, the immoral persons are becoming moral, and Kṛṣṇa is immoral. Just see the foolishness. Simply by chanting Kṛṣṇa's name, all immoral persons are becoming moral. And Kṛṣṇa is immoral. And it is spoken by a rascal professor.
So it is very difficult. Nobody can understand Kṛṣṇa without become a pure devotee of Kṛṣṇa. Because Kṛṣṇa says, bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yas cāsmi tattvataḥ (BG 18.55). Tattvataḥ, in truth. Tattvataḥ means truth. If one wants to understand Kṛṣṇa as He is, then he has to take this process of devotional service, bhakta, bhakti. Hṛṣīkeṇa hṛṣīkeśa-sevanaṁ bhaktir ucyate (CC Madhya 19.170). When one is employed as the servitor of Hṛṣīkeśa, the master of senses . . . master, and hṛsīkeṇa, when your senses are also engaged in the service of the master of the senses, then you also become master of the senses. You also. Because your senses are engaged in the service of the Hṛṣīkeśa, the senses have no other opportunity to be engaged. Locked up. Sa vai manaḥ kṛṣṇa-padāravindayoḥ (SB 9.4.18).
So this is the process of devotional service. If you want to become master of the senses, gosvāmī, svāmī, then you should always keep your senses engaged in the service of Hṛṣīkeśa. That is the only way. Otherwise it is not possible. As soon as you become a little slack to engage your senses in the service of the master of the senses, immediately māyā is there, "Come on, please." This is the process.
- kṛṣṇa bhuliyā jīva bhoga vāñchā kare
- pāsate māyā tāre jāpaṭiyā dhare
- (Prema-vivarta 6.2)
As soon as you forget Kṛṣṇa, even for a moment, immediately māyā is there, "Please, my dear friend, come here." Therefore we have to become very cautious. We cannot forget Kṛṣṇa even for a moment. Therefore the chanting process, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma . . . always remember Kṛṣṇa. Then māyā will not be able to touch you. Mām eva ye prapadyante māyām etān taranti (BG 7.14). Māyā cannot touch. Just like Haridāsa Ṭhākura, he was engaged in the service of Hṛṣīkeśa. Māyā came in full-fledged strength. Still, she was defeated; Haridāsa Ṭhākura was not defeated. So try to understand Kṛṣṇa as Hṛṣīkeśa.
So Hṛṣīkeśa, Kṛṣṇa, began to laugh that, "He is My friend, constant associate, and such weakness. He first of all was enthusiastic to ask Me to keep his chariot, senayor ubhayor madhye. Now viṣīdantan, now he is lamenting." So . . . we are all fools like that. Arjuna is not fool. Arjuna has been described as Guḍākeśa. How he can be fool? But he is playing the part of fool. If he does not play the part of a fool, how this Bhagavad-gītā will come from the mouth of Śrī Kṛṣṇa? And because he is devotee, he is perfectly playing in such a way that Kṛṣṇa is giving instruction. So perfect teacher and the perfect disciple, Arjuna. We have to learn from their de . . . our position . . . Arjuna is representing just like ordinary man like us, and Kṛṣṇa as Hṛṣīkeśa, giving His advice, perfect advice. If we take . . . if we read Bhagavad-gītā in the spirit of understanding like Arjuna, the perfect disciple, and if we accept the advice and instruction of Kṛṣṇa, the perfect teacher, then we should know that we have understood Bhagavad-gītā.
By my mental speculation, by rascal interpretation, by showing one's scholarship, you cannot understand Bhagavad-gītā. That is not possible. Submissive. Therefore in the Bhagavad-gītā it is said, tad viddhi praṇipātena paripraśnena sevayā (BG 4.34). So we have to surrender as Arjuna, he surrendered. Śiṣyas te 'haṁ śādhi māṁ prapannam (BG 2.7): "I surrender unto You. I become Your disciple." To become disciple means to surrender, voluntarily accepting the instruction, the advice, the order of the spiritual master. So Arjuna has already accepted that, although he is speaking that na yotsye, "Kṛṣṇa, I shall not fight." But master, when He explains everything, he will fight. Master's order. Not to fight, that is his own sense gratification. And to fight in spite of he had no desire to fight, that is the satisfaction of the master. This is the sum and substance of Bhagavad-gītā.
So Kṛṣṇa, seeing Arjuna viṣīdantam, very much affected, lamenting, that he is not prepared to do his duty, therefore in the next verse He begins that aśocyān anvaśocas tvaṁ prajña-vādāṁś ca bhāṣase (BG 2.11): "My dear Arjuna, you are My friend. Never mind māyā is very strong. Despite your being My friend, personal, you are so much overwhelmed with false compassion. So just hear Me." Therefore He said, aśocyān, "You are lamenting on a subject matter which is not at all good." Aśocya. Śocya means lamentation, and aśocya means one should not lament. Aśocya. So aśocyān anvaśocas tvaṁ prajña-vādāṁś ca bhāṣase. "But you are talking like very learned scholar." Because he has talked. But those things are right.
What Arjuna has said, that varṇa-saṅkara, when the women become polluted, the population is varṇa-saṅkara, that is fact. Whatever Arjuna has said to Kṛṣṇa in order to avoid the fighting, so those things are correct. But from the spiritual platform . . . those things may be correct or incorrect, but from spiritual platform, they are not to be considered very serious. Therefore aśocyān anvaśocas tvam. Because his lamentation was on the bodily concept of life. That bodily concept of life, in the very beginning of Kṛṣṇa's instructions, it is condemned. Aśocyān anvaśocas tvam (BG 2.11): "You are lamenting on the bodily concept of life." Because anyone who is in the bodily concept of life, he is no better than animal.
So our all morality, all social status, all politics, all philosophy—everything is on this bodily concept of life. We want to enjoy senses. Senses mean different parts of the body. So one who is interested with the body—that means one who is interested with the senses—their only business is how to . . .(break) (end)