741220 - Lecture SB 03.26.08 - Bombay
Nitāi: (leads chanting of verse, etc.) (devotees repeat)
- kāraṇaṁ prakṛtiṁ viduḥ
- bhoktṛtve sukha-duḥkhānāṁ
- puruṣaṁ prakṛteḥ param
- (SB 3.26.8)
"The cause of the conditioned soul's material body and senses, and the senses' presiding deities, the demigods, is the material nature. This is understood by learned men. The feelings of happiness and distress of the soul, who is transcendental by nature, are caused by the spirit soul himself."
- kāraṇaṁ prakṛtiṁ viduḥ
- bhoktṛtve sukha-duḥkhānāṁ
- puruṣaṁ prakṛteḥ param
- (SB 3.26.8)
Puruṣam. We are also prakṛti, but here it has been said, puruṣa. Living entity is prakṛti. Original position is prakṛti. Prakṛti means subordinate. We have got experience in this material world also: prakṛti, strī, and puruṣa, husband and wife. Natural position is that the wife is under or subordinate to the husband. At least that is the Vedic conception. Therefore woman places herself in the position of dāsī, dāsī, maidservant. Even the queens of Kṛṣṇa, when . . . you will find in the Bhāgavata, Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, when there was talking between the queens and Draupadī at Kurukṣetra on some festival, that women, mixing together, they talk about their marriage, about their family, about their husband, so they were also talking. So Draupadī was asking the queens of Kṛṣṇa how they were married. Because in each time Kṛṣṇa had to fight to get the wife. That is the kṣatriya principle. Without fight, there is no marriage. There must be some fight. And after killing the opposing party, their blood is taken and smeared over it. This is red vermilion. Now it can be purchased. (laughter) There is no fight. You can purchase, two paisa, that's all. But formerly a kṣatriya must fight, and there were many opposing princes, and the victorious prince must kill or at least get some blood from the body, and as victorious, the wife will be smeared.
Anyway, so the point is that even the queens of Kṛṣṇa, they are not ordinary woman; very exalted. So they were giving their acquaintances to Draupadī, "In this way I became a maidservant of Kṛṣṇa." You will find this in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Even the queens . . . every queen possessed a big, palatial building, and all the palaces were made of first-class marble, and the furnitures were made of ivory, and the beddings, and the within the room, there was no need of electrical bulb—they are set up with jewels, and they would throw the focus of light. And there was garden, pārijāta flower. You will find all these things in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. And each queen had ten sons. And the sons were also married; they had sons. In this way, very, very opulent. But still, they were placing themself in the position of maidservant. They were also king's daughter, not ordinary being. So that is the Vedic conception. Of course, I do not know what is the practice here, but in Bengal this is the practice. When the son goes to marry to the bride's house, it is a custom. The mother asks the son, "My dear son, where you are going?" So the bridegroom answers, "I am going to bring one maidservant for you." This is the system.
So the Vedic . . . according to the Vedic system, there is no equal right of the man and woman. The woman is always subordinate. That is the Manu-saṁhitā law. Na strī svātantryam arhati. A woman does not require, does not desire, to get independence. That is good for them. If the woman remains under the protection—in young age under father, when he (she) is child, when he (she) is young, under the protection of husband; and when she is old, under the protection of elderly children—that is their very safe position. Just like Kuntī. Kuntī was not ordinary woman; still, she kept herself under the protection of the five sons. The sons were going to forest. Kuntī was not asked to go to the forest, but because she took it to be protected by the sons, she also went to the forest. Just like Sītā-devī. Sītā, she was also king's daughter. When Rāmacandra was going to the forest, Rāmacandra did not ask also; neither Sītā was asked by her father-in-law to go to the forest. But she preferred to go with Rāmacandra just to be protected by Him. This is the system.
