Go to Vaniquotes | Go to Vanipedia | Go to Vanimedia

Vanisource - the complete essence of Vedic knowledge

BG 11 (1968)

From Vanisource

His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada



1:     ARJUNA SAID: I have heard Your instruction on confidential spiritual matters, which You have so kindly delivered unto me, and my illusion is now gone.


THIS CHAPTER SHOWS that Krishna is the Cause of all causes. He is even the Cause of the Maha Vishnu, from Whom the material universes emanate. Krishna is not an incarnation; He is the Source of all incarnations. That has been completely explained in the last chapter. Now, so far as Arjuna is concerned, he says that his illusion is past. The illusion was like this: Arjuna thought Krishna a human being, a friend of his. But after the explanations in the Tenth Chapter, he is now convinced that Krishna is the Source of everything. So he is now very enlightened, and is very glad that he has such a great Friend as Krishna. But in spite of being thus convinced, he also thought that, although he might accept Krishna as the Source of everything, others may not. So in order to aid his transcendental friends regarding Krishna's divinity, he is requesting, in this chapter, to see the Universal Form. Actually, when you see the Universal Form of Krishna, it will frighten you. But Krishna is so kind to Arjuna that, after the display, He reverts to His Original Form. Arjuna agrees with what Krishna has said several times: I am speaking to you just for your benefit. So Arjuna acknowledges that all this has happened by Krishna's Grace.

2:     O Lotus-eyed One, I have heard from You in detail about the appearance and disappearance of every living entity, as realized within the nature of Your inexhaustible Glories.

3:     O Greatest of all beings, O Supreme Form, though I see here before me Your actual position, I yet wish to see how You have entered into this cosmic manifestation; I wish to see that Form of You.


THE LORD SAID, I have entered into this material universe by My Personal presentation, and therefore the cosmic manifestation has been possible, and is going on. Now, Arjuna is inspired by this present state of Krishna; but in order to convince others in the future, who may think Krishna an ordinary person, he desires to see Him in His Universal Form: how He acts from within the universe, although He is apart from it. Arjuna's address to the Lord here is most significant: As the Lord is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and is present with Arjuna himself, He knew the desire of Arjuna. Lord Krishna could understand that Arjuna had no special desire to see Him in His Universal Form, because he was completely satisfied by the Personal Form of Krishna He could understand that Arjuna wanted to see the Universal Forrn only for future guidance, because in the future there would be so many imposters who would pose themselves as incarnations of God. People should, therefore, be careful, and before accepting such nonsense one should try to see the Universal Form of such a misrepresentation of God.

4:     If You think that I am able to see Your Cosmic Form, O my Lord, O Master of all Mystic Power, then kindly show me that Universal Self.


IT IS SAID THAT nobody can see or hear or understand or perceive the Supreme Lord Krishna, by material researches. But if one is engaged in loving transcendental service to the Lord, then one can see the Lord by revelation. Every living entity is only a spiritual spark. Therefore, it is not possible to see or to understand the Supreme Lord. Arjuna, as a devotee, does not depend on his speculative strength, but he admits his inability, acknowledging his position. So he could understand that for a living entity it is not possible to understand the unlimited infinite. If the infinite reveals itself, then it is possible to understand the nature of the infinite, by the mercy of the infinite. The word yogesvara, Master of All Mystic Power, is also very significant, because the Lord is the inconceivable power. If He liked, he could reveal Himself—although He is unlimited—by His Grace. Therefore, Arjuna pleads to the inconceivable Grace; not that he gave Krishna orders. Krishna is not obliged to reveal Himself to anyone, unless one surrenders fully in Krishna consciousness and engages in devotional service. So this revelation is not possible for persons who depend on the strength of their mental speculations.

5:     The Supreme Personality of Godhead said, My dear Arjuna, O son of Pritha, see now My opulences—hundreds of thousands of varied divine forms, multicolored like the sea.


ARJUNA WANTED to see Krishna in His Universal Form, which, although transcendental, is only suitable for the cosmic manifestation, and is subject to the temporary time of this material Nature. As the material Nature is manifested and not manifested, so is this Form of Krishna, which is not eternally situated in the spiritual sky, as other Forms are.

