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740416 - Lecture BG 04.27 - Bombay
Pradyumna: Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. (Prabhupāda and devotees repeat) (leads chanting of verse) (Prabhupāda makes a comment in Hindi)
- prāṇa-karmāṇi cāpare
- juhvati jñāna-dīpite
- (BG 4.27)
Translation: "Those who are interested in self-realization in terms of mind and sense control offer the functions of all the senses, as well as the vital force, breath, as oblations into the fire of the controlled mind."
Prabhupāda: Read the purport also.
Pradyumna: "The yoga system conceived by Patañjali is referred to herein. In the Yoga-sūtra of Patañjali, the soul is called pratyag-ātmā and parāg-ātmā. As long as the soul is attached to sense enjoyment, it is called parāg-ātmā. The soul is subjected to the functions of ten kinds of air at work within the body, and this is perceived through the breathing system. The Patañjali system of yoga instructs one on how to control the functions of the body's air in a technical manner so that ultimately all the functions of the air within become favorable for purifying the soul of material attachment. According to this yoga system, pratyag-ātmā is the ultimate goal. This pratyag-ātmā is a withdrawal from activities in matter. The senses interact with the sense objects, like the ear for hearing, eyes for seeing, nose for smelling, tongue for tasting, hand for touching, and all of them are thus engaged in activities outside the self. They are called the functions of the prāṇa-vāyu. The apāna-vāyu goes downwards, vyāna-vāyu acts to shrink and expand, samāna-vāyu adjusts equilibrium, udāna-vāyu goes upwards—and when one is enlightened, one engages all these in searching for self-realization."
- prāṇa-karmāṇi cāpare
- juhvati jñāna-dīpite
- (BG 4.27)
When one is enlightened, jñāna-dīpite, the light of knowledge is awakened, then ātma-saṁyama-yogāgnau, controlling the senses and offering in the fire of yoga. So the Patañjali system is explained in the purport, that controlling the inner different kinds of..., five kinds of, prāṇa-apāna-vāyu. That is a mechanical system. That is approved also. That helps controlling the senses. But there is another process that is called this bhakti-yoga system, that not only controlling the senses but to give engagement to the senses.
Simply by artificial controlling... Just like a child. The mind is just like child—sometimes accepting something, sometimes rejecting something. Saṅkalpa-vikalpa. That is the business. So it is very difficult to control the mind. Arjuna, when he was asked to control the mind by yoga practice, he said, cañcalaṁ hi manaḥ kṛṣṇa pramāthi balavad dṛḍham: "My dear Kṛṣṇa, You are asking me to control the mind, but I think it is impossible. Especially we are in the political field, royal order. We have to deal with so many political subject matter." So he said that,
- cañcalaṁ hi manaḥ kṛṣṇa
- pramāthi balavad dṛḍham
- tasyāhaṁ nigrahaṁ manye
- vāyor iva su-duṣkaram
- (BG 6.34)
"I do not think mind can be controlled. It is very, very difficult, as difficult as to control the breeze or wind, strong wind blowing. It is not possible to control them." That was the verdict of Śrī Arjuna. It will be explained in the Sixth Chapter.
Actually, it is very difficult to control the mind. So artificially, by controlling the breathing system, there is the process, but still, it is difficult. As I explained yesterday, even a great yogī like Viśvāmitra, he also failed. There are many instances. There was another, Saubhari Muni. He was practicing yoga system within the water. And as soon as he was little agitated by the fish, he wanted to come out and marry, and one king's daughter... He wanted to marry all the eight daughters. So there are many instances like that. It is very difficult to control the mind. But our process, as it is stated here, that ātma-saṁyama-yogāgnau. Ātma-saṁyama. Saṁyama, control. The mind is the principal sense. Indriyāṇi parāṇy āhur indriyebhyaḥ paraṁ manaḥ (BG 3.42). Mind is the central figure of all the senses. Just like madman: because he cannot fix up his mind, he cannot work properly. Therefore he is called madman. So our process is that we cannot control the mind. But if we engage the mind on the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa, then everything is controlled. Kṛṣṇa will help. If some way or other you engage your mind at the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa, sa vai manaḥ kṛṣṇa-padāravindayoḥ (SB 9.4.18), then gradually everything will be controlled.
