751020 - Lecture SB 05.05.01 - Johannesburg
- śrī-ṛṣabha uvāca
- nāyaṁ deho deha-bhājāṁ nṛloke
- kaṣṭān kāmān arhate viḍ-bhujāṁ ye
- tapo divyaṁ putrakā yena sattvaṁ
- śuddhyed yasmād brahma-saukhyaṁ tv anantam
- (SB 5.5.1)
This is a verse, verse number one, Fifth Canto, Fifth Chapter, of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. We are publishing Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, twelve cantos in sixty volumes, and this is the latest volume, just received today. Therefore I am taking advantage of this volume and reciting one verse. This is in connection with Ṛṣabhadeva's instruction to His sons. Ṛṣabhadeva was a king, and He had one hundred sons. Of all of them, the eldest was Mahārāja Bharata, under whose name India is called Bhārata-varṣa since the time of Mahārāja Bharata. So the instruction was being discussed amongst the royal family members. Formerly, all Vedic instructions were discussed amongst the very topmost class of men. Yad yad ācarati śreṣṭhas lokas tad anuvartate (BG 3.21). That is the instruction in the Bhagavad-gītā. If the higher level class of men accepts something as truth, then the ordinary, common man follows that.
So the problem of life is discussed here by Ṛṣabhadeva. He says: "My dear boys," nāyaṁ deha deha-bhājāṁ nṛloke kaṣṭān kāmān arhate viḍ-bhujāṁ ye (SB 5.5.1). Ayam. Ayam means "this," this body. This human form of body, it is also a body, and the dog's body is also a body, material body. It is also made of blood and bone and urine and stool and so many other things. The dog's body is also made the same ingredients. But what is the difference between dog's body and this human body? He advises, ayam deha: "This human form of body . . ." deha-bhājāṁ nṛloke. And where this body is obtained? It is obtained in the human society. This intelligent brain and good form of body, it is to be found in the human society. In the human society you will find from this body, big, big professors, big, big philosophers, scientists, mathematicians and . . . they are coming. Not from the dog society. That is not possible. Therefore it should be properly utilized. Nāyam deho deha-bhājāṁ nṛloke. Nṛloke means in human society. So how it should be utilized? He says, kaṣṭān kāmān arhate, na arhate viḍ-bhujāṁ ye. Kaṣṭān. Kaṣṭān means very, very hard labor, kaṣṭān. And kāmān means necessities of life we require.
The necessities of this body, that is required. We want to eat something, we must have a shelter to live, āhāra-nidrā-bhaya, and we must defend from the enemies or from the attack of other living beings. Kaṣṭān kāmān. So we require all these things, but not very hard labor, working day and night. That is for the lower animal. Kaṣṭān kāmān na arhate viḍ bhujāṁ ye. As the animal is working very hard day and night for meeting their necessities of life, the human form of life is not meant for that purpose. This is the basic principle of instruction. Ayaṁ deha. This deha, this body, is meant for higher purposes, not for simply meeting the necessities of life. This is the basic principle of instruction. They have no other way. The cats and dogs and hogs, they are working day and night where to find out some stool and eat it, and as soon as the body is filled, then sense gratification, sex life. This is going on in the lower class of animal life.
So does it mean that human life also will be utilized only for this purpose? No. That is His advice. "This is not meant for wasting our time and living like the lower animals, cats and dogs and hogs." Then what it is meant for? He says, tapo divyaṁ (SB 5.5.1): "My dear sons, this body is meant for tapo, austerity." Austerity. What is that austerity? Divyam, to realize God. That is the whole Vedic principle, that human body, human society, should be trained intelligently in such a way that he can understand God. This is the goal of life. In the Vedānta-sūtra . . . those who are philosophically advanced, they might have studied the Vedānta-sūtra or Brahma-sūtra. So the first aphorism of the Brahma-sūtra is athāto brahma jijñāsā: "Now this human form of life is there . . ." We have got it by the material nature's grace. There are 8,400,000 different forms of life, transmigration or evolution, as you say.
- jalajā nava-lakṣāni
- sthāvarā lakṣa-viṁśati
- kṛmayo rudra-saṅkhyakāḥ
- pakṣiṇāṁ daśa-lakṣaṇam
- (Padma Purāṇa)
In this way there are aquatics, 900,000 different forms of life. And then, from aquatics to plants and trees, 2,000,000 forms. Then insects, different insects, eleven . . . 1,100,000. Then birds, 10. . . 1,000,000 different forms. Then beasts, 3,000,000 different forms. In this way there are 800,000,000s. Hmm? Eight?