6:     O best of the Bharatas, see here the different manifestations of Adityas, Rudras, and all the demigods. Behold the many things which none has ever seen or heard before.

7:     Whatever you want to see, you can see in this Body all at once. This Universal Form can show you all that you desire; whatever you may want in the future as well—everything is here completely.

8:     But you cannot see Me with your present eyes. Therefore do I give you divine eyes, so that you can behold My mystic opulence.


THE PURE DEVOTEE does not like to see Krishna in any other Form except in His Form with two hands, and therefore a devotee has to see the Universal Form by the Grace of the Lord—not with the mind, but with the eyes. To see the Universal Form of Krishna, Arjuna is warned not to change his mind, but to change his vision. The Universal Form of Krishna is not very important—that will be clear in the succeeding verses—but still, because Arjuna wanted to see It, the Lord offered him the particular vision to see that Form. Devotees who are correctly in transcendental relationship with Krishna are attracted by loving features, not by the Godless display of opulence. The playmates of Krishna, the friends of Krishna, the parents of Krishna—these never desire Krishna to show His opulences. They are so immersed in pure love that they do not even know that Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In their loving exchange they forget that Krishna is the Supreme Lord. In The Srimad Bhagwatam it is stated that the boys who are playing with Krishna are all highly pious souls, so that after many, many births they are now able to play with Him. Such boys do not know that Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. They take Him as a personal Friend, and are playing. The fact is that the devotee is not concerned to see Viswa Rupa, or the Universal Form; but Arjuna wanted to see this Viswa Rupa not for himself, but to establish Krishna's position, so that, in future history, people could understand that Krishna not only theoretically presented Himself as the Supreme, but actually presented Himself. And it is confirmed by Arjuna, who is the beginning of Parampara, the chain of disciplic succession.

9:     Samjaya said: O King, thus saying, the Supreme, the Lord of all Mystic Power, the Personality of Godhead, displayed His Universal Form to Arjuna.

10-11:     Arjuna saw in that Universal Form unlimited mouths, unlimited eyes—all wondrous; the Form was decorated with divine ornaments, dazzling, and arrayed in many garbs. He was garlanded gloriously, and there were many scents smeared over His Body. All was magnificence, all-expanding, unlimited. This was seen by Arjuna.

12:     If there could be hundreds of thousands of suns rising at once into the sky, then it would be possible to imagine the effulgence of the Supreme Person in that Universal Form.

13:     At that time Arjuna could see in the Universal Form of the Lord the unlimited expansions of the universe seated in one place, although divided into many, many thousands.


THE SANSKRIT WORD tatra, there, is very significant. It means that both Arjuna and Krishna were sitting on the chariot. Although Arjuna was visualizing the Universal Form of the Lord, both of Them were seated on the chariot. Others who were present on the battlefield could not see. This is because of the eyes of Arjuna. Arjuna saw in the Body of Krishna many thousands of universes, with many planets: Some of them are made of earth, some of them are made of gold, some of them are made of jewels; some of them are very great, some of them not so great. All these varieties Arjuna could see while sitting on his chariot. No one else could understand what was going on between Arjuna and Krishna.

14:     At that time, bewildered and astonished, his hairs standing on end, Arjuna began to pray with folded hands, offering obeisances to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

15:     Arjuna said: My dear Lord, Krishna, I see in Your Body all the demigods and different kinds of living entities, assembled together. I see Brahma sitting on the lotus flower, as well as Lord Shiva and many sages and divine snakes.

16:     O Lord of the Universe, I see in Your Universal Body many, many forms—bellies, mouths, eyes—expanded without limit. There is no end, there is no beginning, and there is no middle to all this.

17:     Your Form is very hard to see on account of Its glowing effulgence, like the fiery sunshine which is immeasurable; and I behold the many elements, all as glass glittering in that effulgence.

