741214 - Lecture SB 03.26.02 - Bombay

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His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada



741214SB-BOMBAY - December 14, 1974 - 49:37 Minutes



Nitāi: Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. (Prabhupāda and devotees repeat) (leads chanting of verse, etc.)

jñānaṁ niḥśreyasārthāya
puruṣasyātma-darśanam
yad āhur varṇaye tat te
hṛdaya-granthi-bhedanam

(SB 3.26.2)

(break) (02:43)

"Knowledge is the ultimate perfection of self-realization. I shall explain that knowledge unto you by which the knots of attachment to the material world are cut."

Prabhupāda:

jñānaṁ niḥśreyasārthāya
puruṣasyātma-darśanam
yad āhur varṇaye tat te
hṛdaya-granthi-bhedanam
(SB 3.26.2)

What is jñāna, knowledge? We have got... Jñāna means consciousness, or living symptoms. That is jñāna. Cetana. Cetana, ce..., nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13). Nitya and cetana. Cetana means consciousness. Two things we find, generally: conscious or unconscious. Just like this table is unconscious, but a small ant, it is conscious. The ant is coming this side, you try to stop it, it will struggle, it will resist, because it is conscious. But the table, you take it and throw it away, it will not protest, because it is unconscious. So this consciousness is the symptom of life, and that develops one after another.

Just like within the earth you have seen, you go to the beach, you'll find within the sand there are so many living entities. But they are inferior. And the plants on the sand, we have seen there are many green plants, herbs—they are better. They have improved their consciousness. But better than these plants and herbs are the crawling insects, snakes, snail, because they can move. The herbs, they cannot move, and within the sands there are living entities, they cannot sprout. So in this way, this is called evolution—one after another. So the insects, the reptiles, they are better than the standing herbs and plants; and these insects, the worms, they grow wings at the end of their life. In this way they are elevated to the bird's life. In this life they could not attain the bird's life, but on account of very strong willingness they grow the wings, and next life they become small birds, they fly. So they are better, the small birds, they are better than these insects. Then there are birds, big, big birds, the eagle birds, they can fly very high. In this way, beast life, that is better. In this way, beast life, then human life, uncivilized life, that is better. And then civilized life, that is better. Then civilized life, those who are organized—brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra—they are better. And amongst the brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra, the brāhmaṇa is the best, because they are on the platform of spiritual realization. This is the evolution. Evolution, we are coming in that evolution. Bahu-sambhavānte. Bahu-sambhavam, bahūnāṁ janmanām ante (BG 7.19), bahu-sambhavānte.

So this human life is after many, many evolutionary process. We have forgotten that. So this life is meant for jñānam, ultimate knowledge. In the lower grade of life, there is jñānam, there is consciousness, there is knowledge. A mosquito bug, mosquito, knows where to bite. The knowledge is there. They will bite on the joints. Therefore there is mosquito, you have to eat(?) your hands and legs, the joints, but they know where to bite. This knowledge is there, for eating, sleeping and sex life. Nobody takes education for sex life. Nobody takes education for eating or sleeping. Where is the education that "You shall eat like this," "You shall sleep like this," "You shall have sexual intercourse like this"? That is automatically known. This knowledge is automatically known. So human civilization does not mean that scientifically you have to do this, do that, eating, sleeping, mating. That is going on, scientifically. Now this science of mating is that we shall have sex intercourse, but there will be no pregnancy. Contracept.

So this is not knowledge. Knowledge is different thing. Knowledge means jñānaṁ niḥśreyasārthāya puruṣasya ātma-darśanam. That is knowledge. Atma-darśanam, self-realization. That is jñānam. Otherwise this lower jñāna, or knowledge—how to eat, how to sleep, how to perform sexual life and how to defend—this knowledge is there even in the mosquito or small ant, and what to speak of other, higher grade living entities. That is jñānam, but that is not niḥśreyasāya. Śreya and preya, there are two things. Preya means to fulfill immediate necessities of life. That is called preya. And śreya means the knowledge; śreya means the goal of life. Niḥśreyasāya. Niḥśreyasāya. Niḥśreyasāya means the ultimate benefit. That education is lacking. In the material world, the jñāna, especially in the present age, jñāna means technical knowledge: how to eat, how to sleep. Now they are... Somebody was telling me that they have invented eating, eatables, from petrol. (aside:) Who was speaking the other day?

