751216 - Lecture SB 07.06.01 at Birla House - Bombay
Lady: kaumāram . . . (indistinct)
kaumāram ācaret prājño?
Harikesa: Sixth Chapter, First verse.
Prabhupāda: Hmm? I shall speak in English? Hmm.
- śrī-prahrāda uvāca
- kaumāram ācaret prājño
- dharmān bhāgavatān iha . . .
(aside) You can give some stand. How long he will stand?
- durlabhaṁ mānuṣaṁ janma
- tad apy adhruvam arthadam
- (SB 7.6.1)
This is the instruction of Prahlāda Mahārāja to his class friend. Prahlāda Mahārāja was born of Hiraṇyakaśipu, great demon. He is described as demon because he was interested only in material comforts. Hiraṇya means gold, gold and very comfortable situation of material life. He was interested in that, and he wanted to teach his son about this economic development. But Prahlāda Mahārāja, when he was in the womb of his mother . . . there was fight between the demons and the demigods, so the demons . . . sometimes when there is fight, sometimes one party is victorious, sometimes the other party is victorious. So the demigods' party became victorious, and they were harassing the demons like anything.
So Hiraṇyakaśipu's wife, she was pregnant, she was captured by Indra, the King of heaven, and she was being dragged to take her in the house of Indra. In the way, Nārada Muni met them; he chastised Indra. Nārada Muni was devarṣi, ṛṣi amongst the demigods. So he said: "Why you are giving trouble to this woman? This is not good." So the demons replied. . . demigods replied that, "This woman is pregnant, and there is Hiraṇyakaśipu's son. So we want to kill that son also, because he is demon. So we are taking this woman to our place just to wait for the time of her delivering the child." At that time Nārada Muni said, "No, no. This child is not a demon child. This child who is within the womb of this woman, he is a great devotee, so don't try to kill him. Neither you can kill him; that is not possible." So they are demigods; they accepted Nārada Muni's proposal. So they offered respect to the woman that, "Here is, within the womb of this woman, a great devotee." So they circumambulated and offered respect to the wife of Hiraṇyakaśipu, and they went away.
So Nārada Muni took wife of Hiraṇyakaśipu to his āśrama, "My dear girl, my dear daughter, you please come with me, remain with me till your husband comes back." So she agreed, and woman's natural propensity is to serve, so she was very nicely serving Nārada Muni, and Nārada Muni became very much pleased, and he instructed about transcendental knowledge. Although to the wife of Hiraṇyakaśipu, but still the Hiraṇyakaśipu's son Prahlāda Mahārāja was within the womb, he also heard the instruction and he learned everything. Later on he will explain that, "My mother, on account of being woman, she has forgotten the instruction of Nārada, but I heard it even from within the womb; I remember it." So this Prahlāda Mahārāja is repeating the same instruction which he heard from Nārada Muni when he was packed up within the womb.
So this is one of the instruction, that spiritual instruction does not depend on any material condition. In any position one can understand spiritual instruction. Ahaituky apratihatā yenātmā samprasīdati.
- sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmo
- yato bhaktir adhokṣaje
- ahaituky apratihatā
- yenātmā samprasīdati
- (SB 1.2.6)
That is first-class religion, sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmo. Parā means supreme. There are different types of religion, but the supreme religion is parā dharma, that is yato bhaktir adhokṣaje, that religious system which instructs the followers how to become a perfect devotee of the Supreme Lord. That is first-class religion. We are fighting in this material world. "You are Hindu," "I am Muslim," "I am Sikh," "I am Jain," "I am this," "I am that," but this is not paro dharma; this is aparo dharma. Parā and aparā, there are two qualities, just like material and spiritual. Material is called aparā, and spiritual means parā, as it is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā, apareyam. Bhūmir āpo 'nalo vāyuḥ khaṁ mano buddhir eva ca, bhinnā me prakṛtir aṣṭadhā (BG 7.4). These material elements—earth, water, fire, air, sky, mind, intelligence and false ego—these are eight material elements, out of which five are gross—bhūmir āpo 'nalo vāyu—and three are very subtle. Just like everyone . . . I know you think with your mind; you know also I think with my mind. But mind is subtle. I cannot see your mind, neither you can see my mind, neither I can see my mind or you can see your mind. This is subtle. And the finer than the mind is intelligence, and finer than the intelligence is egoism, or egotism, and finer than egotism is the soul.