18:     You are the Supreme Primal Objective; You are the best in all the universes; You are inexhaustible, the Oldest, the Maintainer of religion, the Eternal Personality of Godhead.

19:     You are the Origin, without beginning, middle, or end; You have numberless arms, and the sun and moon are among Your great, unlimited eyes. By Your own radiance are You eating this entire universe.

20:     Although You are one, You are spread throughout the sky and the planets and in all space between. O Great One, as I see this terrible Form, all the planetary systems are perplexed.

21:     All those demigods surrender unto You, entering into You. Very much afraid, with folded hands, they are praying the Vedic hymns.

22:     The different manifestations of Lord Shiva, the Adityas, the Vasus, the Sadhyas, the Visvadevas, the two Asvins, the Maruts, the forefathers and the Gandharvas, the Yaksas, Asuras, and all perfected demigods—all are seeing You in wonder.

23:     O Mighty-armed One, all the planets with their demigods are perturbed at seeing Your many faces, eyes, arms, bellies, and legs, and Your terrible teeth. And, as they are perturbed, so am I.

24:     O All-pervading Vishnu, I am unable to keep the equilibrium of my mind! Seeing Your radiant color filling the skies, Your mouths and eyes, I am afraid.

25:     O Lord of lords, O Refuge of the worlds, please be gracious toward me! I cannot keep myself balanced, seeing thus Your blazing, death-like faces and awful teeth. I am bewildered in all directions.

26:     All the sons of Dhritarashtra, along with their allied kings, and Bhisma and Drona and Karna—and all our soldiers, too.

27:     Every one of them is rushing into Your mouths, his head smashed by Your fearful teeth. And some I see being attacked between the teeth as well.


IN THE PREVIOUS verses the Lord said, "I shall show you other things also, which you may be interested to see." Now Arjuna is seeing that the enemies—Bhisma, Drona, Karna, and all the sons of Dhritarashtra—are being smashed with their soldiers; and Arjuna sees that his soldiers are also being smashed. This indicates that, after the death of all the persons assembled at Kurukshetra, Arjuna will be victorious. It is also mentioned that Bhisma, who is supposed to be unconquerable by Arjuna, will be smashed. So also Karna. Nor will only the great warriors of the other party, like Bhisma, be smashed, but some of the great warriors on the side of Arjuna will also fall.

28:     As the rivers flow down to the ocean, so do all these great warriors enter into Your blazing mouths, and perish there.

29:     I see all people entering with full speed into Your mouths, as the moth hurries into the blazing fire.

30:     O Vishnu, I see You devouring all people in Your blazing mouths, and covering all the universe by Your immeasurable rays. Scorching the worlds, You are manifest.

31:     O Lord of lords, so fierce of Form, please tell me Who You are. I offer my obeisances unto You; please be gracious to me. I do not know what Your mission is, and I desire to hear of this.

32:     The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: Time I am, the Destroyer of the worlds, and I am come to engage all people. Except for you [the Pandavas], all soldiers on both sides here will be slain.


ALTHOUGH ARJUNA KNEW that Krishna was his Friend and the Supreme Personality of Godhead, still he was puzzled by the various forms exhibited to him by Krishna. Therefore, he asked about the actual mission of this devastating force. It says in the Vedic literature that the Supreme Truth destroys everything, even Brahma. This form of the Supreme Lord is the all-devouring giant. Here Krishna presents Himself in that Form of Time, and He expresses His determination that, except for the Pandavas, everyone who was present on the battlefield should be devoured by Him. Now, Arjuna was not in favor of the fight, so maybe he thought it better not to engage, and then there would be no frustration. In reply to which the Lord said, even if you do not fight, the plan is already made, and every one of them will be destroyed. If you stop fighting they will die in another way. Death cannot be checked, even if you do not fight. The purport is that when the time has come for destruction, any manifestation may be vanquished, by the desire of the Supreme Lord. That is the law of Nature.

33:     Therefore, get up and prepare to fight, and after conquering your enemies you will enjoy the flourishing kingdom. They are already put to death by My arrangement, and you, O Savyasacin, can be but an instrument in the fight.