There is another version, that sevonmukhe hi jihvādau (Brs. 1.2.234). Jihvādau, to control the jihvā. The jihvā means the tongue. It is very difficult to control the jihvā. People do not know it, but actually this is there. Everyone becomes a servant of the senses just beginning from the tongue. They cannot control the tongue. They eat anything and everything. Therefore they cannot control others senses also. This is the experience of big, big yogīs. Therefore in the yoga practice, yama-niyama... In yoga practice also, it is forbidden, not to allow the tongue to eat anything and everything. No. That is not possible. Similarly, we also ask our devotees not to allow your tongue to touch anything except kṛṣṇa-prasādam. Tongue's two business: eating, tasting something, and vibrating sound. So if we can control the tongue not to touch anything which is not offered to Kṛṣṇa, and if we do not allow the tongue to talk anything except Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, then you become the greatest yogī. The greatest yogī. Simply two things.
Of course, we have to eat. That's a fact. Without eating, we cannot exist. So eat. We have got so many nice things, offered to Kṛṣṇa. We offer to Kṛṣṇa all nice things. As Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura says, kṛṣṇa baṛo doyāmoy, koribāre jihwā jay, swa-prasād-anna dilo bhāi. Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura, he was a gṛhastha, practical. He experienced. He said, śarīra abidyā-jāl: "This body, material body, is a network of ignorance." Śarīra abidyā-jāl. Just like a network—if you are put into a net and bound up and thrown into the ocean, then what is your condition of life, just imagine. Similarly, we, pure soul, we have been put into this network of material body, and we are thrown into the ocean of nescience. This is our position, struggle for existence. How to get out of the network? How to get out of the ocean? This is... Manaḥ ṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi prakṛti-sthāni karṣati (BG 15.7). This is our position.
So Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura says that this body is the network of ignorance, simply sense gratification: "I shall eat this. I shall eat that. I shall hear this. I shall..." The ear is engaged in hearing nice cinema songs, and the tongue is engaged going to the restaurant, so many so-called palatable dishes. Similarly, other senses, they are engaged. So the... According to bhakti-yoga system, the first control is recommended to the tongue. That is said, that ataḥ śrī-kṛṣṇa-nāmādi na bhaved grāhyam indriyaiḥ (CC Madhya 17.136). Now, we receive knowledge through the indriyas, but if the indriyas are impure—senses, they are impure—they cannot understand what is Kṛṣṇa. Ataḥ śrī-kṛṣṇa-nāmādi. Na, beginning. Because beginning is śravaṇam. Bhakti-mārga begins by hearing.
Now, what is śravaṇam? Chanting. If there is chanting or there is some speaking, then we can hear. That is recommended by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, that simply hear. There are many places recommended that "Hear." So... But it is said, ataḥ śrī-kṛṣṇa-nāmādi na bhaved grāhyam indriyaiḥ. These present blunt senses, material senses, cannot receive even this chanting of Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. They say, "This is nuisance." Bhagavān says in the Bhagavad-gītā, catur-vidhā bhajante mām: "Four classes of men who begins bhagavad bhajana," sukṛtina, "those who are pious..." But the modern leaders, they say, "This bhajana nuisance." This is our misfortune. Satataṁ kīrtayanto māṁ yatantaś ca dṛḍha-vratāḥ (BG 9.14). These are the explanation in the Bhagavad-gītā. Saintly person, mahātmā, they are engaged in chanting satatam, always. Satataṁ kīrtayanto mām (BG 9.14). Kīrtayantaḥ, glorifying. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu recommends, kīrtanīyaḥ sadā hariḥ. Kīrtanīyaḥ sadā hariḥ.
