730521 - Lecture SB 03.01.10 - Dallas
Pradyumna: Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. (leads chanting of verse) (Prabhupāda and devotees repeat)
- yadopahūto bhavanaṁ praviṣṭo
- mantrāya pṛṣṭaḥ kila pūrvajena
- athāha tan mantra-dṛśāṁ varīyān
- yan mantriṇo vaidurikaṁ vadanti
- (SB 3.1.10)
Prabhupāda: One of the children? (children chant) Hmm. Now, word meaning.
Pradyumna: yadā—when; upahūtaḥ—was called by; bhavanam—the palace; praviṣṭaḥ—entered; mantrāya—for consultation; pṛṣṭaḥ—asked by; kila—of course; pūrvajena—by the elder brother; atha—thus; āha—said; tat—that; mantra—advice; dṛśām—just suitable; varīyān—excellent; yat—that which; mantriṇaḥ—the ministers of state, or expert politicians; vaidurikam—instructions by Vidura; vadanti—do they say.
Translation: "When Vidura was invited by his elder brother Dhṛtarāṣṭra for consultation, he entered the house and gave instructions which were exactly to the point. His advice is well known, and instructions by Vidura are approved by expert ministers of state."
Prabhupāda: So Vidura was a great devotee and great politician also. Not that a devotee should not take parts in politics. They knew everything, but they did not take part. Just like Vidura and his elder brother Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was politician, Dhṛtarāṣṭra. His whole life was diplomacy and politics. But still, in difficult position he used to consult Vidura. So why a politician should consult a devotee? No. If I want to do something, I must take advice, the best advice, from the best man. That is the principle.
So Vidura was so expert advisor, counselor, that there was a statement, vaidurikam. Just like the cāṇakya-śloka. On ordinary things, cāṇakya-śloka is evidence. Cāṇakya Paṇḍita said . . . I think you can introduce cāṇakya-śloka amongst the students. Cāṇakya Paṇḍita said that vidvatvaṁ ca nṛpatvaṁ ca naiva tulyaṁ kadācana. A man who is learned and man who is very rich, so how they should be compared? The Cāṇakya Paṇḍita says: "There is no comparison." Comparison must be there when there is points of similarity. Just like we say: "Your face is just like moon." So if the face is actually similar to the moon, then we can say. So points of similarity. Analogy means there must be points of similarity. The largest number of similarity makes the analogy perfect. This is logical rules.
So Cāṇakya Paṇḍita says that to a rich man and a learned man, there is no comparison. They are different categories. Why? Sva-deśe pūjyate rājā vidvān sarvatra pūjyate. A rich man, a king, may be very respectful, respectable, in his own country amongst his own men, but a vidvat, a learned scholar, he is respected all over the world. Tri-bhuvane mānyau (Śrī Ṣaḍ Gosvāmy Aṣṭaka 2). So if one is respected all over the world and if one is respected in his own village, so how there can be any comparison? These are the Cāṇakya Paṇḍita's instruction, very valuable. There are many. And another:
- mātṛvat para-dāreṣu
- para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat
- ātmavat sarva-bhūteṣu
- yaḥ paśyati sa paṇḍitaḥ
Who is a learned scholar? Now, somebody will say one who has passed the M.A., Ph.D. degrees in university, he is learned scholar. Cāṇakya Paṇḍita says: "No, that is not the criterion." Simply to hold degrees of university examination, that is not the test of his becoming learned scholar. That is not. Then what is the test of his becoming learned scholar? Three things. Mātṛvat para-dāreṣu. Except one's married wife, if one sees all other women like mother, he is a learned scholar. Mātṛvat para-dāreṣu. Para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat: and others' property, just like garbage in the street.
And ātmavat sarva-bhūteṣu yaḥ paśyati sa paṇḍitaḥ. If one has acquired . . . by education, there must be some effect. So these are the test how one has advanced in education. He must treat all women except his mother . . . except his wife, as mother. In India still, women, especially in āśramas, any woman, visitor, she is addressed as "mother" by all the . . . she may be young girl, but she is addressed as "mother." This is the etiquette. "Mother, what can I help you?" This is the very relationship.
The brahmacārī goes to householders' place for begging alms. The system cannot be introduced here. It is very difficult. Otherwise, another business of these children were to go door to door and knock and ask some alms: "Give us some alms." So in India they have got sufficient stock of rice, flour, ḍāl. They keep at least one month provision in every house, even if he's a poor man. As soon as he gets his money, he purchases the whole month provision—rice, ḍāl, āṭā, ghee—and keeps it. So when the brahmacārī goes there, a little rice or little ḍāl they contribute. In this way, by collection of these alms from the neighboring householders, practically the āśrama's eating problem is solved.