34:     The Blessed Lord said: All the great warriors are already destroyed—Drona, Bhisma, Jayadratha, Karna. Simply fight, and you will vanquish your enemies.

35:     Samjaya said to Dhritarashtra: O King, after hearing all these words from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Arjuna trembled; and, with fearfulness and folded hands, offering obeisances, he began, falteringly, to speak as follows:

36:     O Master of the Senses, the world becomes joyful hearing Your Name; and thus do all become attached to You. But the demons are afraid, and flee here and there; while the perfec t beings offer You their respectful homage. All this is rightly done.


ARJUNA, AFTER HEARING from Krishna about the preconceived decision regarding the Battle of Kurukshetra, was enlightened. He now says that everything done by Krishna is quite fitting. The idea is: Arjuna confirmed that Krishna as the Maintainer and the Object of worship of the devotees, and Krishna as the Destroyer of the undesirables, is in each case equally good. He understood that, while the Battle of Kurukshetra was being concluded, there were present in outer space many demigods, siddhas, and the intelligentsia of different planets. They were observing the fight because Krishna was present there. So when he saw the Universal Form of the Lord, killing the undesirables, they took pleasure in it. But others, the demons and atheists, could not bear it when the Lord was praised. Out of their natural fear of the Devastating Form of the Supreme Personality of Goclhead, they fled away. This kind of treatment to the devotees and the atheists by the Supreme Person is eulogized by Arjuna. The devotee glorifies the Lord, because he knows that whatever is done by the Supreme is good for all.

37:     O Great One, Who stands above even Brahma, You are the original Master. Why should they not offer their homage up to You, O Limitless One? O Refuge of the universe, You are the invincible Source, the Cause of all causes, transcendental to this material manifestation.

38:     You are the Original Personality, the Godhead. You are the only Sanctuary of this manifested cosmic world. Knowing everything, You are all that is knowable. You are above the material modes. O Limitless Form! this whole cosmic manifestation is come from You.


EVERYTHING, EVEN THE PURE effulgence, or Brahman, rests on the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna. He is the Knower of everything that is happening in this world, and if knowledge has any end, He is that end. Therefore, He is the known and the knowable. He is the Object of knowledge because He is all-pervading. Because He is the Cause, dwelling in the spiritual world, He is transcendental, and He is Chief in the transcendental world.

39:     You are air, You are the Supreme Controller! You are fire and water! You are the moon, You are the grandfather—and so do I offer my respectful obeisances unto You a thousand times, and again and yet again!


THE LORD IS addressed here as the air because the air is the most important representation of all the demigods. He is the all-pervading demigod. And He is addressed as the grandfather because He is the father even of Brahma, the first living creature of this universe.

40:     I offer my respects from the front, from behind, and from all sides! O Unbounded Power, You are the Master of limitless might! You are all-pervading, and thus You are everything!

41:     I have in the past addressed You, O Krishna, O Yadava, O my Friend—without knowing Your Glories. Please forgive whatever I may have so done, in madness or in love.


KRISHNA IS NOW manifested before Arjuna in the Universal Form, but Arjuna cannot forget his friendly relationship with the Supreme Lord. Therefore, he is asking pardon, and requesting Him to excuse him. He is admitting that, formerly, he did not know Krishna could assume such a Form, although it was explained. "How many times I have dishonored You by addressing You, O my Friend, O Krishna, O Yadava, without knowing Your opulence!" But Krishna is so kind and merciful that, in spite of such opulence, He played with Arjuna as a Friend. That is the transcendental loving reciprocation between the devotee and the Lord. The relationship with the living entity and Krishna is fixed eternally. It cannot be forgotten, as we can see from the behavior of Arjuna; for although he saw such opulence in the Universal Form, he could not forget his relationship of friendliness.

42:     I have dishonored You many times while in relaxation, while lying on the same bed or eating together; sometimes alone, and sometimes in front of many friends. Please excuse me for all the many offenses I have committed against You.

43:     You are the Father of this complete cosmic manifestation, the worshipable Chief, the Spiritual Master. No one is equal to You, nor can any be one with You. Within the three worlds, You are immeasurable.