- tṛṇād api sunīcena
- taror api sahiṣṇunā
- amāninā mānadena
- kīrtanīyaḥ sadā hariḥ
- (CC Adi 17.31)
This is the recommend..., recommendation of Caitanya Mahāprabhu, that you should glorify the holy name of Hari. Hari means Kṛṣṇa. So that is the recommendation. But we are meeting so many obstacles because they think, "This chanting is nuisance. This bhajana is nuisance. This is Kali-yuga. Not the Kali-yuga; even every yuga. So ataḥ śrī-kṛṣṇa-nāmādi na bhaved grāhyam indriyaiḥ (CC Madhya 17.136). A devotee is hearing, he is enjoying, and the nondevotee is thinking, "It is nuisance."
Therefore it is said, ataḥ śrī-kṛṣṇa-nāmādi na bhaved grāhyam indriyaiḥ. The blunt senses, material senses, they cannot receive. Nāmādi. Not only name; they cannot see Lord Kṛṣṇa's form. Because hearing and seeing and smelling and tasting and touching... We have got so many senses. So these senses being materially contaminated, it cannot hear what is Kṛṣṇa's holy name. Ataḥ kṛṣṇa-nāmādi na bhaved grāhyam indriyaiḥ (CC Madhya 17.136). Then how to understand Kṛṣṇa? That is recommended, sevonmukhe hi jihvādau. You have to engage your tongue first of all in the service of the Lord. The Kṛṣṇa realization begins from the tongue. How? Now you simply make it a vow, that "I shall not accept anything that is not offered to Kṛṣṇa." And you take another vow, that "I shall not talk anything except glorifying the Lord." Then you become perfect. Very simple method. Simply you have to make this determination, that "I shall not talk anything which is not about Kṛṣṇa, and I shall not eat anything which is not offered to Kṛṣṇa."
So our this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is teaching these two things specifically. We are distributing little prasādam. If we get opportunity, we can give sumptuous prasādam. We are doing that in all other centers throughout the whole world. By eating, simply by eating, one can be devoted. It doesn't require, if he simply eats Kṛṣṇa prasādam. It is so nice method. So jihvādau. And chanting and hearing. This is recommended here, that ātma-saṁyama-yogāgnau. Ātmā, you have to make a determination, ātma-saṁyama, that "I shall not allow this tongue to take anything in the restaurant. But I can simply allow the tongue..." If you do this, then you become gosvāmī. That is called gosvāmī. Because we are all godāsa. Go means senses.
So actually we are all servants of our senses. The whole activities of the material world means everyone is acting as the servant of his senses, that's all. This is the material world. Everyone is working. Everyone is working so hard. So when one becomes intelligent, then he understands that "What I am doing? I am thinking that I am master, I am proprietor, I am the head of the family, but what I am doing actually? I am acting as servant of my senses, my son's senses, my wife's senses, my daughter's senses, my servant's senses. That's all." If you speak something wrong even to your servant, the servant will resign, and you will be in trouble. Therefore you have to serve his senses so that he may not be angry. This is our position.
So we are simply serving senses, but we are thinking, "I am master." This is called illusion. So jñāna-dīpite, when you actually come to the sense of your knowledge, then you come to this conclusion, that "What I am? What is my mastership? I am simply serving the senses, different senses." Even in the outward... (break) ...what is the taste of that knowledge. That is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā. What is that? Bahūnāṁ janmanām ante (BG 7.19): "After many, many births, spoiling the life and spoiling the time by satisfying the senses..." Bahūnāṁ janmanām ante. So long you will go on satisfying these senses, either your senses—that is centralized senses—or expanded senses, the senses of your family, senses of your society, senses of your country, nationality, these are all sense gratification process, simply extending. It begins centralized: my senses, then my son's senses, then my grandson's senses, then my country's senses, then... It is sense gratification, that's all. There is no other business.