Anyway, the living entities, they are described as prakṛti in the Bhagavad-gītā, strī, not puruṣa. But here it is said, puruṣam, puruṣam, because in the material world we have given up the idea that constitutionally we are prakṛti, subordinate. We want to declare independence, not under the protection of Kṛṣṇa, or God. This is our position in this material world. Therefore the mentality is not to become prakṛti but to become puruṣa, the mentality. In the material world, constitutionally the living entity is prakṛti. It is described in the Bhagavad-gītā, apareyam itas tu viddhi me prakṛtiṁ parām, jīva-bhūtāṁ mahā-bāho (BG 7.5). The jīva-bhūta, mamaivāṁśo jīva-bhūtaḥ (BG 15.7), prakṛti. But artificially, we are trying to become puruṣa. Ultimately, the same spirit is going on. As puruṣa is the enjoyer, we try to become independent enjoyer of this material world and baffled one after another, one after another, one after another, baffled, and at last, finally baffled, still he wants to become the supreme puruṣa, "I am God." This is māyā. Those who are claiming to become, "I am God," they're still in māyā, because he is prakṛti by nature, but he is still trying in the . . . first in the karma field as karmī, working day and night hard. But the purpose is that, "I shall become the enjoyer. I shall become the Supreme."
So on account of this puruṣa mentality the jīva is described here as puruṣa, puruṣam. And this puruṣa's position is prakṛteḥ param. Puruṣaṁ prakṛteḥ param. We do not belong to this material world. Prakṛteḥ param, transcendental. Because we are spirit soul, we belong to the spiritual world. Prakṛteḥ . . . this prakṛti is material. This prakṛti is material, but we are falsely identifying ourself as something made of this matter. The whole scientific world is going on under this misconception of life, that we belong to this material world. This is called illusion. Anyway, there are three things: kārya-kāraṇa-kartṛtva kāraṇaṁ prakṛtiṁ viduḥ. We are doing something according to our position, kārya, kāraṇa and kartā, so according to circumstances, according to different causes, and we are placed to execute different types of business, and we are obliged to do that. As soon as kāraṇam, kārya-kāraṇa-kartṛtve kāraṇaṁ puruṣa . . . er, kāraṇaṁ prakṛtim. Kārya-kāraṇa-kartṛtve kāraṇaṁ prakṛtim. Prakṛti. We accept this prakṛti because as soon as we develop this mentality, that "Why shall I serve Kṛṣṇa? Why shall I serve God? I shall become independent," so immediately we are placed in this material world.
There is a verse in the Bhagavad-gītā, icchā-dveṣa samutthena sarge yānti parantapa (BG 7.27). Sarge means in creation. This is the creation, created world. The spiritual world is not created. That is eternal. How it is created? Just like the sky is eternal, but the cloud is created. That we have got experience. That is in the clear sky. Clear sky is always there, but at some time, seasonal changes, the cloud is created. The water is taken from the . . . the stock is already there, taken from the sea, ocean, and it is made into gas, and that appears as cloud. And it covers the sun. The sun is the cause of cloud, but the cloud covers the sun and we cannot see the sun. Similarly, everything—creator is the Supreme Lord. Ahaṁ sarvasya prabhavaḥ (BG 10.8). Janmādy asya yataḥ (SB 1.1.1). This material world is also created by God, and the work is going on. Mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ sūyate sa-carācaram (BG 9.10).
So everything is going on under the direction of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, but according to our position, we are enjoying different result. Not enjoying—suffering. Here there is no question of enjoyment. It is suffering. So this prakṛti, this material nature, is creating the situation—we have discussed already many time—according to our . . . kāraṇaṁ guṇa-saṅgo 'sya (BG 13.22). As we are associating with different modes of material nature or infecting different modes of material nature, so we are getting different situation, different body, different activities. The original cause is the material nature. Then we can say: "Then why we are suffering? Everything is given by the material nature. Why?" No. That is stated here, that bhoktṛtve sukha-duḥkhānāṁ puruṣaṁ prakṛteḥ param. The material nature is creating the situation for your suffering, so she is not responsible. You have to suffer. This is our position. You cannot say that, "Material nature is creating. Why I shall suffer?" No. Just like if you say: "I did not know when I infected this disease, so why shall I suffer from it?" No. Because you have, somehow or other, you have infected some type of disease, you must suffer. This is our position. Because you have come to this material nature and you have infected a certain quality or modes of material nature, the resultant action you have to suffer. Although the body is given to you by material nature, the bodily pains and pleasure, that you have to suffer. This is our position.