Prabhupāda: Eight millions. And human being, 400,000 species form there are. So out of that, the civilized man, the best form of human body, that is meant for this purpose, tapo divyaṁ putrakā yena śuddhyed sattvam (SB 5.5.1) that, "My dear boys, you should not waste your time simply for finding out the necessities of this body and work very hard day and night and forget your own business."
What is that own business? Self-realization, "What I am." This is called own business. "Am I this body or something else?" We can understand it that, "I am not this body," because as soon as I, you, leave this body, the spirit soul, it is nothing but lump of matter. That we can understand. That is the beginning of Bhagavad-gītā lesson, to understand that, "I am not this body." If we live under the conception that "I am this body," then the śāstra, Vedic literatures, condemns, "Then you are no better than the cats and dogs, because they also live under the bodily concept of life." And if you do not understand that you are not this body, you are spirit soul, and you are changing different forms of body for realization of the higher . . . the highest goal of life . . . that you should understand. That is called tapasya.
So if we do not become very sober . . . tapo divyam (SB 5.5.1). Then, to become sober, dhīra . . . dhīras tatra na muhyati (BG 2.13). Dhīra means sober. If we remain restless like animals, then we cannot achieve the goal of our life. We do not know how the laws of nature is working. We can experience how the laws of nature is working in our present life. Present life . . . just like a young man, if he thinks that "I shall not become old man. I shall remain young man," will the nature's law allow it? No. You must become old man. There is no question of saying that, "I don't want to become old man." So no, nature's law will not allow you. You must become old man and suffer the old age's disadvantages. That you must. Similarly, if the old man says: "Never mind I have become old man. I will not die," no. Nature's law will not allow. He must die. Similarly, after death, if you think foolishly that there is no more life, that is also wrong. Nature's law is that you must accept another body. This is nature's law. So we are dependent on nature's law. However foolishly we declare that, "We are independent. We don't care for anything," that will not stay. We are under the clutches of material nature's law. In this law, by evolutionary process we have come to this human form of life, and if we don't utilize it properly, then we are missing the chance.
So our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is reminding the whole human society that, "Don't lose this chance of getting a human body." You must properly utilize it. And how it is to be utilized? That is stated here by Ṛṣabhadeva: tapo divyaṁ putrakā yena sattvam śuddhyet (SB 5.5.1). Sattvam, our existence, is now polluted. Therefore we are getting this material body and changing this material body. And as soon as we get a material body, then our miserable condition begins. In this material body nobody can say that there is no miserable condition. It is full of miserable condition. There are three kinds of miserable conditions: adhyātmika, adhibhautika, adhidaivika. Adhyātmika means pertaining to the body and pertaining to the mind. There are so many miseries. Otherwise . . . the other day Swami Puṣṭa Kṛṣṇa was telling that in this country there is maximum number of suicide. Is it not? So, why one commits suicide unless he feels bodily position very uncomfortable, mental condition very disturbing? So this is called adhyātmika, pertaining to the body and mind. There are many troubles. Every one of us, we have got that experience, that there are troubles. I may be very rich, I may have immense wealth, but if my body and mind is not in order, I am in trouble.
So simply material opulence, material wealth will not satisfy us. We require bodily comforts. And if I have got millions of dollars and if I am diseased man, I cannot enjoy; I cannot be in happiness. So these are one type of miserable condition. Similarly, there are other types of miserable condition as adhibhautika. I do not wish to create any misunderstanding with a friend, but automatically there is some misunderstanding between friends, neighbors, nation, man to man, business friend. There are troubles. So this is called . . . and not only . . . if not human being, human being, but other, lower animals. Just like there are insects, there are cockroaches, there are so many other living bodies—they are giving us trouble. That is called adhibhautika. And adhidaivika. Adhidaivika is nature's disturbance.
So there are three kinds of miserable condition in this material world, and either of them or all of them, they are always troubling us. This is our position. We have to understand that. We are suffering. That everyone knows. But by illusion we think that, "This is not suffering. This is natural." No. It is not natural. Just like if you have got fever, it is disease. Don't think that it is natural. Why you should be suffering from all these troubles? That is not natural, that is unnatural. Because we are part and parcel of God, we living entities, we should be as happy as God is. That is our position, sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ. God is described, īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ sac cid ānanda vigrahaḥ (Bs. 5.1). Sat, cit, ānanda. This is three different features of God's body. What is that? Sat. Sat means eternal. Sat. And cit. Cit means knowledge, full of knowledge. And ānanda means full of bliss. That is ānanda. So this is God's body. And we are part and parcel of God. Just like gold and particle of gold: it may be very small particle, but one shall say it is gold. It is not anything else. Similarly, in quality we are same as God. Now we have got this body which is not eternal. God's body is eternal and my . . . this body is not eternal. And sat, cit. God is full of knowledge, omniscient, but my body is full of ignorance. Why these universities are there? Because we do not know what is what; therefore we are being educated. So that means this body is not full of knowledge; it is full of ignorance. So . . . and again, God's body is blissful, and our body is miserable.