Nitāi: Bhāgavata dāsa.

Prabhupāda: Bhāgavata dāsa. So they might be very advanced in scientific knowledge, but the ultimate aim is how to eat. That's all, nothing more. How to eat, how to sleep, that's all. Tranquilizer pills, in USA, a large-selling line. That means how to sleep. This is the advancement, scientific advancement. There is no sleeping. Without scientific knowledge, he was sleeping very nice. But with advancement, advancement of scientific knowledge he has lost his sleep—insomnia.

So they are taking the advancement of knowledge in this way. But the Vedic scripture says that jñānaṁ niḥśreyasārthāya: to achieve the highest perfection. That we are discussing in so many ways. And what is that highest perfection? Highest perfection is there, mentioned in the Bhagavad-gītā, nāpnuvanti mahātmānaḥ saṁsiddhiṁ paramāṁ gataḥ. Highest perfection, saṁsiddhiṁ paramām. Param means the supreme, and saṁsiddhim means perfection.

mām upetya kaunteya
duḥkhālayam aśāśvatam
nāpnuvanti mahātmānaḥ
saṁsiddhiṁ paramam gataḥ
(BG 8.15)

This is highest perfection, Kṛṣṇa says. All śāstra, it says like that, and the whole Vedic literature is meant for achieving the highest perfection of life. Vedic literature, you will get all kinds of knowledge. Veda means knowledge, and the Vedic literature is full of knowledge. Nigama-kalpa-taru (SB 1.1.3). Nigama means Vedic knowledge, and kalpa-taru means the tree from where you can get anything you desire, whatever you desire. Generally we have got experience that a mango tree, if you desire mango, you can get from the mango tree. If you desire coconut, then you can get from the coconut tree. But you cannot get coconut from the mango tree and mango from the coconut tree. But there are trees where you go, you can get both mango and banana and coconut, and everything you like. That is called kalpa-vṛkṣa. We have no experience in this material world, but there is a tree. That is not in this material world; that is in the spiritual world. Cintāmaṇi-prakara-sadmasu kalpa-vṛkṣa-lakṣāvṛteṣu surabhīr abhipālayantam (Bs. 5.29).

So we have to take knowledge from Vedic, Vedic scripture. Then the description of the spiritual world is there. What is that? Cintāmaṇi-prakara-sadmasu. They have got houses, they are made of touchstone. Here it is made of bricks and stone, ordinary stone. But there is another stone, which is called touchstone. If you touch it with the iron, the iron becomes gold. That is called touchstone, pareṣapatha(?). So the spiritual world, all the houses are made of this touchstone. You can take the Tata iron factory and touch it there. (laughter) It will be very profitable. (laughter) Yes. Or go there and bring some touchstone, as these moon exploiters, they go and they have brought some stone and some sand. But if you go to Kṛṣṇaloka you can bring some touchstone and make the whole Tata iron factory gold. (laughter) These informations are there. If you have got capacity, then you will go and bring it.

So in the spiritual world, the houses are made of touchstone, cintāmaṇi-prakara-sadmasu, cintāmaṇi, the touchstone. Sanskrit name is cintāmaṇi. Cintāmaṇi-prakara-sadmasu kalpa-vṛkṣa, and the trees... There are trees, but not like this, that you get coconut from coconut tree and mango from mango tree. But cintāmaṇi-prakara-sadmasu kalpa-vṛkṣa. There any fruit you require, or even kacaurī, you can get. (laughter) That is called kalpa-vṛkṣa. There are trees like that. Cintāmaṇi-prakara-sadmasu kalpa-vṛkṣa. And maybe one or two? No. Lakṣāvṛteṣu. There is a nice garden, or jungle you can say. There are many, many. Just like you have got experience here in this material world, if you go to the forest, you get so many trees, congested. In Africa I have seen—very, very high, long trees, and very congested, jungle. So prakara lakṣāvṛteṣu: similarly in the spiritual world, there are trees of this kalpa-vṛkṣa, where you can get anything you desire.

