741115 - Lecture SB 03.25.15 - Bombay

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His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada



741115SB-BOMBAY - November 15, 1974 - 40:43 Minutes



(loud noise of fireworks in background)

Nitāi: Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. (Prabhupāda and devotees repeat) (leads chanting of verse, etc.)

cetaḥ khalv asya bandhāya
muktaye cātmano matam
guṇeṣu saktaṁ bandhāya
rataṁ vā puṁsi muktaye
(SB 3.25.15)

(01:36)

"The stage in which the consciousness of the living entity is attracted by the three modes of material nature is called conditional life. But when that same consciousness is attached to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, one is situated in the consciousness of liberation."

Prabhupāda:

cetaḥ khalv asya bandhāya
muktaye cātmano matam
guṇeṣu saktaṁ bandhāya
rataṁ vā puṁsi muktaye
(SB 3.25.15)

Two words: bandhana, bondage, and mukti, liberation. So people in ignorance, dull-headed, mūḍha, they do not know what is mukti and what is bandhana, what is liberation and what is bondage. They do not to know. Just like animals. The animal, he does not know, the dog, that "I am bound up in this dog's body. This is bondage. This is not my life." He does not know. Similarly, a human being, if he does not know what is bondage and liberation, then he's animal. From animal life, this human life is evolved for understanding this: what is mukti and what is liberation.

So mukti and liberation, if you keep your consciousness materially affected... Guṇeṣu saktam. Material world means the three qualities, tri-guṇa, guṇamayī. Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā, guṇamayī, mama māyā. Mām eva ye prapadyante māyām etāṁ taranti te (BG 7.14). Tribhir guṇamayair bhāvaiḥ. We are being conducted in this material world by three guṇas: sattva-guṇa, rajo-guṇa, tamo-guṇa. Out of these three guṇas, the sattva-guṇa is the best: knowledge, the qualification of brāhmaṇa. Satyaṁ śamo damas titikṣā ārjavaṁ jñānaṁ vijñānam āstikyaṁ brahma-karma svabhāva-jam (BG 18.42). One who has developed sattva-guṇa, then the following qualification will be found in him: he'll be truthful and controlled of the mind, of the senses, satyaṁ śamo damas; titikṣā, tolerant; ārjava, simplicity; jñānam, jñānam, full knowledge; vijñānam, practical application of knowledge in life; āstikyam, āstikyam, to have full faith in the authority of the Vedas. That is called āstikyam. Āstikyam and nāstikyam.

Caitanya Mahāprabhu has explained what is nāstikyam and what is āstikyam. According to Vedic understanding, anyone who does not believe in the Vedas, he's called nāstika. Just like Buddha philosophy. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu says, veda nā māniyā bauddha haila nāstika. Veda. Lord Buddha, he defied Vedic authority. His mission was different. He wanted to stop animal killing. Sadaya-hṛdaya darśita-paśu-ghātam. The Supreme Lord became so much afflicted by, terribly, people being attached to killing animals, as they are now doing also. So He was compassionate to stop animal killing in the so-called sacrifice. But in the Vedic sacrifices, in some cases, there is recommendation of animal killing. That animal killing does not mean killing the animal and eat. No. It was a test. An old animal was put into the sacrificial fire, and the animal would come in new body, young. That is animal... But to give, to test the Vedic mantra, whether it is properly chanted. Then the result will be that if you put one old body it will come new body. So such kind of brāhmaṇa is not available in this age, Kali-yuga, yājñika-brāhmaṇa. They, by mantras, they could, they would ignite fire. Fire was not required matches. By mantra. Simply by mantra, the old body of an animal will turn to be young.