So the aim should be how again we come to the original position like God or the same type of body—blissful, full of knowledge and eternal. That is the aim of human life. Therefore it is said, tapo divyam (SB 5.5.1): "My dear son, don't become like cats and dogs and work hard for the bodily necessities of life. This human form of life is meant for austerity." "Why austerity? Let us enjoy." "No." Tapo divyaṁ putrakā yena sattvaṁ śuddhyet: "If you accept the path of austerity, then your existence will be purified." Now, at the present moment, the existence is not purified—therefore we have to accept birth, death, old age and disease. This is not our business. But because we have got this material body, the nature's law forces to accept all these things—birth, death, old age and disease.
In the Bhagavad-gītā it is said, janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi-duḥkha-doṣānudarśanam (BG 13.9). We are trying to be happy, fighting with unhappiness, but we do not know our real unhappiness are that we have to die, we have to take birth again, we have to become diseased and we have to accept old age. Janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi duḥkha-doṣānudarśanam. This is intelligence that, "I am trying to solve all the problems of life by advancement of civilization, education, scientific knowledge and so many things. That's all right. But what is the solution of my these four principle of miserable condition: birth, death, old age and disease?" And because we cannot make any solution, we set aside these four problems. We go on with the temporary problems and become busy to solve it, and in this way we waste our this valuable human form of life like the cats and dogs. This is the instruction.
So we should not do that. We must be sober, and we must . . . and it is not very difficult. The knowledge is there in the Vedic literature. And it is . . . everyone can accept it. It is not a sectarian, so-called religious principle. It is scientific. Every human being should understand his position. Every human being should not waste his valuable time. So therefore Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura, a great devotee and a great Vaiṣṇava ācārya, he has sung a nice song, that hari hari biphale janama goṅāinu: "My dear Lord, I got this chance of human form of body. Unfortunately I have wasted my time without any self-realization." Hari hari biphale, janama goṅāinu. Manuṣya janama pāiyā, rādhā kṛṣṇa nā bhajiyā: "I got this very valuable form of life, human form of life, but instead of understanding what is God, Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa," jāniyā śuniyā biṣa khāinu, "knowingly I have drunk poison." This is the opportunity to understand God and make solution of all different types of births and deaths and transmigration from one body to another. And as soon as I get a material body, immediately there are so many miserable condition. But I am . . . as spirit soul, part and parcel of God, I have nothing to do with all these things, but I have been forced to be working with these problems of life. This is human intelligence.
Therefore he requires to live a saintly life. It is not possible, of course, that everyone should become saintly. That is not possible. Therefore in the Vedic civilization it is prescribed, varṇāśrama-dharma. Varṇāśrama-dharma. Varṇa means four classification of the society, and āśrama means four division of spiritual life. The society, it is not meant for any particular nation or particular community. It is meant for the whole human society. Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā that cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ (BG 4.13). The human society should be divided into four groups. What is that? The first-class men. There are first-class, second-class, third-class, fourth-class men. We have got our experience. Not that everyone is equally intelligent. No. There is difference of classification or intelligence or genuineness. There are so many things, division. So here also you have got division, classification. That is natural.
So first class, the first-class men means they should be trained as brāhmaṇa, at least one class of men. Cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭam (BG 4.13). In order to realize the highest goal of life there must be division in the society and there must be division in spiritual life. The social life is divided into brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra. Brāhmaṇa means the most intelligent class of men, one who can understand God. That is brāhmaṇa. Brahma jānātīti brāhmaṇaḥ. First-class man means not first-class dress. First-class man means he has got full knowledge: jñānaṁ vijñānam āstikyaṁ brahma-karma svabhāva-jam (BG 18.42). Full knowledge. He knows what is God. That is first-class man.