So our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is little difficult for ordinary persons who are interested with the material gross and subtle elements. For them it is little difficult. But Kṛṣṇa says apareyam, "This is inferior, these energies." They are energies, prakṛtir me aṣṭadhā. Prakṛti means energy. Just like prakṛti means woman, naturally a woman is under the control of the man. That is our Vedic system, and natural system also. However the woman may claim equal rights, they are under the control of the man. That is natural. So similarly, prakṛti means which is under the control of the Supreme Lord. That is prakṛti. In another place, Bhagavad-gītā, it is said:
- mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ
- sūyate sa-carācaram
- hetunānena kaunteya
- jagad viparivarate
- (BG 9.10)
Kṛṣṇa says mayādhyakṣeṇa: "Under My control the material nature is working." Mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ.
In another place in Brahma-saṁhitā it is said how prakṛti is under the control of the Supreme Lord: sṛṣṭi-sthiti-pralaya-sādhana-śaktir ekā chāyeva yasya bhuvanāni bibharti durgā (Bs. 5.44). Durgā is the material nature. It is very powerful. Sṛṣṭi-sthiti, creation, maintenance and annihilation, is going on under her control, Durgā-devī. We have seen the picture of Durgā, ten hands with ten kinds of weapons. So she is very powerful, but still she is under the control of Govinda.
- sṛṣṭi-sthiti-pralaya-sādhana-śaktir ekā
- chāyeva yasya bhuvanāni bibharti durgā
- icchānurūpam api yasya ca ceṣṭate sā
- govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi
- (Bs. 5.44)
The mūla prakṛti, the original prakṛti, is fully under the control. Control means she acts according to the direction of Govinda. Yasya ajñayā, she is acting. So this prakṛti is inferior prakṛti, and there is another, superior prakṛti. That superior prakṛti is represented by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Rādhārāṇī and Durgā, both of them are prakṛtis of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but one prakṛti is meant for controlling this material world, and the other prakṛti is meant for blessing the spiritual world. Two prakṛtis are Kṛṣṇa's prakṛti. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says:
- apareyam itas tu
- viddhi me prakṛtiṁ parā
- jīva-bhūtaṁ mahā-bāho
- yayedaṁ dhāryate jagat
- (BG 7.5)
So this jīva-bhūta, living entities, we, we are living entities, we also belong to the spiritual prakṛti, we are expansion of spiritual prakṛti. Just like Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is always engaged in the service of the Lord, anārādhyate. Ārādhyate, it is Rādhārāṇī. The Rādhārāṇī, the name has come from the word ārādhyate. Ārādhana. Ārādhana means worshiping. So everyone is meant, beginning from Rādhārāṇī and her expansion, Lakṣmī, in Vaikuṇṭha, lakṣmī-sahasra-śata-sambhrama-sevyamānam govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi (Bs. 5.29) . . . here we worship mother Lakṣmīji, goddess of fortune, to receive some favor. But in the Vaikuṇṭha world there are many hundred thousands of Lakṣmī, lakṣmī-sahasra-śata, and they are sambhrama-sevyamānam: with great respect, they are engaged in serving the Supreme Lord. So we being expansion of the spiritual Lakṣmī, or Rādhārāṇī, our duty is to serve Rādhārāṇī, and through Rādhārāṇī to serve Kṛṣṇa. This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. We are missing this point, that instead of learning from Rādhārāṇī how to serve Kṛṣṇa, we are being controlled by the another prakṛti, material energy, Durgā, with weapons in her ten hands. This is our position. Therefore we are missing the point, and it is said in Brahma-saṁhitā . . . no, in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam . . . this is also spoken by Prahlāda Mahārāja:
- na te viduḥ svārtha-gatiṁ hi viṣṇuṁ
- durāśayā ye bahir-artha-māninaḥ
- andhā yathāndhair upanīyamānās
- te 'pīśa-tantryām uru-dāmni baddhāḥ
- (SB 7.5.31)
So in this material world they do not know what is the aim of life. Na te viduḥ. Na te viduḥ svārtha-gatim. Everyone is very much expert to see his interest. Two businessmen, they are agreeing, but everyone is trying to see his personal interest first. This is called svārtha-gatim. That is natural. But Prahlāda Mahārāja says, na te viduḥ svārtha-gatiṁ hi viṣṇu.