Lakṣāvṛteṣu surabhīr..., and surabhīr abhipālayantam (Bs. 5.29). There Kṛṣṇa is very fond of cows. There is Kṛṣṇa's another name is Gopāla. Gopāla means who tends cows. Go means cow and pāla means one who tends. Therefore Kṛṣṇa's another name is Gopāla. Govinda. Govinda means one who gives pleasure to the cows, or Govinda means one who gives pleasure to the senses. So Kṛṣṇa's name are different. So cintāmaṇi-prakara-sadmasu kalpa-vṛkṣa lakṣāvṛteṣu surabhīr abhipālayantam (Bs. 5.29). There Kṛṣṇa is tending this surabhi. Surabhi cow means... That is also wonderful, spiritual. You can milk cow, milk from the cows, as many times as you like. Just like here in the..., we have got experience, we can take milk from the cows morning and evening, not more than that. But there you can milk the cows whenever you like, and you can draw milk as much as you like. That is called surabhi cow. The trees are like that, the cows are like that, but there are houses, there are forests, jungle, trees, cows, water, everything, but they are all spiritual. All spiritual. Therefore there is one. Here is also one, because everything material. Whatever, either you take cow's body or your body or tree's body or any body, what it is made of? Kṣitir ap teja marut vyoma, the earth, water, air, fire and sky, that's all. Here it is all one, but..., and there also it is one, but there it is all spiritual, and here it is all material. That is the difference.

That spiritual and material, what is the difference? The material is dull, and spiritual is consciousness. That is the difference. How the tree gives you..., a mango tree there gives you a coconut? Because it is conscious. Suppose if I ask from you, because you are a conscious being, that "Give me some coconut," you can give me. "Give me some mango," you can give. But when you are out of this body, then I ask the body, "Give me some milk or cow or...," no response. This is material and spiritual. Nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13). So jñānam, real knowledge, is that when we understand that I am spiritual being, I am not this material, and I, my country, that is spiritual world. That is my place. That is jñānam, self-realization. Ātma-darśanam. Ātma-darśanam. Suppose a foreigner is in America, an Indian is in America, or an American is in India, so he is conscious that "I am American," or "I do not belong to this country." Or Indian, when he goes to America, he knows, "I am Indian. I do not belong to this country." Similarly, when you realize, when you understand that you do not belong to this material world, you belong to the spiritual world, that is self-realization. Ātma-darśanam. That, it is called ātma-darśanam.

Jñānaṁ niḥśreyasārthāya puruṣasya-ātma-darśanam. Puruṣa, puruṣa means enjoyer, and prakṛti means enjoyed. Something is being enjoyed and somebody is enjoyer. That is called prakṛti-puruṣa. So here it is said puruṣa. Puruṣa means the living entity, who is trying to enjoy. He is trying to enjoy. But he is trying to enjoy where? In the material world. Therefore he is not satisfied. In the spiritual world, the puruṣa, the living entity, enjoys with Kṛṣṇa, not alone. Therefore you will find Kṛṣṇa is always accompanied by someone else—either Rādhārāṇī or cowherds boy, or the gopīs, or Mother Yaśodā, or Nanda Mahārāja, or the cows and the calves, like that. Or even with the monkeys.

Kṛṣṇa, you will never find alone. Therefore as soon as we speak "Kṛṣṇa," you must know there are so many associates. Kṛṣṇa... Just like if I say the president is coming, so one should know the president is not coming alone. He must be accompanied by his secretaries, by his military aide-de-camp, and so many other people, cabinet members. At least one dozen person are coming with him, or with some soldiers, bodyguards. So similarly, when you mean Kṛṣṇa, or God, you should immediately know that He is not alone. He is not impersonal, void. He is full with opulence, full with associates. Therefore this description is of the spiritual world in the Brahma-saṁhitā, Vedic literature, cintāmaṇi-prakara-sadmasu kalpa-vṛkṣa lakṣāvṛteṣu surabhīr abhipālayantam (Bs. 5.29). This is the trees, plants and animals. Then lakṣmī-sahasra-śata-sambhrama-sevyamānaṁ govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ... He is not only in this surrounding of cintāmaṇi bricks, houses and desire trees, many, many cowherd, not only the cows, surabhi, and the river, but also many thousands of Lakṣmī, goddess of fortune. That is Kṛṣṇa. That is the essence.