But because the yājñika-brāhmaṇa cannot do that... There is no yajña. Not possible. Therefore this kind of yajñas are prohibited in this Kali-yuga. In the Kali-yuga the only one yajña is this saṅkīrtanam. Yajñaiḥ saṅkīrtana-prāyair yajanti hi su-medhasaḥ (SB 11.5.32). Those who are intelligent person, they know this kind of yajña will not be successful. Because people do not know, they cannot chant the mantras rightly, neither there is facility. So many things. Therefore in this age, dull age, the only concession is to perform saṅkīrtana-yajña. Yajñaiḥ saṅkīr... And yajña means to worship the Supreme Lord, Viṣṇu. Yajñaiḥ. Varṇāśramācāravatā puruṣeṇa paraḥ pumān viṣṇur ārādhyate (CC Madhya 8.58). Ārādhyate. Real purpose is to worship the Supreme Lord, Viṣṇu. Nānyat tat-toṣa-kāraṇam. Therefore performances of yajña is required.

So this yajña, in this age, Kali-yuga, is chanting of Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. Yajñaiḥ saṅkīrtana, congregationally, as we chant: Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma... This is performance of yajña. So by performance of this yajña, the result will be that ceto-darpaṇa-mārjanam. As Caitanya Mahāprabhu says,

ceto-darpaṇa-mārjanaṁ bhava-mahā-dāvāgni-nirvāpaṇaṁ
śreyaḥ-kairava-candrikā-vitaraṇaṁ vidyā-vadhū-jīvanam
ānandāmbudhi-vardhanaṁ prati-padaṁ pūrṇāmṛtāsvādanaṁ
...paraṁ vijayate śrī-kṛṣṇa-saṅkīrtanam
(CC Antya 20.12)

By chanting Lord Kṛṣṇa's name... That is also confirmed in the śāstra: kīrtanād eva kṛṣṇasya mukta-saṅgaḥ paraṁ vrajet (SB 12.3.51). In the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam it is said by Śukadeva Gosvāmī... There are so many faults in this age. Some of them are described in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. As I was describing yesterday that durbhikṣa, anāvṛṣṭyā durbhikṣa-kara-pīḍitāḥ (SB 12.2.9), ācchinna-dāra-draviṇā gacchanti giri-kānanam (SB 12.2.8). The Kali-yuga will be so much disturbing that people will be harassed especially by three things. Anāvṛṣṭi: there will be practically no rainfall. It is stated that there will be cloud in the sky. When there is no rainfall, people will be hankering after. Just like sometimes we hanker after rain in summer season, looking after, "When rainfall will come?" The people will be disappointed. There will be cloud, there will be thundering bolt, but there will be no rain. This time will be like that. Anāvṛṣṭi. Anāvṛṣṭi and durbhikṣa. And if there is anāvṛṣṭi, scarcity of rain, certainly there will be no food grain production, as it is now we are feeling, food grain production—eight rupees' kilo, rice. So why? The food grain is shortage. So anāvṛṣṭi durbhikṣa and kara-pīḍitāḥ: and people will be harassed by government taxation, kara-pīḍitāḥ. Government will... Dasyu-dharmabhiḥ. It is said, "The government means a gang of rogues and thieves." That is stated in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. They'll plunder. The rogues and thieves, they seek opportunity secretly, and government, by law, they will plunder. And still, they will go on as big minister. This is all stated in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

So people will be so harassed in this age that out of disgust they will give up their family life. Ācchinna-dāra-draviṇā gacchanti giri-kānanam. Svīkāram eva hi udvāhe. There will be no marriage. This is also Vedic culture, to get married. But there will be no marriage. One woman, one man will live together by agreement. And as soon as the agreement is finished, they'll be separated. That is now very prominent in Western countries. Svīkāra eva hi udvāhe. There is no such thing... Just like the father of the girl, they'll find out a suitable boy, and the father of the girl, they will also find out... In this way... The horoscope... Formerly, these things were very current. Without there is, I mean to say, coincidence of the horoscope, that "This boy and this girl would live very happily," by horoscopic calculation, then marriage would not take place. Then the family consideration: whether the boy is coming from suitable family or the girl is coming from su... So many things were there. Then the marriage would ta...