Unfortunately, these materialistic persons, they do not know what is his real interest. The real interest is Viṣṇu, how to serve Viṣṇu. That is explained by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in the beginning. Sanātana Gosvāmī, a great minister of Nawab Hussain Shah's government, he retired from his ministerial activities and became a servant of Caitanya Mahāprabhu to preach this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. The six Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana:
- śrī-rūpa sanātana bhaṭṭa-raguṇath
- śrī-jīva gopāla-bhaṭṭa dāsa-raguṇatha
So there are many description about their activities in Vṛndāvana. Some of them are described by Śrīnivāsa Ācārya. The prime duty was, these Gosvāmīs, they were ministers, big, big zamindars. Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī was the only one son of his father and uncle, and in those days, five hundred years ago, their paternal income was twelve lakhs of rupees. So such person joined Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Rūpa sanātana bhaṭṭa-raguṇatha. Either they were very, very learned scholar or coming from very, very rich family, big post, all the six Gosvāmīs.
- śrī-rūpa sanātana bhaṭṭa-raghunātha
- śrī-jīva gopāla-bhaṭṭa dāsa-raghunātha
So their business was, these Gosvāmīs, kṛṣṇotkīrtana-gāna-nartana-parau: they were always engaged in chanting "Kṛṣṇa." That is the real purpose of human life, especially in this age. It is stated in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam to Parīkṣit Mahārāja by Śukadeva Goswami, he described the symptoms of Kali-yuga: it is very, very faulty. But he concluded that kalau doṣa-nidhe rājann asti hy eko mahān guṇaḥ. In this age of Kali it is very fallen age, mandāḥ sumanda-matayo manda-bhāgyā hy upadrutāḥ (SB 1.1.10). The population in this age, they are, almost all of them, are manda—manda means bad or very slow—so they do not understand what is the aim of life, or very slow to understand; therefore they are called manda. And because they do not understand their real interest of life, they can be called very bad, manda. So these are the symptoms: mandāḥ sumanda-matayo manda-bhāgyā hy upadrutāḥ.
So in this age, although it is so fallen, the śāstra says, doṣa-nidhe rājann. Kalau doṣa-nidhe rājann asti hy eko mahān guṇaḥ. There is one great opportunity. What is that opportunity? Kīrtanād eva kṛṣṇasya mukta-saṅgaḥ paraṁ vrajet (SB 12.3.51): if one takes to chanting this Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, then he becomes relieved or freed from the all contamination of this age, and paraṁ mukta-saṅgaḥ, he becomes liberated and he goes back to home, back to Godhead, simply by chanting. That is mukti. Mukti means, we are now under the influence of this material energy, bhūmir āpo 'nalo vāyuḥ (BG 7.4). This is aparā prakṛti. So aparā prakṛti, we have to give up the association of the aparā prakṛti, and we have to take shelter of parā prakṛti. This is our aim of life. The subject matter was how to become successful in life. That we are trying to explain. The success is that we have to give up the control, we have to become freed from the control of the aparā prakṛti, and we shall voluntarily submit to be favored by parā prakṛti. This is our business, aim of life. Then our life will be successful. If we miss this opportunity to give up the shelter of aparā prakṛti and do not take shelter of the parā prakṛti, then we are missing the opportunity. It is very subtle thing, there is no education, but the information and the enlightenment is there in our śāstra. In Bhagavad-gītā everything is explained, how one can give up the control of the aparā prakṛti and be under the shelter of parā prakṛti.