That means because we have come to this material nature . . . how we have come to material nature? That is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā, that icchā-dveṣa samutthena sarge yānti parantapa (BG 7.27). Icchā-dveṣa. There are two things, hatred and desire. Something we desire and something we hate, icchā-dveṣa. Two kinds of propensities there are. So when we want to enjoy this material world, that is called icchā, and when we want to disobey God, that is called dveṣa. So that icchā and dveṣa, there can be. That is two opposing elements. There are. So icchā-dveṣa samutthena. When we think . . . that is not very difficult to understand. Everyone is thinking, "Why shall I worship God? These are all bogus things, they are going to the temple. No." That propensity is there, dveṣa. Tān ahaṁ dviṣataḥ krūrān kṣipāmy ajasram aśubhān yoniṣu (BG 16.19), Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā. Tān ahaṁ dviṣataḥ krūrān. These persons who are envious of God and krūrān . . . krūra means . . . krūra also, envious, very, very atheistic. Duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ āsuraṁ bhāvam āśritāḥ (BG 7.15). This is āsuri-bhāva. When we become envious, atheist, godless, without any God consciousness, that is called atheism. That is dveṣa.
You will find . . . all the demons—we have got description in the śāstra—their only business is to become envious of God, that's all. This is the business. Just like Kaṁsa. Kaṁsa, as soon as he heard one omen that this eighth son of his sister, Devakī, would kill him, immediately he became furious: "Oh, let me finish my sister so that there will be no eighth or first or second son. Finish the origin of . . ." So anyway, Vasudeva saved him . . . er, saved her. It is the duty of the husband to save, give protection to the wife. So some way or other . . . it was a family matter. But he promised that, "I shall bring all the children to you." So this is Kaṁsa. And actually, Vasudeva, to keep his word, brought all the issues before him, and he killed. Only in case of Kṛṣṇa, he violated the promise, "No, no, I cannot allow this child to be killed." So he transferred the child from Devakī's protection to Mother Yaśodā's protection.
So anyway . . . so the Kaṁsa was thinking of killing Kṛṣṇa always. He was also Kṛṣṇa conscious, always thinking of, but how to kill Kṛṣṇa. That is the difference between the demon and the devotee. The demons are also Kṛṣṇa conscious, but they are Kṛṣṇa conscious in the opposite way: how to kill Kṛṣṇa. And devotees, they are Kṛṣṇa conscious, but not like the demon; they are always thinking how to serve Kṛṣṇa. Both of them are Kṛṣṇa conscious. Therefore, this is . . . because these demons are also Kṛṣṇa conscious, they cannot be called devotee. They cannot be called devotee. But they get the good result of Kṛṣṇa consciousness because by thinking of Kṛṣṇa, "Kṛṣṇa . . ." And when they are killed by Kṛṣṇa, they get immediately liberation. That is the absolute position of Kṛṣṇa. Either you go to Him as enemy or you go to Him as friend, your result is the same. So somehow or other, come to Kṛṣṇa consciousness. But the demonic Kṛṣṇa consciousness is not bhakti. That is not bhakti.