So when one becomes enlightened, he offers himself to Kṛṣṇa. There is a verse like this: kāmādīnāṁ kati na katidhā pālitā durnideśāḥ (CC Madhya 22.16), "My Lord, I have spoiled my time in this way, becoming the godāsa, or the servant of the senses," kāmādīnām, kāma krodha lobha moha mātsarya. Therefore it is called kāmādīnāṁ. Kati na. "I have tried to satisfy them to my utmost." Kati na katidhā. "What I have not done for them? Still, they are not satisfied. Neither they are merciful." Teṣāṁ na karuṇā jātā. Na tṛpta: "They are neither satisfied; neither they are merciful, never." You go on serving your family, nobody will give you relief. If you say that "Now I have done so much for you. Give me relief," first of all I do not want to be relieve also. That is also another disease. You see? You will be surprised. It is my practical experience. This Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, before starting, I wrote one letter to Mahatma Gandhi: "Mahatma Gandhi, you have got position. People accept you as a very pious man. Now you have got your sva-rājya, and you are very fond of Bhagavad-gītā. Let us preach Bhagavad-gītā." I wrote this letter. Unfortunately, a few days after, he was killed. So this is the position. All big, big leaders, they do not want to take relief from this sense gratification business. No. This is the...
Therefore jñāna-dīpite ātma-saṁyama-yogāgnau. Because there is no knowledge, they think the sense gratification extended, expanded sense gratification, will make the world happy. No. That is not possible. Therefore jñāna-dīpite means that by this kind of sense gratification we will not solve the problems. Kāmādīnāṁ kati na katidhā pālitā durnideśās teṣāṁ mayi na karuṇā jātā (CC Madhya 22.16). Karuṇā, "There is no mercy. Therefore I have given up them. Now I have come to You, my dear Lord. I was serving the senses so long. Now I want to serve You." This is knowledge, jñāna-dīpite. "Because my business is to satisfy the senses, either my senses or my relatives' senses, but it has not made me happy; therefore I have come to You to satisfy Your senses. Kindly engage me in Your business." This is called jñāna. That is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā. Bahūnāṁ janmanām ante jñānavān māṁ prapadyate (BG 7.19). When jñānavān... What kind of jñānavān? After serving the senses of so many people life after life, when one comes to his real knowledge, that "This kind of sense gratification will not make me happy. Let me gratify the senses of Kṛṣṇa," that is real knowledge. Jñāna-dīpite. And in another place it is said, bahūnāṁ janmanām ante jñānavān māṁ prapadyate. Jñānavān. That is real knowledge.
Actually, my business is to satisfy the senses of Kṛṣṇa, but I am thinking that I shall be happy by satisfying my senses, my family's senses, my country's senses, my nation's senses, and so on, so on, so on. This will never make me happy. This is the secret. So therefore Kṛṣṇa says that "You have manufactured so many businesses of sense gratification. That's all right. Give up this all rascal business. Simply surrender unto Me." Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66). Then you will be satisfied. Otherwise, there is no question of satisfaction. You go on increasing the area of sense gratification. That will not make you happy.
- bahūnāṁ janmanām ante
- jñānavān māṁ prapadyate
- vāsudevaḥ sarvam iti
- sa mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ
- (BG 7.19)
This is the definition of mahātmā: when one engages his senses for the satisfaction of the supreme senses. But unfortunately, we define the Supreme as having no senses, nirākāra. And no hand, no leg, no eyes, nothing, no senses. Simply I have got my senses, and who manufactured me, He has no senses. But that is not fact. If I have got my senses, my father, who manufactured me, he has also senses. This is right conclusion. How is that? I have got my senses, I have got my propensities, I have got my form, and why these things should be denied to my father, and especially the Supreme Father? Therefore Bhagavad-gītā says that avyaktaṁ vyaktim āpannaṁ manyante mām abuddhayaḥ, paraṁ bhāvam ajānantaḥ (BG 7.24). They do not know. But actual fact is that when our senses will be sacrificed for the satisfaction of the supreme senses, then our life is successful. Hṛṣīkeṇa hṛṣīkeśa-sevanaṁ bhaktir ucyate (CC Madhya 19.170). It is not that nullifying my senses, God's senses, every... No. Senses are there. My senses are there, and God's senses are there. But when my senses will be engaged in satisfying the supreme senses, that is my perfection of life. Hṛṣīkeṇa hṛṣīkeśa-sevanaṁ bhaktir ucyate (CC Madhya 19.170).