So one has to realize this. That is jñānam. Jñānam does not mean that because I am disgusted with this material world, to make this material world... Not make; the material cannot be also made into zero, but we can imagine also something where there is no more these trees and houses and animals and woman and this and that—everything is finished. Nirākāra. Nirākāra: all kinds of ākāra, or forms, nirviśeṣa. Visesa means with varieties, and nirviśeṣa means without varieties. This is Māyāvāda philosophy: finish this viśeṣa, the varieties. Simply realize "I am," ahaṁ brahmāsmi, so 'ham, like that. But that is not jñānam. That is not jñānam. That will be explained, one after another. Because nirviśeṣa..., there is no possibility of nirviśeṣa. That I explained to you. As soon as you say "Kṛṣṇa," immediately you have to think of Kṛṣṇa's paraphernalia. Not Kṛṣṇa alone.

So everywhere Kṛṣṇa is there.

īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ
hṛd-deśe 'rjuna tiṣṭhati
bhrāmāyān sarva-bhūtāni
yantrārūḍhāni māyayā
(BG 18.61)

Kṛṣṇa is everywhere. Aṇḍāntara-stha-paramāṇu-cayāntara-sthaṁ govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi (Bs. 5.35). He is everywhere. So how it can be impersonal? Therefore the jñānam which considers of impersonality without any varieties, that is not jñānam. That is not niḥśreyasārthāya; that is simply a temporary appeasement, that because I am disgusted with this material varieties, let it be zero, void. That is a temporary solace. We cannot remain without varieties. That is not possible. If there is nobody here, and you sit down, make meditation, you can sit down for fifteen minutes or twenty minutes, then you will go away. This is not possible. Because the spirit soul, either the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Supreme Soul, or the living entity, he is also spirit, both of them are Brahman—Para-brahman and ordinary Brahman. We are ordinary Brahman, and Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Brahman. So Brahman, either Supreme or ordinary, is seeking after happiness. That is Brahman life—seeking after happiness. Just like Kṛṣṇa is Para-brahman, but He is also seeking happiness with Rādhārāṇī and the gopīs and the cowherds boy and the cows and the calves.

So ānanda, the spiritual happiness, is not without varieties. Ānandamayo 'bhyāsāt (Vedānta-sūtra 1.1.12). Spirit, Brahman, Para-brahman, is full of happiness, and how happiness can be possible without varieties? Variety is the mother of enjoyment. Therefore this nirviśeṣa, nirākāra, or without any varieties, or voidness, this is not perfect knowledge. That is not self-realization. Self-realization is to understand that "I am spirit soul. I do not belong to this material world. I am Brahman, not matter." That is called so 'ham, ahaṁ brahmāsmi. But they have misinterpreted in a different way. So 'ham means, "I am the Supreme Lord." That is craziness. You are not Supreme Lord, but you are of the same quality. As Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Lord, He is also seeking enjoyment, and because you are also part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa, you are also seeking enjoyment. But you are seeking enjoyment in a field which is just opposite, in the material world.

What is that material world? Material world means forgetting Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is covered. Kṛṣṇa is there. Kṛṣṇa is aṇḍāntara-stha-paramāṇu. But they have no Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Whole world, you analyze, there is no Kṛṣṇa consciousness, there is no God consciousness. Rather they are declining: "There is no God," "God is dead," "I am God," "You are..." Because they have no information, no information of. That is material world. That is the difference between material world and spiritual world. Spiritual world means there is full consciousness of the existence of God, and material world means to full forgetfulness of God. This is the difference between material world and the spiritual world. So if you bring, in the material world also, Kṛṣṇa consciousness, then it is spiritual world. How it is possible? Yes, it is possible. Just like you put one iron rod in the fire, it will become gradually warm, warmer, warmer, then the iron rod will be red hot, and if that redness you will touch anywhere, it will burn you. It is no more iron rod; it is fire. So you keep yourself always in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, then even if you possess this material body, you will be in the spiritual world. This is called jñānam. Jñānam ātma-darśanam, jñānaṁ niḥśreyasāya.