- daivī hi eṣā guṇamayī
- mama māyā duratyayā
- mām eva ye prapadyante
- māyām etāṁ taranti te
- (BG 7.14)
It is not very difficult. Kṛṣṇa comes to instruct this simple truth that, "You are being controlled by the material energy. You give up this business; you be controlled by the spiritual energy, and your life is successful." This is the method. Mām eva ye prapadyante māyām etāṁ taranti te.
So we are . . . our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is for this purpose, that simply we are trying to educate people how to give up the control of the material energy, and under the control . . . not to control the material energy. That we cannot do; that is not possible. But not to become under the control. That is very simple method: mām eva ye prapadyante māyām etāṁ taranti te. Just like if you become honest, if you are not criminal, then there is no police control—police may be there. But as soon as you become criminal, you come under the control of police. Similarly our business is, as Caitanya Mahāprabhu has explained, and everywhere in the śāstra, and actually we are so, we are eternal servant of God, or Kṛṣṇa. This is our real position. Caitanya Mahāprabhu has said, jīvera svarūpa haya nitya kṛṣṇa dāsa (CC Madhya 20.108-109). But our disease is instead of becoming dāsa, we are trying to become the master of the prakṛti. This is called materialistic way of life. So that will not make us happy at any stage of our life. This is very dangerous. We are missing the point.
- na te viduḥ svārtha-gatiṁ hi viṣṇuṁ
- durāśayā ye bahir-artha-māninaḥ
- andhā yathāndhair upanīyamānās
- te 'pīśa tantryām uru-dāmni baddhāḥ
- (SB 7.5.31)
We are forgetting that we are absolutely under the control of material nature.
- prakṛteḥ kriyamāṇāni
- guṇaiḥ karmāṇi sarvaśaḥ
- kartāham iti manyate
- (BG 3.27)
We are fully under the control of material nature, and foolishly, ahaṅkāra, on account of being bewildered by false egotism, we are thinking that, "I am independent." This is called material illusion.
So our first business is to understand what is this material world, what is the spiritual world, what is God, what is my relationship with Him, and how to execute the business of my life, to become successful in this human form of life. The success of human form of life is to understand this thing: our relationship with God. And we should act in relationship with God. Then our success of life will be achieved. This is the main purpose of Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. It is a very prolonged subject matter to understand, but everything is explained. Our only request is that you read Bhagavad-gītā as it is; don't try to interpret. That is useless. Otherwise, why people have lost in India their own culture? Because they have interpreted wrongly. Every śāstra has been interpreted wrongly, and therefore people are misguided. They could not take advantage of the instruction of Bhagavad-gītā because all through, the Bhagavad-gītā has been misinterpreted. So many so-called politicians, scholars, but it is maybe for the first time—not first time; it is there—but to make it broad propaganda-wide that, "Try to understand Bhagavad-gītā as it is, without any interpretation." That is our mission.
That is Caitanya Mahāprabhu's mission. Don't try to interpret and spoil it. Caitanya Mahāprabhu says, āmāra ājñāya guru hañā tāra ei deśa (CC Madhya 7.128). Ei deśa means . . . he was born in Bengal, India—it may be Bengal or in India—He . . . he was interested with every man all over the world:
- pṛthivīte āche yata nagarādi grāma
- sarvatra pracāra hoibe mora nāma
- (CB Antya-khaṇḍa 4.126)
So He was interested in all the parts of the world, how they can be delivered from the clutches of this material energy. So He wished especially the Indians to take this job preaching the teachings of Bhagavad-gītā all over the world. He wanted it.
- bhārata-bhūmite manuṣya janma hoila yāra
- janma sārthaka kari' karo para-upakāra
- (CC Adi 9.41)
This is Caitanya Mahāprabhu's mission, para-upakāra. It is not the business of the Indian people to exploit others. The mission is they must be very, very merciful to all outsiders, born in . . . out of India. That is India's mission. Because they are in darkness; they do not know. So instead of . . . enlighten them, giving them jyotir gamaḥ-tamasi mā: "Don't remain in darkness." So we are imitating them. This is not India's good fortune. We should not imitate. That is not very good civilization. That is . . . this has been described as asuric civilization in the Bhagavad-gītā. Na te viduḥ svārtha-gatiṁ hi viṣṇu, they do not know. Anyway, although they do not know, they are accepting now. The Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is so potential that they are accepting. That is upakāra. Caitanya Mahāprabhu wanted this, para upakāra. They are in darkness, tamasi. Bring them in the light: tamasi mā jyotir gamaḥ.