So liberation is achievable even by the nondevotees, because these demons . . . they are nondevotees. They are getting also liberation because thinking of Kṛṣṇa always. So why the devotees also get the same type of liberation? No. For them, better type of liberation. Sāyujya, sārūpya, sārṣṭi . . . (CC Madhya 6.266). There are five kinds of liberations, and the sāyujya-mukti, to become one with the Supreme, that is obtainable even by the enemies, demons. The devotees, they do not want that kind of liberation. They want to keep their identity eternally and serve Kṛṣṇa. That is perfect. So ānukūlyena kṛṣṇānuśīlanam (CC Madhya 19.167). Therefore bhakti is described, ānukūlyena kṛṣṇānuśīlanam. Kṛṣṇānuśīlanam. Anuśīlanam means cultivating the knowledge of Kṛṣṇa. The demons are also cultivating, but that is not ānukūlyena. That is prātikūlyena, how to kill Kṛṣṇa. So that is not bhakti. When we cultivate Kṛṣṇa consciousness ānukūlyena—anukūla means favorable—that is called bhakti. So here it is said that:
- kāraṇaṁ prakṛtiṁ viduḥ
- bhoktṛtve sukha-duḥkhānāṁ
- puruṣaṁ prakṛteḥ param
- (SB 3.26.8)
Puruṣa, we living entities, because we have developed this consciousness somehow or other, that we don't want to serve Kṛṣṇa but we want to become Kṛṣṇa, this prātikūlya, this icchā, and not to serve Kṛṣṇa, this dveṣa, two things combined . . . icchā-dveṣa samutthena sarge yānti parantapa. They cannot . . . just like I will give you very small example: just like the criminals. The criminals, they have got two things: icchā, dveṣa. Dveṣa: "Why shall I abide by the government law? I can do anything, what I like." This is dveṣa. And icchā means, "I shall work independently, without the law." So just like this icchā-dveṣa, the result is they are put into the jail. On account of these two things: icchā that, "I shall live independently, without the control of the government. Whatever I like, I shall do," this icchā, and dveṣa, "I don't like to carry out the orders of law," dveṣa—this is very nice example—the result is that he will be arrested, and he will be put into the jail.
So it is exactly like that. We are in this material world on account of this icchā and dveṣa. We wanted to satisfy the senses, material senses, independently. And we wanted to disobey the orders of the Supreme Lord. These are the two causes for which we are put into this material world. So we have to rectify this mentality that, "I am independent. I am God. I can do whatever we like." This mentality has to be rectified. For that rectification we are in this material world, and we are undergoing different types of miserable condition of life to become rectified, so that we may come to the senses that, "I want to be happy. I want to enjoy life. Why I am put into this unfavorable circumstances? The most unfavorable circumstance is that I do not want to die. Still, I have to die." This is common sense. So in order to . . . on account of this puruṣa mentality . . . just like I have already explained the strī can enjoy happy life along with the husband, not independently; similarly, we, being prakṛti, our business is to remain eternal servant of Kṛṣṇa. Then we will be happy. Otherwise we will not be happy. It is not possible.
And the whole material world, whole Vedic śāstra, whole Vedic culture is meant for rectifying this mentality that, "I am not independent. I am dependent on Kṛṣṇa. So I have forgotten Kṛṣṇa somehow or other, and I have taken this mentality of puruṣa, enjoying this material world. I have to rectify this." So if I rectify that, then I become free from the clutches of māyā. Otherwise, since I have put myself under the clutches of this material energy, she is giving me different types of body, different types of situation, to fulfill my desire. But because she has given a different type of body, a different type situation, she is not responsible, I am responsible. Therefore I will have to suffer or enjoy of the sequence or the resultant action made by the material nature.
Therefore it is said that kārya-kāraṇa-kartṛtve kāraṇaṁ prakṛtiṁ viduḥ. One should understand the . . . I have got this body. This is given by material nature. I have got a different type of mentality. That is also given by prakṛti, na . . . I am suffering. That is also given. There is circumstances created. But prakṛti, material nature, is not responsible, nor she will suffer, but you will suffer. Just try to understand. This is the position. Kārya-kāraṇa-kartṛtve bhoktṛtve. Kartṛtve is material nature, but bhoktṛtve I am, bhoktṛtve. I am put into that. Therefore Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura sings, anādi karama-phale, paḍi' bhavārṇava-jale: "Somehow or other, I have fallen in this ocean of birth and death." Taribāre nā dekhi upāy: "I do not find how to get out of it." But we can get out of it very easily. That is advised by Kṛṣṇa: mām eva ye prapadyante māyām etāṁ taranti te (BG 7.14). Otherwise you cannot. Here it is a great struggle. Manaḥ ṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi prakṛti-sthāni karṣati (BG 15.7). Karṣati, great hard struggle going on. We are trying to be happy, but that is not possible. Just like if you are put into the ocean, you may be very good swimmer, you may struggle very nicely, but you are under the control of the prakṛti. You cannot be happy in the water. But if somebody helps you to get out of the water, then you will be happy.