So we have to come to this platform, spiritual platform. We are suffering on account of being on the material platform. So by keeping yourself always in the fire of Kṛṣṇa, or Kṛṣṇa consciousness, you are transferred to the spiritual world. Very nice example, this iron rod, red hot. You cannot use it for any other purpose. It is simply for burning. Similarly, you can become Kṛṣṇa-ized. That we have already discussed in the previous verses. The..., anyone who is fully absorbed in Kṛṣṇa consciousness in devotional service, he is two kinds of external body, namely the gross body, material body—this gross body made of earth, water, fire, air and sky—and the subtle body made of mind, intelligence and ego. These two kinds of body becomes dissolved. Just like if you eat something, put into your stomach, and if you have got good digestive function, then everything will be digested. Similarly, if you become Kṛṣṇa conscious, spiritualized, the material activities will have no effect. It is dissolved. Otherwise, any material things you will do, it will have repercussion, or reaction. That is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā: yajñārthe karmaṇo 'nyatra loko 'yaṁ karma-bandhanaḥ (BG 3.9). Yajñārthe. Yajña means Kṛṣṇa, Yajña-puruṣa, Yajñeśvara. Kṛṣṇa's another name is Yajñeśvara. Bhoktāraṁ yajña-tapasām (BG 5.29), Kṛṣṇa says. Yajña-tapasām, bhokta. So therefore there is Yajñeśvara. So whatever you do for Kṛṣṇa, it will have no reaction—digest everything. And if you do not do for Kṛṣṇa, then it will take time to digest.

Therefore here it is said, jñānaṁ niḥśreyasārthāya puruṣasya ātma-darśanam. Puruṣa. Puruṣa means the enjoyer. So here in this material world, either the so-called man and so-called woman, everyone is hankering after sense enjoyment. Therefore all of them together has been described as puruṣa. A woman is not puruṣa, but by mentality she is puruṣa, because she also wants to enjoy. Although she has got the body of being enjoyed, but she has the mentality of enjoying. Therefore everyone is described, although by nature everyone is prakṛti, not puruṣa. Prakṛti means enjoyed. That is stated in the Bhāgavata, prakṛti me bhinnā aṣṭadhā. This material body is made of earth, water, fire, air, sky. That is prakṛti. Bhinnā, separated. Itas tu viddhi me prakṛtiṁ parām (BG 7.5). There is another nature, that is parā prakṛti. That is spiritual nature. And how I can understand? Now jīva-bhūta. You can understand that parā-prakṛti is the living entity, yayedaṁ dhāryate jagat (BG 7.5), which is sustaining this material nature. So actually in the Bhagavad-gītā they..., both of us are described as prakṛti, not puruṣa. Puruṣa is Kṛṣṇa. Therefore Arjuna, when he realized after reading Bhagavad-gītā, he addresses Kṛṣṇa as puruṣa. Paraṁ brahma paraṁ dhāma pavitraṁ paramaṁ bhavān, puruṣa śāśvata (BG 10.12). We are..., not that you have become puruṣa now, but śāśvata, eternal.

Just like here, we are puruṣa. This birth I am puruṣa; next birth I may become stri or prakṛti. If I am too much fond of woman, and at the time of death, if I think of woman, then I get a woman's body. Yaṁ yaṁ vāpi smaran bhāvaṁ tyajanty ante kalevaram (BG 8.6). Therefore too much attachment for woman is not good, because... Or too much attachment for anything in this material world, that is doomed. Therefore, here it is said, hṛdaya-granthi-bhedanam. Hṛdaya-granthi-bhedanam. "My attachment, my heart attraction, is so strong, it is like granthi, knot." So ātma-darśanam means hṛdaya-granthi-bhedanam, opening the knot. Hṛdaya-granthi-bhedanam, that is ātma-darśanam. When I become free from all attachment of this material world, that is called hṛdaya-granthi-bhedanam.

And how the hṛdaya-granthi, knot in the heart, begins? That begins, puṁsaḥ striyā mithunī-bhāvam etat tayor mitho hṛdaya-granthim āhuḥ (SB 5.5.8). We are in this material world, it is going on, puṁsaḥ, the man, and striyā, of the woman, attachment. Puṁsaḥ striyā mithunī. What is that attachment? Sex. Sex. Puṁsaḥ striyā mithunī-bhāvam etat tayor. The desire is there, and as soon as they unite, by marriage or by agreement, by any way, then hṛdaya-granthim āhuḥ. Then the attachment becomes more and more. There are thousands and millions of woman, but the woman with whom I have got my bodily relation, I cannot forget her, and she cannot forget me. Hṛdaya-granthim āhuḥ. The attachment increases. And as soon as they are united, the..., that is hṛdaya-granthi, knot between heart to heart. "You my dear, you my heart." So then, "We must find out an apartment." There was no need of apartment, but as soon as there is hṛdaya-granthi, there is need of a...