But that kind of marriage is practically already stopped. Here, at the present moment, means simply agreement: "I like you. You like me. That's all right. Let us live together." Svīkāra eva hi udvāhe. Dāmpatye ratim eva hi: Husband and wife relationship means sex. There is no other purpose. As soon as there is some difficulty in sex enjoyment, they will be separated. These are all mentioned. Lāvaṇyaṁ keśa-dhāraṇam (SB 12.2.6). Now, in the Western countries, here also, they're keeping long hair. So that will be beauty. Lāvaṇyaṁ keśa-dhāraṇam. Lāvaṇyam means luster of the body. The people will think, "If I keep long hair, then I have become very beautiful." The hippies, you see, long beard, long hair. They are thinking, "We have become very beautiful." So these are all stated. Sūtram eva hi vipratve. A brāhmaṇa means having a two-paisa-worth of thread. That's all. Thread. Simply to possess one thread, one becomes brāhmaṇa. Simply by changing the dress from white to saffron color, one becomes sannyāsī. No. There are duties of sannyāsīs or the brāhmaṇa or the gṛhastha, vānaprastha. There are duties.

So in this way Kali-yuga is polluted. Everything is contaminated, polluted. So it is called the ocean of faults. Because the life is meant for liberation. If one is not interested in liberation, simply for sense gratification, that is conditional life. They do not know it. But here it is stated that cetaḥ khalu asya bandhāya muktaye cātmano matam. The consciousness is the main principle, either for conditional life or for liberation. Consciousness. We are proposing Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement means liberation. Liberation. What liberation? Liberation means to stop repetition of birth and death. They do not have idea even that birth and death can be stopped. They think it cannot be stopped. Mo... Big, big scientists, they cannot stop. Bhagavān Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā that you should keep in your front four different types of miserable condition. What is that? Janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi (BG 13.9). You may be very advanced in scientific knowledge, but what is..., where is the possibility of stopping these four principle of miserable condition of life? Janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi-duḥkha-doṣānudarśanam. They are not interested. But when we can stop these four principles of miserable condition, namely, no more birth, no more death, no more disease, no more old age, that is called liberation. You can have it. Simply you have to clear your consciousness. You have to clear your consciousness. How to clear? Now, guṇeṣu saktaṁ bandhāya. If you become conscious of these three material modes of nature, then it is for bondage. Rataṁ vā puṁsi muktaye. And when your consciousness is Kṛṣṇized, simply think of Kṛṣṇa, then it is liberation. Clear idea.

So this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is to keep the mind and consciousness always in Kṛṣṇa, puṁsi. Puṁsi. Puṁsi. Puṁsi means the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He's a person. He's a male, not female. Puṁsi. Puruṣaḥ. Puruṣaḥ, not strī. When Kṛṣṇa was realized by Arjuna, he addressed Him, puruṣaṁ śāśvatam. Paraṁ brahma paraṁ dhāma pavitraṁ paramaṁ bhavān, puruṣam (BG 10.12). God is puruṣa, not female. Puruṣa means enjoyer, and prakṛti means enjoyed. Everything is enjoyed by the supreme puruṣa. We are also prakṛti. That is also stated. We are not puruṣa. This dress may be... That is māyā, illusion. Actually, we are puruṣa, and prakṛti means... Here the so-called woman is also puruṣa. Puruṣa means enjoyer. The women, they are also thinking how to enjoy. And man is also thinking how to enjoy. Therefore imitation puruṣa. But actually, they're prakṛti.

It is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā, apareyam itas tu viddhi me prakṛtiṁ parām (BG 7.5). The living entities, they are prakṛti. And they are trying to be puruṣa, enjoyer. This is material world. Therefore they are attached to the three guṇas, because they want to enjoy this material world, artificially trying to become puruṣa. Puruṣa means enjoyer. As such, they are attached to this material world. And material world means guṇa, tri-guṇa. And according to attachment, they're getting different types of bodies.