So our business is to pray to Kṛṣṇa to get me out of this struggling, hard struggle for existence in this material world. Therefore Caitanya Mahāprabhu teaching us this prayer, no other prayer. Ayi nanda-tanuja patitaṁ kiṅkaraṁ māṁ viṣame bhavāmbudhau (CC Antya 20.32, Śikṣāṣṭaka 5): "O Kṛṣṇa . . ." Kṛṣṇa is very pleased when we address Him with His devotee. Nanda Mahārāja is devotee playing as the father of Kṛṣṇa. So therefore Caitanya Mahāprabhu is addressing Kṛṣṇa, ayi nanda-tanuja: "Kṛṣṇa, You are born out of the body of Mahārāja Nanda." This is very pleasing to Kṛṣṇa. Therefore He is addressing, ayi nanda-tanuja, patitaṁ kiṅkaraṁ māṁ viṣame. Patitaṁ kiṅkaram. Kiṅkaram means servant. "I am Your eternal servant, but somehow or other, I am now fallen in this ocean of nescience, repeated birth and death." Patitaṁ kiṅkaraṁ māṁ viṣame bhavāmbudhau. Kṛpayā: "By Your causeless mercy, because I am servant . . . I have somehow or other fallen." Kṛpayā tava pāda-paṅkaja-sthita-dhūlī-sadṛśaṁ vicintaya: "Kindly fix me again as one of the dust particle in Your lotus feet." This prayer has been tak . . .
So we cannot be happy in this puruṣa mentality to enjoy this material world. We can never be happy. Ābrahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ (BG 8.16). Even if you are . . . now, just like they are trying to go to the moon planet. But what this moon planet? It is very near. Even if you go to the topmost planet, ābrahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ punar āvartino 'rjuna (BG 8.16), the struggle will go on. You cannot be happy. Either you go to the heavenly planet or the moon planet or the Brahmā planet, anywhere in this material world, the four things—birth, death, old age and disease—will go on. You cannot stop it. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says that, "Don't try to be elevated to the higher planetary system, to the moon planet or sun planet or heavenly planet. Try to come to Me." Yad gatvā na nivartante tad dhāma paramaṁ mama (BG 15.6).
This should be our endeavor. Don't try to elevate yourself materially. That will not make you happy. Just try to get out of these material clutches and begin your spiritual life. That will make you happy. That is the only source of happiness. Otherwise it is not. The same example, that if you are put into the ocean—you may be very good swimmer—it will be great struggle—you can keep yourself floating, but that is not happiness. Happiness is different thing. If you want happiness, then you have to give up the association of prakṛti. Kāraṇaṁ guṇa-saṅgo 'sya (BG 13.22). Because as so long you will be in the material world, you will have to associate with some of the modes of material nature, sattva-guṇa, rajo-guṇa, tamo-guṇa. By association with the sattva-guṇa material modes of nature, ūrdhvaṁ gacchanti sattva-sthāḥ (BG 14.18), you can be elevated to the higher planetary system, or by jaghanya-guṇa-vṛtti-sthā adho gacchanti tāmasāḥ (BG 14.18), by associate in the tamo-guṇa, you will be put downwards either in the animal forms of life or lower planetary system. In this way you are wandering up and down. Give up this business. Kṛṣṇa says: "Surrender unto Me." You surrender to Kṛṣṇa and be happy.
Thank you very much.
Devotees: Jaya Śrīla Prabhupāda. (end)