Ataḥ gṛha-kṣetra-sutāpta-vittair janasya moho yam ahaṁ mameti (SB 5.5.8). This hṛdaya-granthi increases, develops. Now there is a need of attachment, er, apartment, gṛha. Now there is need of land for getting food grains. Now there is, they have gotten..., what is called? Service. Go to the office fifty miles away and you will get your food grains. Formerly this was not possible, therefore one must possess some land to produce food grain. Now, if you can get some money, you can purchase eight rupees' kilo food grains. That is possible. But formerly, even that was not possible. And formerly you must have land. Parjanyād anna sambhavaḥ, annād bhavanti bhūtāni (BG 3.14). You have to produce. People are not interested now producing food grains. They, somehow or other, if they can get that paper currency, they can purchase. Therefore everyone has got this printed paper. The value is increasing. Competition. I can pay two rupees' kilo. The other says, "No, I can pay three rupees." What is this rupees? This paper. You, some way or other, you gather this paper, and there will be competition, and the price will increase. This is the economy. Because they have got false money, therefore there is false increment of price. Bad money. Gresham's theory: "Bad money drives away good money." As soon as there is bad money, this paper currency, the coin, gold coins and silver coins, they are finished; they are no more.

So hṛdaya-granthi, we are..., how we are becoming tied up between so-called one heart to another. Ataḥ gṛha, first of all attachment for man and woman, then attachment for the apartment, gṛha, then land, gṛha-kṣetra, then suta, children, then āpta, friends, society, friendship, love. Suta, āpta, then vitta, money. In this way we increase our..., the knot, one after another. One knot, two knots, three knots, fourth knot, it is going on. And self-realization means opening the knots. Opening the knots. The knots began like that. Janasya moho yam ahaṁ mameti (SB 5.5.8). And here it is said, hṛdaya-granthi-bhedanam. Bhedanam means separate them. Separate them. That is self-realization. Self-realization means that "I am spirit soul," ahaṁ brahmāsmi. So 'ham, "I am as good as the Supreme Spirit, Kṛṣṇa. Some way or other I am now in contact with this material attachment." This is called ātma-darśana. And that is clearly explained, ātma-darśana means hṛdaya-granthi-bhedanam. Ātma-darśanam does not mean hṛdaya-granthi vṛddhi, or increasing. Therefore, real ātma-darśana, real liberation, real consciousness is separation from this material attachment—voluntarily, forcefully, or by knowledge, that is required.

Therefore you will find, India, Vedic civilization is meant for this unknotting, the hṛdaya-granthi. Therefore sannyāsa is compulsory. Vānaprastha is compulsory. If you really follow Vedic principle you become student, brahmacārī, you learn everything—what is this life, what is this world, what is Kṛṣṇa, what is God, what is your relationship with Him. These studies, that is complete study. But still, if you want to be knotted by hṛdaya-granthi: gṛhastha, a concession, "All right." Puṁsaḥ striyā mithuna. Mithuna, that concession is for sex life. Gṛhastha life is a concession given for enjoying sex life. Otherwise, there is no need of gṛhastha life. Therefore there were many brahmacārīs, akhanda-brahmacārī, never married in life. Many. But that is not possible at the present. But there is training. The brahmacārī is taught that this is the position: "Don't be knotted with this material world." But still, if he cannot do that, then with the permission of the spiritual master he accepts a wife. That is gṛhastha life. But that also not for many years. Say for twenty-five years. After twenty-five years he will remain a student brahmacārī, then you accept one wife according to religious ritualistic ceremony. But no illicit sex. That is not allowed. Bachelor daddy is not allowed. That is very dangerous.

So kāmām, dharma-viruddho kāmām aham asmi, Kṛṣṇa says, that... (break) ...even without wife and everything. Then you take sannyāsa. That is the stage of hṛdaya-granthi-bhedanam. Hṛdaya-granthi-bhedanam. Not that up to the last point of death you are attached to a family and wife and children. That is animal life. That is not human life. Human life, you must try to unknot this hṛdaya-granthi, man and woman. Hṛdaya-granthi-bhedanam. That is self-realization.

So this Sāṅkhya philosophy described by Kapiladeva is very scientifically described, and if we try to assimilate it, then our life will be successful.

Thank you very much.

Devotees: Haribol. (end)