That is also stated in the Bhagavad-gītā: kāraṇaṁ guṇa-saṅgaḥ asya sad-asad-yoni-janmasu (BG 13.22). Why there are different types of bodies? Why one living entity is dog and why one living entity is first-class brāhmaṇa? Because kāraṇaṁ guṇa-saṅgaḥ asya. The one who has got a learned brāhmaṇas' body, that means he has associated with the modes of nature goodness. Satyaṁ śamo damas titikṣā. This is elevation. If one is in the modes of goodness, then he can understand gradually what is God, what is Kṛṣṇa. Otherwise, in the modes of passion and ignorance, nobody can understand what is God. Not only that. Even from material prosperity, if one is situated in the modes of goodness, then he can be elevated to the higher planetary system—Svargaloka, Janaloka, Maharloka, Tapoloka, Brahmaloka, Satyaloka. Ūrdhvaṁ gacchanti sattva-sthāḥ (BG 14.18). So these are needed. So anyway, even if you go to the Brahmaloka, that is not also perfection. Ābrahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ punar āvartino 'rjuna (BG 8.16). There is no benefit. Because there also the four principles of miserable condition, janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi (BG 13.9), they are there, even in the Brahmaloka. Brahmā also dies. Brahmā also takes birth. You know it. Brahmā, he also took birth, from the lotus flower generated from the navel of Viṣṇu. So there was birth. And when Brahmā will die, whole material cosmic manifestation will be finished. So he has also birth and death and old age and disease. And the small ant or insect, it has also the same disease, old age, birth and death. So one has to become free from this bondage, because we are eternal. Na jāyate na mriyate (BG 2.20). Bhagavad-gītā says. The living entity never takes birth, never dies. Then why even Brahmā is dies? Brahmā is also dying. That is material life. That is bondage, bandhana. Guṇeṣu saktaṁ bandhāya.

So one should not think that "I have got millions of millions of years' duration of life. Therefore I am liberated." No. Brahmā, he has got millions and millions of years as one day, twelve hours, our twelve hours. Sahasra-yuga-paryantam ahar yad brahmaṇo viduḥ (BG 8.17). So he is also subjected to birth and death. That is conditional life. So we have forgotten this. We Indians, bhāratīya, we have got these advantages, the perfect knowledge given by the Vedic literature, by great ṛṣis, and Bhagavān Svayaṁ Kapiladeva, Bhagavān Kṛṣṇa. And we are neglecting. We have become so unfortunate. There is a poet has said that ātman dhana vilaye diye bhikṣa mage porer kache(?): "We have lost our own culture. Now we are beggar. We are going to foreign countries to beg something." Of course, I have gone to foreign countries not to beg, but to give. Others go there to beg: "Give me grain. Give me money. Give me soldier." But we have not gone. We have gone to give them. Therefore these European, Americans are attracted—because I am giving them, not taking from them. That is the difference. They have seen many, big, big persons go to the foreign countries only to beg, but nobody goes there to give.

So the Indian culture is so rich that you can give to the whole world. Whole world. That is Caitanya Mahāprabhu's mission.

bhārata-bhūmite manuṣya-janma haila yāra
janma sārthaka kari' kara para-upakāra
(CC Adi 9.41)

They are getting life. The Kṛṣṇa consciousness means getting life. They are exhausted with this materialistic way of life. They are getting some new life. That is wanted. Because muktaye. We living entities, we are, by nature, liberated. There is no question of birth and death, old age and disease. Mamaivāṁśo jīva-bhūtaḥ (BG 15.7). We are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Lord. So how there can be birth and death and old age and disease? Sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha. Kṛṣṇa is sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha.

īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ
sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ
anādir ādir govindaḥ...
(Bs. 5.1)

Anādi. There is no question of birth and death. So we, being part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa, we are also of the same nature, equal in quality, not in quantity. So why should we suffer this birth and death? Therefore in the beginning of Kapiladeva's instruction He said, yoga ādhyātmikaḥ puṁsāṁ cato niḥśreyasāya me. That is yoga. What is that? That is explained, that ādhyātmika, to save the soul. The soul is entrapped in this body, material body, and to save it. No more death, no more birth, no more old age. That is wanted. That is perfect yoga.