Brahmacārī is supposed to live in gurukula at the place of guru just like a menial servant. Even Kṛṣṇa, He also lived as a menial servant. His teacher asked Him to bring some fuel from the jungle, and He went with Sudāmā Vipra, and while collecting these dry woods there was a storm and there was heavy rain, and they became lost in the jungle, Kṛṣṇa and Sudāmā Vipra. Then His teacher, Sāndīpani Muni, with the assistance of other boys, they were rescued. So this is the position of the brahmacārī, that they go to collect alms, all kinds of, for gurukula.
So Vidura . . . Kṛṣṇa consciousness includes varieties of activities. They, in the press representatives, they asked me, "Whether your students, do you take part in politics? Is it sanctioned?" Why not? Our Bhagavad-gītā is produced in battlefield. In battlefield. So why should I deride battle? No. When there is need for fighting, there must be fighting. This world is like that. Otherwise there is no need of fighting.
But there is a class of men who will fight. Still it is existing. When there is fight, those who are meant for military purposes, they fight. Not the civilian go and fight. No. Similarly, in the society there must be division. Not that everyone should be called, "Come on, you go to fight." Where is his training? That was not the system.
First of all, cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭam (BG 4.13). These children, according to strict Vedic principle, by practical psychology they should be tested, "What is the tendency of this boy?" There can be four kinds of tendencies: brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra. Some child is to become a brāhmaṇa, some child is to be become a kṣatriya, some child is to become a vaiśya, and the rest, śūdras. They do not . . . Śūdra does not require any training. Śūdra means no training. Ordinary worker class. Otherwise, other three, especially two, namely the brāhmaṇas and kṣatriyas, they require very magnificent training. Because they will administer the whole affairs of the society.
So brāhmaṇas, they would give advice to the kṣatriyas, and kṣatriyas, according to their advice, would rule over the citizens. This was the system. Cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ (BG 4.13). Vibhāgaśaḥ, "by division of quality and work." A brāhmaṇa must be qualified and at the same time work as a brāhmaṇa. So we are training, especially, our student to become qualified brāhmaṇa. We cannot take up all other department. Similarly, others may take up the line of training . . . Military men . . . others may take . . . there are training classes. Many mercantile firm, you can get your lesson. So there was organized method to train these mercantile men, administrator and brāhmaṇa.
So Vidura, although he was born of śūdra mother . . . his mother was śūdra, maidservant. Formerly, when a prince was married, along with the princess, a few dozens of maidservants would go with the king. So to become king, always it is to be understood he has to maintain more than one wife. That is king. Even in Muhammadan kingdom, Nawab was Ridali Shah(?). After the Mogul period . . . in Lucknow, if you go . . . so he had 164 wives, begum. And all of them had children.
And when Britishers occupied, the Britishers had to give them pension according to the share. So amongst the Muhammadans also, polygamy was allowed. And Hindus, especially the higher class, brāhmaṇa and kṣatriya, polygamy is allowed. Now they have made laws. But that is quite natural. If every woman has to be married, then polygamy must be there. Otherwise how every woman is going to get a husband? Because male population is always shorter than the female population.
So Vidura was born of a maidservant. The father was the king. The father was the same, Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira, er, Dhṛtarāṣṭra, and the father, Vidura, the same, and the mother different. So Vidura, because he was not born of the queen, he had no share in the throne. But Dhṛtarāṣṭra loved him very much. Although stepmother's son, he would like him very much because he was very intelligent. So on every occasion he would consult with him, and his consultation was so valuable that later on it became vaidurikam, "Consultation as expert as given by Vidura." So he was invited.
Diplomacy, politics were going on, how to cheat the Pāṇḍavas. That was his politics, Dhṛtarāṣṭra. Dhṛtarāṣṭra was born blind, although he was eldest son of his father, but he was born blind. So he could not occupy the throne. His next brother, younger brother, Pāṇḍu, the father of the Pāṇḍavas, he occupied. He became king. Now, this Pāṇḍu died at an early age, and the sons of Pāṇḍu, they were minor children. So Dhṛtarāṣṭra took charge for their maintenance as his other sons.
But his policy was that, "I could not be elevated on the throne because I was blind, but actually the kingdom belongs to me. So anyway, my brother occupied the throne. Now he is dead and gone. So why his sons should be king? My son should be king." This was the politics. So he was trying how to kill the Pāṇḍavas from the very beginning. And Vidura was restricting him, restraining him. So this is the subject matter. He called Vidura, "What is to be done?" Vidura . . . he disclosed everything to Vidura. Vidura said: "No, you cannot do that."
That will be discussed next morning. Thank you very much.
Devotees: Jaya. All glories to Śrīla Prabhupāda. (end)