So that can be begun with sevonmukhe hi jihvādau (Brs. 1.2.234). Because we meet together and talk so many nonsense in political conference, social conference, scientific conference, tongue going on. Day and night, conference is going on. And another business, eating process, sense gratification. If people are asked, "Please come here. Chant Hare Kṛṣṇa," they are not at all interested. And invite him in some political meeting and talk all nonsense, he is very much interested, "Yes." This is called māyā. So we have to convert this. Instead of engaging senses for talking nonsense, we have got so many books, so many talks about Kṛṣṇa. Why not take this? You can go on, Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, about Kṛṣṇa. Bhagavad-gītā. Go on talking, and go on eating kṛṣṇa-prasādam, sevonmukhe hi jihvādau, chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, sevonmukhe hi jihvādau svayam eva sphuraty adaḥ (CC Madhya 17.136). Then self-realization is guaranteed.
There is no difficulty. Not at all. And that is also described, sa mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ. Simply says, sudurlabhaḥ. But what is the symptom?
- mahātmānas tu māṁ pārtha
- daivīṁ prakṛtim āśritāḥ
- bhajanty ananya-manaso
- jñātvā bhūtādim avyayam
- (BG 9.13)
This is mahātmā. Mahātmānas tu māṁ pārtha daivī prakṛtim. They are under the protection of daivī-prakṛti. There are two prakṛtis—spiritual prakṛti and material prakṛti. The devotees are not under this material prakṛti. They are under the spiritual prakṛti. The activities of Kṛṣṇa, they are all spiritual. And the devotees, because they are engaged in spiritual activities, they are above the material prakṛti. Sa guṇān samatītyaitān brahma-bhūyāya kalpate. Who? Māṁ ca yo 'vyabhicāreṇa bhakti-yogena ya sevate (BG 14.26). Anyone who is engaged in devotional service without any impediment, avyabhicāriṇī, without any stoppage, continuously, sa guṇān samatītyaitān brahma-bhūyāya kalpate (BG 14.26), he is not on the material platform.
Therefore a devotee, mahātmā... Mahātmānas tu māṁ pārtha daivīṁ prakṛtim āśritāḥ... (BG 9.13). There are two prakṛtis. Those who are not mahātmās, durātmā... Durātmā means trying to satisfy the ātmā in a different way, far, far away from Kṛṣṇa. They are called durātmā, dura. Dura means distant or very difficult. So everyone can become mahātmā, as it is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā, simply by surrendering to Kṛṣṇa. Sa mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ. It is not very easy to become a mahātmā and to surrender unto Kṛṣṇa. But if we can do that, if we engage our senses in the service of the Supreme Lord... There is no question of stopping the activities of the senses. That will fail. The yoga system, Patañjali yoga system, is artificially stopping the activities of the senses. But that will be not very successful, because the senses are so strong that as soon as it gets an opportunity, it acts immediately.
Therefore in the śāstra it is forbidden, mātrā svasrā duhitrā vā nāviviktāsano bhavet (SB 9.19.17): "In a lonely place don't sit down even with your mother, even with your sister, or even with your daughter." Because generally our senses are not very much agitated in the presence of mother, sister and daughter. But śāstra says, "Even though it is so, but don't sit down with your mother, sister and daughter in a lonely place." "Why? I am not a fool." But you are not a fool, but balavān indriya-grāmo vidvāṁsam api karṣati (SB 9.19.17). The senses are so strong, even one is very, very learned, he is also agitated. We have got many instances. Old men, sixty, seventy years, he is agitated by seeing one young girl. You see? So senses are so strong. So therefore we have to engage all our senses in the service of the supreme senses. That is perfection of life. Hṛṣīkeṇa hṛṣīkeśa-sevanaṁ bhaktir ucyate (CC Madhya 19.170).
So the beginning is that the first number, one, number one sense, the tongue, you try to control by eating kṛṣṇa-prasādam and chanting,
- Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare
- Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare.
Thank you very much. (end)