So this attempt has been done by us individually, with teeny effort, but it is becoming successful. But if we take up seriously this movement, every one of us become completely aware of this movement and take this mission as Caitanya Mahāprabhu says, āmāra ājñāya guru hañā tāra ei deśa (CC Madhya 7.128): "Every one of you, you become a guru," by the order of Caitanya Mahāprabhu. So "I shall become guru? What shall I do? I do not know anything." No, you haven't got to know anything. You simply, yāre dekha tāre kaha kṛṣṇa upadeśa. You simply repeat the instruction of Bhagavad-gītā. Whomever you meet, you try to convince him—then you are guru. So our mission is this, Caitanya Mahāprabhu's. We are trying to execute the order of Caitanya Mahāprabhu. We don't say anything else except what is described in the Bhagavad-gītā. Bhagavad-gītā says, Kṛṣṇa says, man-manā bhava mad-bhakto mad-yājī māṁ namaskuru (BG 18.65). Simple thing. It is not very difficult thing. Kṛṣṇa says: "Always think of Me." Is it very difficult task? No. You chant Hare Kṛṣṇa, you remember Kṛṣṇa immediately. Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma . . .
So always remember Kṛṣṇa. This is Kṛṣṇa's instruction, man-manā, "Always think of Me," mad-bhakta, and naturally you become bhakta. As soon as go on chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa . . . just like these European and American boys, they have been instructed to chant Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. Nothing that I showed them any magic, how to manufacture gold, or how to become this or that. No. Simply I have asked them to chant Hare Kṛṣṇa, and they have joined me because they have chanted Hare Kṛṣṇa. Why? Ceto-darpaṇa-mārjanam (CC Antya 20.12). By chanting this Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, the dirty things within the heart will be cleansed. They you will understand, "What is my position. What to do."
So this is the mission of Caitanya Mahāprabhu, yāre dekha tāre kaha. Kṛṣṇa said that man-manā bhava mad-bhakta: "You just think of Me, you just become My devotee, mad-yājī, you just offer a little flower and water to Me." Patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ yo me bhaktyā prayacchati (BG 9.26). (conch sounds) If you think that "We have got money. The money is for my enjoyment, and Kṛṣṇa may be offered a little water and flower," that is cheating; that is not good. According to your position you must worship. This is wanted. Otherwise, vita sakṣat. If you have got money and if you don't serve Kṛṣṇa, and you serve Kṛṣṇa with a little water and flower, Kṛṣṇa can understand this kind of cheating business. No. Everyone should worship Kṛṣṇa according to his position. That is wanted. Kuruṣva tad mad-arpaṇam. Yat karoṣi yaj juhoṣi yad aśnāsi yat tapasyasi kuruṣva tad mad-arpaṇam (BG 9.27). To become very big businessman is not ordinary thing; it requires tapasya, very great labor, brain, yat tapasyasi. But the result, Kṛṣṇa says, kuruṣva tad mad-arpaṇam. He's asking, "Give it to Me."