44:     You are the Supreme Lord, to be worshiped by every living being. And so I fall down to offer You my respects, and I ask Your mercy. As a father tolerates the impudence of his son, or a friend tolerates the impertinence of a friend, or a wife tolerates the familiarity of her partner, so should You tolerate those wrongs that I may have done to You.

45:     After seeing this Universal Form which I have never seen before, I am gladdened, but at the same time my mind is disturbed with fear. Therefore, please reveal again Your Form as the Personality of Godhead, in order to grace me, O Lord of lords, O Sanctuary of the universe.

46:     O Universal Lord, I wish to see You in Your Four-handed Form, with helmeted head, with club, wheel, conch, and lotus flower in Your hands. I long to see You in that Form.


THE LORD IS eternally situated in hundreds and thousands of myriad Forms, and principal among these are Rama, Nrishingha, Narayana, and so on. Arjuna knew that Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead; but, as He had assumed His temporary Viswarupa, the Universal Form, now Arjuna's inquisitiveness increased, and he also wanted to see the Form of Narayana. This confirms without any doubt the statement of The Srimad Bhagwatam—that Krishna is the Original Personality of Godhead, and all other Features originate from Him. It is also clearly stated there that He is not different from His plenary expansions. He is God in any of His innumerable Forms, and all those Forms are fresh, just like a young man. That is the Feature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One who knows Krishna thus, at once becomes free from all contamination of the material world.

47:     The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: My dear Arjuna, happily do I show you this Universal Form within the material world, by My internal potency. No one before you has ever seen this Form, unlimited and glaringly effulgent.


NO ONE HAD SEEN the Universal Form of the Lord before Arjuna; but when the Form was shown to him, devotees on the heavenly planets, and in outer space also, were fortunate enough to behold It. They had not seen It before, but, because of Arjuna, they were now able to see It. Someone has commented that this Form had been previously shown to Duryodhana, when Krishna went to him, negotiating peace. Unfortunately, Duryodhana did not accept the peace offer, but at that time Krishna manifested some of His Universal Forms. That was different, however, from the one which was shown here to Arjuna. It is clearly mentioned that no one has seen It before.

48:     O best of the Kuru warriors, no one before you has seen this Universal Form of Mine—neither by studying the Veda nor by performing sacrifices, nor by charities or similar activities. Only you have seen this.

49:     Your mind has been perturbed at seeing this horrible Feature of Mine. Now let it be finished. My devotee, be free from all disturbance, and with a peaceful mind you can see My Form as you have desired.

50:     Samjaya said to Dhritarashtra: The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna, while speaking thus to Arjuna displayed His real Four-handed Form and at last He showed Him his Two-handed Form, thus encouraging the fearful Arjuna.


WHEN KRISHNA appeared in this world as the Son of Vasudeva and Devaki, He first of all showed His Four-handed Narayana Form; and then, requested by the parents, He transformed Himself and became just like an ordinary child. Similarly, Krishna knew that Arjuna was not interested to see a Four-handed Form of Krishna, but as he asked to see this Form, It was shown to him, and then Krishna showed Himself in His Two-handed Form. The Sanskrit word saumyavapur in this verse is very significant. Saumyavapur means a very beautiful form; or, the most beautiful form. When He was present, everyone was attracted by Krishna. Because Krishna is the Director of the universe, He washed the fearfulness out of Arjuna, His devotee, and showed Him again His beautiful Form as Krishna. It has been stated that only a person whose eyes are smeared with the ointment of love can see the beautiful Form of Sri Krishna.

51:     When Arjuna thus saw Krishna in His Original Form, he said: Seeing this human-like Form, so very beautiful, I am now settled in mind, and am restored to my original nature.

52:     The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: My dear Arjuna, the Form which you are seeing now is very difficult to behold Even the demigods are ever seeking the opportunity to see this Form, which is so dear.