So how this perfect yoga can be achieved? That is explained in this verse. Puṁsi, rataṁ vā puṁsi muktaye. If you, your consciousness is become..., is attached to Kṛṣṇa, only thinking of Kṛṣṇa, that will give you liberation. Satataṁ kīrtayanto māṁ yatantaś ca dṛḍha-vratāḥ (BG 9.14). That is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā: "Always chanting about Me." Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma... And yatantaś ca dṛḍha-vratāḥ, and endeavoring with great determination. Just like you see in this temple: they rise early in the morning, at four o'clock. Immediately after taking bath, being prepared, they offer the maṅgala-ārātrika at five o'clock, kīrtana, then study. There are rules and regulation. That is called bhajana-kriyā. "A bhajana... In the mind, I am thinking of..." No. You cannot do so. You must go through the process, bhajana-kriyā.

ādau śraddhā tataḥ sādhu-saṅgo 'tha bhajana-kriyā
tato 'nartha-nivṛttiḥ syāt tato niṣṭhā tato rucis
...tato bhāva...
sādhakānām ayaṁ premṇaḥ prādurbhāve bhavet kramaḥ
(CC Madhya 23.14-15)

If you want to awaken your dormant love for Kṛṣṇa... There is, because we are part and parcel. Just like father and son: there is natural love. But somehow or other, son is out of home and forgotten. Father, of course, thinks, "My such-and-such son has gone out. If he comes back..." So Kṛṣṇa thinks like that. Because we are sons of Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa is more anxious to get us back to home, back to Godhead. Therefore He comes and says, "You rascal, give up all these engagements." Sarva-dharmān parityajya (BG 18.66). "You have manufactured so many dharmas: deva-dharma, samāja-dharma, deśa-dharma, this dharma, that dharma, Hindu dharma, Muslim dharma, this... No! Simply surrender unto Me." That is dharma. Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ek... Kṛṣṇa comes to teach us. Kṛṣṇa is very, very anxious.

yadā yadā hi dharmasya
glānir bhavati bhārata...
tadātmānaṁ sṛjāmy aham
(BG 4.7)

Kṛṣṇa comes Himself; Kṛṣṇa leaves behind Him His word. Vapu and vāṇī. Vāṇī means the words. That is also Kṛṣṇa. That is also... Just like we do not see Kṛṣṇa now. We can see Kṛṣṇa if we actually advance. Here is Kṛṣṇa. But they will say, "Oh, this is an idol. This is an idol. This is not Kṛṣṇa." But Kṛṣṇa, if you think that you have not seen Kṛṣṇa, so Kṛṣṇa is present by His word also, Bhagavad-gītā. That is vāṇī, kṛṣṇa-vāṇī.

So this, this stage can be achieved when one is advanced in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, that Kṛṣṇa is present as the Deity, Kṛṣṇa is present by His words in Bhagavad-gītā, Kṛṣṇa is present as the taste in the water, Kṛṣṇa is present as sunshine, Kṛṣṇa is present as moonshine, Kṛṣṇa is present in the sound. This potaka, He is also present there. Śabdaḥ khe. The śabda, or the sound, Kṛṣṇa says that "I am the sound."

So Kṛṣṇa is present everywhere. One has to gain the knowledge how to see Kṛṣṇa. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. That is mukti. If you remain always in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, that means you are on the liberated stage. And that is called bhakti-yoga.

śravaṇaṁ kīrtanaṁ viṣṇoḥ
smaraṇaṁ pāda-sevanam
arcanaṁ vandanaṁ dāsyam...
(SB 7.5.23)

This Deity worship is arcanam. Chanting is vandanam. Dāsyam, to work for Kṛṣṇa, go and see people, preach Kṛṣṇa consciousness, distribute books. In so many ways Kṛṣṇa consciousness can be... So everything is being done. People may take advantage of it. Then immediately he becomes muktaye. The consciousness, Kṛṣṇa consciousness, that is mukta.

māṁ ca 'vyabhicāreṇa
bhakti-yogena yah sevate
sa guṇān samatītyaitān
brahma-bhūyāya kalpate
(BG 14.26)

If we are engaged in devotional service, bhakti-yoga, then we are liberated. Māṁ ca... Kṛṣṇa says. Māṁ ca 'vyabhicāreṇa (BG 14.26). Without any stoppage, continuously, something in Kṛṣṇa. Māṁ ca 'vyabhicāreṇa bhakti-yogena.

