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SB 4.16.20

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His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada


ayaṁ bhuvo maṇḍalam odayādrer
goptaika-vīro naradeva-nāthaḥ
āsthāya jaitraṁ ratham ātta-cāpaḥ
paryasyate dakṣiṇato yathārkaḥ


ayam—this King; bhuvaḥ—of the world; maṇḍalam—the globe; ā-udaya-adreḥ—from the mountain where the first appearance of the sun is visible; goptā—will protect; eka—uniquely; vīraḥ—powerful, heroic; nara-deva—of all kings, gods in human society; nāthaḥ—the master; āsthāya—being situated on; jaitram—victorious; ratham—his chariot; ātta-cāpaḥ—holding the bow; paryasyate—he will circumambulate; dakṣiṇataḥ—from the southern side; yathā—like; arkaḥ—the sun.


This King, being uniquely powerful and heroic, will have no competitor. He will travel around the globe on his victorious chariot, holding his invincible bow in his hand and appearing exactly like the sun, which rotates in its own orbit from the south.


In this verse the word yathārkaḥ indicates that the sun is not fixed but is rotating in its orbit, which is set by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is confirmed in the Brahma-saṁhitā and also in other parts of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. In the Fifth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam it is stated that the sun rotates in its own orbit at the rate of sixteen thousand miles per second. Similarly, Brahma-saṁhitā states, yasyājñayā bhramati sambhṛta-kāla-cakraḥ: the sun rotates in its own orbit according to the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The conclusion is that the sun is not fixed in one place. As far as Pṛthu Mahārāja is concerned, it is indicated that his ruling power would extend all over the world. The Himalaya Mountains, from which the sunrise is first seen, are called udayācala or udayādri. It is herein indicated that Pṛthu Mahārāja's reign over the world would cover even the Himalaya Mountains and extend to the borders of all oceans and seas. In other words, his reign would cover the entire planet.

Another significant word in this verse is naradeva. As described in previous verses, the qualified king—be he King Pṛthu or any other king who rules over the state as an ideal king—should be understood to be God in human form. According to Vedic culture, the king is honored as the Supreme Personality of Godhead because he represents Nārāyaṇa, who also gives protection to the citizens. He is therefore nātha, or the proprietor. Even Sanātana Gosvāmī gave respect to the Nawab Hussain Shah as naradeva, although the Nawab was Muhammadan. A king or governmental head must therefore be so competent to rule over the state that the citizens will worship him as God in human form. That is the perfectional stage for the head of any government or state.

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