So the second-class men means the kṣatriyas, the administrators, the administrative class of men, because government men, they must be very sober to rule over the citizens. There are varieties of men, and to regulate them so that the state may go on very peacefully, so this is dependent on the kṣatriyas. And they must be prepared to fight to the enemies. These are . . . everything is described in the śāstra, in the Bhagavad-gītā. Tejo śauryaṁ yuddhe cāpy apalāyanam (BG 18.43). The administrator should be so brave that whenever there is war they must first of all come forward to fight, so that soldiers and others may follow him. So they are second-class men, and they should be instructed by the first-class men. Then their activities will be nice.
Brāhmaṇa-kṣatriya-vaiśya. Vaiśya means the productive class of men. Their business is how to produce food for all the society and give protection to the cows. Kṛṣi-gorakṣya-vāṇijyaṁ vaiśya-karma svabhāva-jam (BG 18.44). There must be sufficient milk in the human society. If you drink more milk and milk products, then your brain will be very sharp. You will understand things very nicely, correctly. Therefore milk is very important. In the Vedic śāstra cow protection is recommended. Why? Because milk is very, very important thing. Milk is . . . what about the meat-eaters? If there are meat-eaters, they can eat other animals, but especially they should not eat the cow. They should give them protection. So because the vaiśyas, the first class, second class, third class, they are meant for producing food for the society . . . so milk is very important. Therefore it is recommended, kṛṣi-gorakṣya-vāṇijyam. And if there is excess, they can trade. And this is the first class, second class, third class. And those who cannot act as first-class men or as second-class men or third-class men—that means fourth-class men—they are called laborer, or worker class of men.
So it is not that because one person is belonging to the worker class and another person is becoming the first class, there is differentiation. No. Everyone is important. Just like in this body the head is very important. That is a fact. If the head is cut off, then whole body is finished. But that does not mean that head is simply required without leg. Leg is also required; the hand is also required; the belly is also required. Similarly, the first-class man, the second-class man, the third-class man and the fourth-class man, all of them are equal, provided they are adjusted for the higher aim of life, the higher aim of life—the brain. The brain means . . . first-class brain means to realize self, to understand God and do accordingly. This is required. This is called varṇāśrama-dharma. So unless one takes to the varṇāśrama-dharma as they are prescribed, it is not human society; it is cats' and dogs' society, and you cannot be happy, however you may adjust, in a society who is filled up with cats and dogs. That is not possible.
So this Vedic instruction, it is not meant for any particular person, any community or any country. It is meant for everyone. So we should take advantage. We are therefore publishing in English so many books so that people may understand. English language is spoken practically all over the world, and we are selling also. These books are being appreciated by the professors in university and highly learned circles, and common men also. So I am lecturing for, say, half an hour or forty-five minutes—it is not possible to explain all the Vedic intelligence—but we are distributing these books. I request you to read all these books as far as possible and take advantage of it. Because we require, as it is advised by Ṛṣabhadeva to His sons, tapo divyaṁ putrakā. Putrakā means "My dear boys, you do not spoil your life simply for meeting the necessities of this body very hardly like cats and dogs. It is not required. The real business is to realize your self." That is . . . tapo divyam. For which . . . and actually we do not require very much to work for meeting the necessities of life, because from the śāstras we can understand that our necessities of life are already there. They are. Tasyaiva hetoḥ prayateta kovido (SB 1.5.18).
The śāstra says that, "Don't bother yourself about the necessities of life. This is already there, settled. You will get it. Depend on the supplier of the necessities of life." The supplier of necessities, life, is God. That is the description in the Vedic literature. Therefore we see practically that Christians, they go to church and they request God, "O God, Father, give us our daily bread." Actually it is supplied by Him. So there are 8,400,000 different forms of life, and God is the creator of them, and He is supplying all the necessities of them. We human being, we have got different enterprises, but what the enterprises have got the elephant in Africa? There are millions of elephants. Who is feeding them? And the ant also. There are trillions and millions of ant in your room. Who is feeding them? So we do not believe in God. That is our defect. Otherwise, if God is providing food for the lower animals, why not for us if we become God conscious?
So there is no reason. We shall get. But we have been habituated for economic development. Let us do it. It doesn't matter. But don't forget God. That is wanted. If you forget God, then you are no better than dog. This is the movement of Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, that we are reminding everyone that "Don't remain like lower animals. You have got this opportunity of human life. You go, accept little austerity." So what we are prescribing, austerity? Just like these European, American boys, they are under training. Our first business is to take declaration that the devotee will not indulge in illicit sex life, not meat-eating, no intoxication and no gambling. This is austerity. And chant Hare Kṛṣṇa. It is very easy. It is not very difficult. Just like these boys, girls, they are chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa, and they are undergoing the austerity. So they have not died, nor they are unhealthy. You can see, they are living, and they will live. But they have become purified. Tapo divyaṁ yena sattvaṁ śuddhyet (SB 5.5.1). This is purifying our existence.