There are so many ways of bhakti-yoga.
śravaṇaṁ kīrtanaṁ viṣṇoḥ
smaraṇaṁ pāda-sevanam
arcanaṁ vandanaṁ dāsyam...
(SB 7.5.23)

Any of them you take, that is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. The mainly is śravaṇam. Just you are hearing. This is the beginning. Ādau śraddhā. This is śraddhā, that "Here people are talking about Kṛṣṇa. Why not hear us? Let me hear." That is śraddhā, little faith. You have come here with a little faith. That increasing of that faith is advancement of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. That is required. Ādau śraddhā. First of all little faith: "Let us see." Then sādhu-saṅga. Sādhu-saṅga. They are, the sādhus, the devotees, who are living in the temple, if you associate with them, talk with them about Kṛṣṇa, then you'll be benefited. Ādau śraddhā tataḥ sādhu-saṅgaḥ (CC Madhya 23.14-15). Then gradually bhajana-kriyā. Bhajana-kriyā. Actually engaged in service, officially being initiated to take service of the Lord, that is called bhajana-kriyā. And bhajana-kriyā means anartha-nivṛttiḥ syāt. Then anartha, all these rascal habits, namely illicit sex and intoxication, meat-eating and gambling—nivṛtti, no more.

That is the test that whether you are actually initiated. If you are still attached to these... Bhaktiḥ pareśānubhavo viraktiḥ... If you are not detestful to all these nonsense habits, then you must know that you are not making any progress. You are not making any progress. Because this is the result: anartha-nivṛttiḥ syāt. If you are actually making advance in bhajana-kriyā, then these attachment will be finished. No more. Paraṁ dṛṣṭvā nivartate (BG 2.59). Not by force, but appreciating something better condition of life, one rejects all this nonsense. That is advancement. Bhajana-kriyā. By bhajana-kriyā, by being initiated and executing the bhajana, now, one just be detestful. Then niṣṭhā. Tato niṣṭhā, firm faith. Tato ruciḥ. Ruci means taste. You cannot do without it. Just like the drunkard: he cannot remain without drinking. Similarly, a devotee is also drunkard. He cannot remain without Kṛṣṇa consciousness. That is called ruci, taste. Tato ruciḥ athāsaktiḥ. Then attachment. That is required.

Sakta, sakta or āsakti, same thing. If our attachment is for this material enjoyment, that is bondage. That means we have to accept another body. Tathā dehāntara-prāptiḥ (BG 2.13). You cannot avoid. Because if you infect some disease, then you must suffer from it. If you infect. That is a practical knowledge. If you infect some disease... So kāraṇaṁ guṇa-saṅgaḥ. As soon as you infect this tamo-guṇa, rajo-guṇa, you have to, what is called, immune from infection. That immunity is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. And if you are not immune, you are subjected to the infection, then you must get another body of the same quality. Kāraṇaṁ guṇa-saṅgaḥ asya. So to remain free from the infection of these guṇas, then we have to engage ourselves in the bhakti-yoga. That is stated.

māṁ ca 'vyabhicāreṇa
bhakti-yogena yah sevate
sa guṇān samatītyaitān...
(BG 14.26)

Then he is immune to the infection of these guṇas.

So this is the process, and we have to learn it by sādhu-saṅga (CC Madhya 22.83). Ādau śraddhā tataḥ sādhu-saṅgo 'tha bhajana-kriyā tato 'nartha-nivṛttiḥ syāt tato niṣṭhā tato rucis tataḥ athāsaktiḥ... (CC Madhya 23.14-15). In this way, there will be āsakti and bhāva. Then you attain the perfectional stage. That is called ecstatic stage of love of Godhead. And then you cannot remain without Kṛṣṇa. And then that bhāva increase. Just like the mahābhāva. That mahābhāva is not possible in the ordinary human being, but it is possible for the gopīs, for Rādhārāṇī. They cannot live without Kṛṣṇa. That is the highest stage of perfection, or liberation.

Thank you very much.

Devotees: Jaya. Prabhupāda ki jaya. (end)