IN THE FORTY-EIGHTH VERSE of this chapter, when the Lord concluded the manifestation of His Universal Form, He informed Arjuna that this Form is not visible by dint of so many activities—penances, charities, sacrifices, etc. Now here it is said that, although one may be able to see the Universal Form of Krishna by adding a little tinge of devotional service to the various pious activities, still, beyond that Universal Form, the Form of Krishna with two hands is yet more difficult to see, even for demigods like Brahma and Lord Shiva. We have evidence in The Srimad Bhagwatam that, when Krishna was in the womb of His mother, Devaki, all the demigods from Heaven came to see the marvel of Krishna, and they offered nice prayers to the Lord, although He was not at that time visible to them. They waited to see Krishna. Therefore, the foolish person may mock at Him, that He is an ordinary man, and one may not offer respect to Him, but, rather, to the impersonal something which is within Him—but these are nonsensical postures. Krishna is desired by demigods like Brahma and Shiva. They long to see Him in this Two-handed Form. In The Bhagavad Gita it is elsewhere confirmed that He is not visible to the foolish who deride Him. Now, the reason for mocking at Krishna's Form may be stated as follows: Krishna's Body is completely spiritual, full of bliss, and eternal. His Body is never like our material body. But for those who are making a cultural phenomenon of Krishna, by studying The Bhagavad Gita or similar Vedic scriptures, He is a problem. This problem has three methods of approach: by the transcendental process, by the material process, and by the speculative process. According to the material process, Knshna is considered a great historical personality, a very learned philosopher; but He isn't an ordinary man. And, even though He was so powerful, He had to accept a material body. The Absolute Truth is impersonal, and therefore His manifestation means that, from the impersonal Feature, He has assumed a Personal Feature, attached to material Nature. This is the materialistic calculation of the Supreme Lord. The next calculation is speculative: Those who are in search of knowledge also speculate on Krishna, and consider Him less important than the Universal Form. They think also that the Universal Form of Krishna which was manifested to Arjuna is more important than His Personal Form. According to them, the Personal Form of the Supreme is something like imagination. Otherwise, in the ultimate issue, the Absolute Truth is not a person. And, next, the transcendental process: The transcendental process is described in The Bhagavad Gita, Second Chapter: to hear about Krishna from authorities. That is the actual Vedic process, and those who are in the Vedic line hear about Krishna from authority. And, through repeatedly hearing about Him, Krishna becomes dear. Because, as we have several times discussed, Krishna is covered by the Yogamaya potency, He is not to be seen by, or revealed to, anyone and everyone. Only those to whom He reveals Himself can see Him. This is confirmed in Vedic literature: By anyone who is a surrendered soul, the Absolute Truth can actually be understood. This transcendentalist, by continuous Krishna consciousness, being engaged in devotional service to Krishna, has his spiritual eyes opened. Krishna is seen by him, through revelation. Such a revelation is not available even to the demigods; even for them it is difficult to understand Krishna. And amongst the demigods, those who are a little advanced are always in hope of seeing Krishna in His Two-hand Form. The conclusion is that, although to see the Universal Form of Krishna is very, very difficult, and not possible for anyone and everyone, it is still more difficult to understand His Personal Form as Syamasundar.

53:     The Form which you are seeing with your transcendental eyes cannot be understood simply by studying the Veda, nor by undergoing serious penances, nor by charity, nor by worship. No one can see Me as I am.

54:     My dear Arjuna, only by undivided devotional service can I be understood as I am, standing before you; and I can thus be seen directly. Only in this way can you enter into the mysteries of My understanding.

55:     My dear Arjuna, anyone who is engaged in My pure devotional service, freed from the contaminations of previous activities and from mental speculation, and who is friendly to every living entity, certainly comes to Me.