So there is no harm to become very big businessman, earning money—that is all right—but you give it to Kṛṣṇa. Then in any position you can remain Kṛṣṇa consciousness. And if you remain Kṛṣṇa conscious, then you will understand Kṛṣṇa. That is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā:
- mayy āsakta-manāḥ pārtha
- yogaṁ yuñjaṁ mad-āśrayaḥ
- asaṁśayaṁ samagraṁ māṁ
- yathā jñāsyasi tac chṛṇu
- (BG 7.1)
Kṛṣṇa is explaining that everyone is trying to understand God, but by speculation you cannot understand. By service only you can understand, by attachment. You cannot serve Kṛṣṇa without being attached. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says in the Seventh Chapter, mayy āsakta-manāḥ pārtha yogaṁ yuñjan mad-āśrayaḥ: "Taking shelter of Me or My devotee, if you practice this yoga system, bhakti-yoga system, increasing your attachment for Me, this is wanted." Kṛṣṇa consciousness means we have got attachment so many things, but that attachment has to be transferred to Kṛṣṇa. Then you'll become Kṛṣṇa conscious. Mayy āsakta-manāḥ pārtha yogaṁ yuñjan mad-āśrayaḥ asaṁśayam. Then asaṁśayam, without any doubt. To understand God there are three features: brahmeti paramātmeti bhagavān iti śabdyate (SB 1.2.11). So the ordinary person, they can be able to understand Brahman—a little advanced than them, they can understand Paramātmā, but to understand Kṛṣṇa is very difficult. Bahūnāṁ janmanām ante (BG 7.19). Manuṣyāṇāṁ sahasreṣu kaścid yatati siddhaye (BG 7.3). Out of many millions of person, one tries to become siddha, perfect. What is that siddha? Brahma-jña. Yatatām api siddhānāṁ kaścid vetti māṁ tattvataḥ (BG 7.3). And out of the siddhas, those who are actually self-realized, ahaṁ brahmāsmi, out of many of them maybe one is able to understand Kṛṣṇa.
So Kṛṣṇa can be understood only by devotion. Bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ (BG 18.55). So we have to take this process, śravaṇaṁ kīrtanaṁ viṣṇu. So our only request is that to understand Kṛṣṇa is not very difficult if we read Bhagavad-gītā perfectly, seriously. Then Kṛṣṇa is understood. And as soon as you understand Kṛṣṇa . . . because Kṛṣṇa is explaining Himself, what is the difficulty to understand Kṛṣṇa? Hmm? If you, Mr. Birla, you explain that, "I am like this. I have got so much money, I have got so many business, so many factories," if you explain, then where is my difficulty? But if I speculate, "Mr. Birla may be. . . so much . . . (indistinct) . . . may be had," that is always imperfect. But if you understand directly from Mr. Birla, then it is clear. So Kṛṣṇa, God, is explaining Himself, "I am like . . ." Asaṁśayaṁ samagraṁ māṁ yathā jñāsyasi tac chṛṇu (BG 7.1). So there is not very difficult to understand Kṛṣṇa if we simply . . . but if we interpret foolishly, and try to understand Kṛṣṇa by misinterpretation, then the business is finished. Don't do that. Simply try to understand Kṛṣṇa as He is explaining Himself, then your life is successful. How it is successful?
- janma karma ca me divyaṁ
- yo jānāti tattvataḥ
- tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma
- naiti mām eti . . .
- (BG 4.9)
That is success. If one can understand Kṛṣṇa, about His activities, why He comes, He explains, yadā yadā hi dharmasya (BG 4.7). (break) . . . you have to change this body. But we do not know what kind of body I am going to get. These information are there. But any kind of body you get, even in the higher planetary system as demigod, ā-brahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ punar āvartino 'rjuna (BG 8.16), that is not good. The best thing is you get a body, a spiritual body, like Kṛṣṇa, sat-cit-ānanda-vigraha. Tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti . . . (BG 4.9). Then you haven't got to accept any more this material body. Then what happens to me? Mām eti, you come to Kṛṣṇa and enjoy with Him. That is success of life.
Thank you very much.
Devotees: Jaya Śrīla Prabhupāda. Haribol.
Prabhupāda: Any questions? Any question?
Girirāja: Any questions?
Prabhupāda: Boliya mātājī. Prāśna boliya? There should be question.
Girirāja: The process of hearing and then asking questions is the way to clarify our understanding, just like Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna. So actually we must have some questions in our mind; otherwise we would all immediately surrender to Kṛṣṇa.
Prabhupāda: Yes. Either you surrender to Kṛṣṇa or clear it by question. Hmm . . . (chuckles) from today . . . hmm. (end)