Purifying existence means no more material body. Tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti mām eti kaunteya (BG 4.9). These are the information we get, that if we purify our existence, our existential position, then the result will be that . . . tyaktvā deham. We have to give up this body. The cats and dogs also will give up, and I'll also give up. That's a fact. But the cats and dogs, they'll get another material body. But if you purify your existentional position, then tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti (BG 4.9), you'll not to have . . . accept any more material body. You shall stay in your spiritual body. And when you stay in your spiritual body you become equal with God—sac-cid-ānanda: eternal, ānanda, blissful, and full of knowledge. That is the human form of life . . . er, aim of human mission. Don't miss this. There is ample information. The practice is very easy. Anyone can do it.
So our only request is take advantage of this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. Try to understand it properly. It is not meant for any particular person, nation or community. It is for every human being. So we request you to study this movement and take to it seriously. Then you will be all happy.
Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (break)
Guest: Your Divine Grace, Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda, I refer to . . . (indistinct) . . . this cause in the Bhagavad-gītā, verse 20. Lord Kṛṣṇa says, "I am the Self. I am the beginning, the end. . . the beginning, the middle and the end of all beings." Now, these both things, one verse . . . (indistinct) . . . in verse 32, "I am the beginning, the middle and the end of all creation." What does He exactly mean by "creation" and "all beings"? Does He mean the universe as a whole?
Prabhupāda: Yes. Creation means this material world. There are two worlds: material world and spiritual world. Spiritual world is eternal, and material world is created. We can experience: anything material is created, it is maintained for some time, then it is annihilated. Nothing remains forever. So when . . . creation means this material world, not the spiritual world. So when Kṛṣṇa says, aham ādir hi devānāṁ (BG 10.2), ahaṁ sarvasya prabhavaḥ (BG 10.8), that means God is not within this material world, created being; He is the creator. So creator was there in the beginning, and then the created material world was in existence or is in existence. Therefore God is not one of these created things. He is beyond created. He is transcendental. If we accept God is also one of the created beings, that is our mistake, because if God created this material world, He was existing before the creation. Therefore He is not one of the product of this creation. Therefore He is sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha (Bs. 5.1). His body is eternal, full of bliss and full of knowledge. Creator means He must have full knowledge.
How God creates this material world? That is explained in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam: janmādy asya yataḥ anvayāt itarataś ca artheṣu abhijñaḥ svarāṭ (SB 1.1.1). This creator is well conversant directly and indirectly every details of the universe. Just like we are trying to study how this material world is going on, how the big, big planets are floating in the air. We cannot understand properly. There are so many scientists, but they do not understand what are these. There are innumerable universes. This is only one universe. So He must have full knowledge how He is maintaining this material world. Therefore He is called abhijña. He is not dull-headed. He has got full knowledge. That is God, omniscient. He has got full knowledge. We may not have, because we are very tiny. A child may not have knowledge, but the father knows everything. Similarly, He is the supreme father. He knows everything. He has got full knowledge. Anvayād itarataś ca artheṣu. There are things, indirect and direct. In both ways He is abhijña; He is well aware, everything. Then the next question is svarāṭ. Svarāṭ. Because we are thinking in our own way of life that, "If God has got so much knowledge, wherefrom He got it?" Because we have got experience that whenever we require knowledge we go to a superior person and take knowledge from him. Then "Wherefrom God has got so much knowledge?" Therefore the answer is svarāṭ. Svarāṭ means He is fully independent. He is not dependent for knowledge to anyone else. So these things are there. We have to study very nicely.
So your question about the creation, maintenance and annihilation . . . it is being done by the Supreme Lord. The material world is . . . our body is also like that. It is created at a certain date, it exists for a certain time, and it is annihilated. This is being done by God. This is the law, nature. Nature means an instrument in the hands of God. Mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ sūyate sa-carācaram (BG 9.10). This is the information. Don't think that material nature is working automatically. No. This is not possible. Behind this material nature, the big machine, there is the operator, God. That you should understand.
Woman guest: Good evening. Would Kṛṣṇa be able to . . . (indistinct) . . . you've given us austerity, but you haven't mentioned meditation. Can you?
Prabhupāda: This is meditation. If you become sober and think of everything, that is meditation. Meditation means the subject matter must be very sober, and you think over and find out the solution. That is meditation.
Puṣṭa Kṛṣṇa: No one else? (end)