ANYONE WHO WANTS to approach the Supreme of all the Personalities of Godhead, on the Krishnaloka planet in the spiritual sky, and be intimately connected with the Supreme Personality, Krishna, must take this formula, as is stated by the Supreme Himself. Therefore, this verse is considered to be the essence of The Bhagavad Gita. The Bhagavad Gita is a book directed to the conditioned souls, who are engaged in the material world with the purpose of lording it over Nature, and who do not know of the real, spiritual life. The Bhagavad Gita is meant to show how one can understand his spiritual existence, and his eternal relationship with the Supreme Spiritual Personality; and to teach one how to go back Home, back to Godhead. Now here is the verse which clearly explains the process by which one can attain success in his spiritual activity: devotional service. So far as work is concerned, one should transfer his energy entirely to Krishna activities. No work should be done by any man, except in relationship to Krishna. This is called Krishna-karma. People may be engaged in many various activities, but one should not be attached to the result of the activity: It should only be done for Him. For example, one may be engaged in business. Just to transform that business activity into Krishna consciousness, one has to do business for Krishna. If Krishna is the Proprietor of the business, then Krishna should enjoy the profit of the business. That should begin. Now the problem of support: If a businessman is in possession of thousands and thousands of dollars, and if he has to offer it to Krishna, he can do it. This is work for Krishna. Instead of constructing a big building for his sense gratification, he can construct a nice temple for Krishna, and he can install the deity of Krishna, and arrange for the deity's service, as is mentioned in the authorized books of devotional service. These are all Krishna-karma. One should not be attached to the result of his work, but the result should be offered to Krishna, and he should accept as prasadam, food, the remnants of nice offerings to Krishna. If, however, one is not able to construct a temple for Krishna, one can engage himself in cleansing the temple of Krishna; that is also Krishna-karma. One can engage himself to have a garden. Anyone who has land—in India, at least, any poor man has got a certain length of land—can utilize that for Krishna, by growing flowers to offer to Krishna. He can sow the plants of Tulasi, because Tulasi leaves are very important, and Krishna has recommended this in The Bhagavad Gita. Krishna desires that one offer Him either a leaf, or a flower, or a little water—and He is satisfied. This leaf especially refers to Tulasi. So one can sow Tulasi leaves and pour water on the plant. Thus, even the poorest man can be engaged in the service of Krishna, with all this paraphernalia. These are some of the examples of how one can engage in working for Krishna.

A devotee of Krishna is friendly to everyone. Therefore, it is said here that he has no enemy. How is this? A devotee situated in Krishna consciousness knows that only devotional service to Krishna can relieve a person from all the problems of life. He has personal experience of this, and therefore he wants to introduce this system, Krishna consciousness, into human society. There are many examples in history of devotees of the Lord risking their lives for the spreading of God consciousness. The favorite example is Lord Jesus Christ. He was crucified by the non-devotees, but He sacrified His life only for spreading God consciousness. Of course, it would be superficial to understand that He was killed. Similarly, in India also there are many examples, such as Thakur Haridas. Why such risk? Because they wanted to spread Krishna consciousness, and it is difficult. A Krishna conscious person knows that if a man is in suffering, it is due to his forgetfulness of his eternal relationship with Krishna. Therefore, the highest benefit one can render to human society is to relieve one's neighbor from all material problems. In such a way, a pure devotee is engaged in the service of the Lord. Now, we can imagine how merciful Krishna is to those engaged in His service, risking everything for Him. Therefore, it is sure and certain that such persons must reach the Supreme Planet after leaving this body.

The summary of this Eleventh Chapter is: The Universal Form of Krishna, which is a temporary manifestation, and the Form of Time which devours everything, and even the Form of Vishnu, Four-handed—all these Forms have been exhibited by Krishna; and Krishna is the Origin of all these manifestations. It is not that Krishna is a manifestation of the original Viswarupa, or Vishnu. Krishna is the Origin of all other Forms. There are hundreds and thousands of Vishnus. But for a devotee, no other form of Krishna is important except the Original Form, Two-handed, Syamasundar. In The Brahma Samhita, it is stated that those who are attached to the Syamasundar Form of Krishna by love and devotion can see Him always within the heart, and cannot see anything else. One should understand, therefore, that the purport of this Eleventh Chapter is that the Form of Krishna is essential and Supreme.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta Purports to the Eleventh Chapter of The Srimad Bhagavad Gita, in the matter of the Universal Form.